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Central Government Act
Section 3 in The Indian Evidence Act, 1872
3. Interpretation clause.- In this Act the following words and expressions are used in the following senses, unless a contrary intention appears from the context:-" Court."" Court" includes all Judges 7[ and Magistrates 8[ , and all persons, except arbitrators, legally authorized to take evidence.
1. Extended to and brought into force in Dadra and Nagar Haveli (w. e. f. 1. 7. 65) by Reg. 6 of 1963, s. 2 and Sch. I.
2. The Act comes into force in Pondicherry on 1. 10. 1963 vide Re. 7 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch. I.
3. Extended to Goa, Daman and Diu by Reg. 11 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch.
4. Extended to Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands (w. e. f. 1- 10- 1067); vide Reg. 8 of 1965, s. 3 and Sch.
1. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for" except Part B States". 2. Ins. by Act 18 of 1919, s. 2 and Sch. I. See s. 127 of the Army Act (44 and 45 Vict., c. 58). 3. Ins. by Act 35 of 1934, s. 2 and Sch. 4. The words" that Act as modified by" rep. by the A. O. 1950. 5. Ins. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and Sch. I. 6. As to practice relating to affidavits, see the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act 5 of 1908 ), s. 30 (c) and Sch. I, Order XIX. See also the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act 5 of 1898 ), ss. 539 and 539A. 7. Cf. the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act 5 of 1908 ), s. 2, the Indian Penal Code (Act 45 of 1860 ), s. 19; and, for a definition of" District Judge", the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897 ), s. 3 (17). 8. Cf. the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897 ), s. 3 (32) and Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (Act 5 of 1898 ). Amended in W. Bengal by W. Ben. Act 20 of 1960. Amended in Tamil Nadu by T. N. Act 67 of 1979.
" Fact."" Fact" means and includes-- (1) any thing, state of things, or relation of things, capable of being perceived by the senses; (2) any mental condition of which any person is conscious. Illustrations
(a) That there are certain objects arranged in a certain order in a certain place, is a fact.
(b) That a man heard or saw something, is a fact.
(c) That a man said certain words, is a fact.
(d) That a man holds a certain opinion, has a certain intention, acts in good faith or fraudulently, or uses a particular word in a particular sense, or is or was at a specified time conscious of a particular sensation, is a fact.
(e) That a man has a certain reputation, is a fact." Relevant." One fact is said to be relevant to another when the one is connected with the other in any of the ways referred to in the provisions of this Act relating to the relevancy of facts." Facts in issue." The expression" facts in issue" means and includes-- any fact from which, either by itself or in connection with other facts, the existence, non- existence, nature or extent of any right, liability, or disability, asserted or denied in any suit or proceeding, necessarily follows. Explanation.-- Whenever, under the provisions of the law for the time being in force relating to Civil Procedure, 1[ any Court records an issue of fact, the fact to be asserted or denied in the answer to such issue is a fact in issue. Illustrations A is accused of the murder of B. At his trial the following facts may be in issue:-- that A caused B' s death; that A intended to cause B' s death; that A had received grave and sudden provocation from B; that A, at the time of doing the act which caused B' s death, was, by reason of unsoundness of mind, incapable of knowing its nature.
1. See now Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act 5 of 1908 ); as to the settlement of issues, see Sch. I, Order XIV.
" Document"." Document" 1[ means any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, for the purpose of recording that matter. Illustrations A writing 2[ is a document: 2[ Words printed lithographed or photographed are documents: A map or plan is a document: An inscription on a metal plate or stone is a document: A caricature is a document." Evidence."" Evidence" means and includes-- (1) all statements which the Court permits or requires to be made before it by witnesses, in relation to matters of fact under inquiry; such statements are called oral evidence; (2) all documents produced for the inspection of the Court; such documents are called documentary evidence." Proved." A fact is said to be proved when, after considering the matters before it, the Court either believes it to exist, or considers its existence so probable that a prudent man ought, under the circumstances of the particular case, to act upon the supposition that it exists." Disproved." A fact is said to be disproved when, after considering the matters before it, the Court either believes that it does not exist, or considers its non- existence so probable that a prudent man ought, under the circumstances of the particular case, to act upon the supposition that it does not exist." Not proved." A fact is said not to be proved when it is neither proved nor disproved." India." 3[ India" means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir.]
1. Cf. the Indian Penal Code (Act 45 of 1860 ), s. 29 and the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897 ), s. 3 (18). 2. Cf. definition of" writing" in the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897 ), s. 3 (65). 3. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, s. 3 and Sch., for the definition of" State" and" States" which was ins. by the A. O. 1950.