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Article 21 in The Constitution Of India 1949

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Karnataka High Court
Dr B R Ambedakar Mission vs State Of Karnataka on 20 July, 2009
Author: K.L.Manjunath And Malimath

ZN THE HIGH COURT OF KARNATAKA AT BANC·3ALORE" DATED THIS THE 20%* DAY OF 3ULY 2OGQ l____ »l` i` Pmssawr; » .

me s~s¤r--m1.E MR.1us·m;z K;i..MA·$i§l§.f4A'¥;§¥i_wV* ; THE HOWBLE MR. 3US'¥;"I€$ `RA\:'I.Fi£\i.I?*§»$¢'$i·§·"» q " V __ _C.5¢R2s5"

WA. Fw. OF--2GQ$·=; y&

WA. Nas. BEZFSB1} QFZGQQ Cs-{EES)

BETWEEN: . - .. .

ma B R 'A#'§§EgE{$}%%<AR'·?s4`2$$I{>?€~· FUBLIC "i'"RUSf¥'.__(R), ?¤i.$;VUL.E; SHIMOGA BY FFS `5E!\1ERAL.SECRET`>$.RY, _

T.RAM:%?F!-`\ _Q _

_ APPEUANT

V] = , A _i<RISi·i?€A 5.i`)IXIT, AEV.) i V 1. W ;$TA`i`E;QF ¥<F·RNATAKA

-- V ` .B"r' ETS SE'*$F;E`f`AR`?',

4 V PRIM£S.R"¥?` & HIGHER ED¥JCATG!0H,

_ ·v._W f*$.S.5i.{ILD!NG,BANGALORE 1. 5 4 _° A -- "YHE COMMISSIONER FOR PUBLIC INSTRUCTINS ~ ` PUBLIC OFFICES.

V ` A..* ` --, _ W [ NRUPATHUNGA RCIAB, P ` &BAf'~iGAi..ORE 1.

to

oaoar Art 142 of the Constitution, such a _, direction CETIHOE ha issued, Whiia oassirao ah ,q"""· otaar uooar Art 142 of tha constitution, Court carnrsot iqrnoro the substahtiva provisions, _''' W of tow much ioss tha coastit_utiornai" rtahts q avaiiabio to a porsoo,(Saa: _ Suararoo Court ._"_ » tf '~._ Bar Association v. Umor: of India, (1398) #_'S§"ZR* A sos : Ars asso sc: toss`: usoama sow

sms;. ,, 1

168. Mr. Gopal Sutaamaoiarn ucorrtandad that tha Court has itsaiitaksn cate to,sa¥;r that tho C.B;t*·irttho rrrattaatof,iraimtésation, wouio not oaaiafE,uaacssj·s-hy artfoasotvatioh roaoa in tho juootaartt auotttat»_"i't·,§t'o'uid iodaoohdaatiy bots t tho iméastioat_ior¤t'$ato` the offence of crimtnai » __ arsa ch_of trustor. any othor offahcs. To this, , ,qthavra_is `a, vahsmaot tasty from Mt. Patasaran , ».;ar»o" ara thiriic ha is riotat. It is corrtoaoao by to him that this Court having racoroed a finding that,_ttzé ootitiooar on boireg appointed as a '_`'v' v'v_ -- {Minister ir: tha Corztral Cabinet, haid a trust on _ " r '·~, ° _'v-- `'·s · oohaif of tha oaoaia area further that ha cannot i oa oarrnittao to commit brooch of the trust rsoosao in him by tha oaooéa and stiii further ·,`» Y J that tho ostitioaar had ooiiooratoiy acted ih a whoiry arbitrary and unjust rgyrtor and that

the eiiotroeoto rrueoe by him were whoiry rrseia 1V___ »""_ f fide ooo for extraneous coesieeretiorx, the o direction to the CB! not to be iofioerzceo oy~·evo#§y » of r A observations made by this a;our1;° in; the. WW`v ~ juoomeni, is ir; the nei:ure_of oe"i%iet53re. ree . o " CBE hes been directed to_`eeoiste:_e» V·.:oseQ Y against the petitioner in `resoect of the eiieqetions deeit withi eruo firzoino}; reeched oy this Court in the juogmeni Zvurroero review. Croce the fiodirzes are'o'iret$;eci ,ro1be;tree'aed es oar; of the ?irsi"Ioforir1oiio`o goooe, the further direoiioo iheft*€hi5e<CBI~ gziioii ieoriz, infiueoceo r ey eev'·oo§er"ve`iio·oor»reovoe oythis Court or the fiooiooe, reo"orr*;ed` by ·itQ'%s_ more iuiiabv." __ _ $._i --Reioyi'rzg_` Worn Vthée paragraphs, the iearrzeci wzoursoei for eopoiieot contends that even before conduct Q 1 eo"er1o_oiry iroeieeroed Sireeie Judge has committed eo error * ir: oirerotiroj`t·o--q"i r1itiete the crimirzei action. He therefore, N eqooge ters Court to eiiew the eooeei one exoooqe the r ._ o`rr`_ ooo-erveiiooo mode by the iearreed Siraoie Budoe at Pero~34 » _ W mofirze order, quoted euore.

iz

6. The iearhed cauheei fer aaaeiiaiit W_WW iq diehutihe the directierie ieseed by the iearried _''' j ~',4 ih cehdiictirig the eriquiry having reaaiid tc. the ef tfiiieti » appeiiaiit -- Ihetitutichs. The eppeiarit qq i iriitietiiié &¥i£_Z£.Iii'"Y and iirrdceedq tI·ie rrnett&r'_ih""jierder4 te fihd out whether the affaiiie GiVfY`iéVt;diI$1iIi&iIB¥'i'E~?1"%&i*i€tétE*.f'¥'!€i¥t was hrapeiriy riiriaihd ie accardahce '·the.Qeducatiah act ar rmt, The eheeriQiatieha4AqAi?hede _Vieeiieed Sihcie Jud¤e eccerdihg td '··"». Lgsdjheuiry is

erdeiied :iby" ether;iee;rried'·»$ihdie '13--ed'de with regard te the affairs ¤tVthe__ai;peiiaat{iiietitutidhs. th the enquiry to be conducted Wlaeaiiietwq-V1thieV "iaapeiiant --· ihstituticmsv if the _~ •aaeeiji_aiht _;ie__ fcvurid giiiity, it ie aiways acer: rfer the --GVdi?e'g'hiirzerit catitiierities ta initiate actiaa iii accordance with iaiiiiatiiathé Q'cii:`iiqtW*'ahd crimihai. Therefore, there was T10 14`·i ·._ '¤;cea"eitvq"`ifa.r"Wthe iearhed Siacie iiiidee td deserve these ·.__ W·~V WW--W thitgidec ever: atherwiae, we are ef the ceihidii that the » "V<}Bq£'iéi`"'•i'éiiGl"`t$ made hy the teamed Siraeie iiudde wiii rect dive Y I t_v' taiae fac any ceiiae at ectiah te the aeaeiieiit ta hie thid writ ' 1__` eepeai. Further, we are ef the eeinieri that the ebeervatiehe 6*/

is

made by the iaamed Siimie Budqe are advisory in nature ami ccuid not emimwar the rwpcinéerit authciiiiiééj it-.: vféééééi ééairnst the appaiiarit withcut cggducg ,;.{4*&n®;;»-y ··,4 terms cf the directions ismied iii i·'ara¤33 of i_hev,é?§i&$Wqbf»t_hé 2 i _~ iearned Sinqia iudqe. i v A ° '·W" W ?. Since, the cbsiaiivatiqiiiifs. of tiie iéaiinéé Siiiqie Juice are in the naturéjif Ed\!'i§`§Vi€) l°'i.*,__·iiiiii'@, do want to iriierfére with tiiesaid ogidér, 'Aca§¤r:ii:i¤i;§¢,. we dispaae af they writ arizaeaiii "°ii· '`·:

Tiiéréis deiaigi égf iiiiiieqiigziaijs in Hiirig these amxeais. Since, we iiéve dispifiiséés cfthese aiwéaia on merit, we do Wy inet is necessary tc: ccmsider the appiicaticm far cémiiicnatiéh af éaiav.

i »..__ .

, 4·`· '·_ ° &--VV_ 1 `i--i C l Iud£

iii ·~vi<

3. THE DIRECTOR (HIGH SCHOOL} _ _,_,, _ ' , ' . _, OEPT OF PUBLEC INSTRUCVIGNS, -- O , NEW PUBLIC OFFICES. A

NRUPATHUNGA RAOO, _____ ' -- `'·~ X . i<.R.CIR.€LE,BANGALORE 1. VQ `· . ·. » O 4, THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF _ · P . _ V FUBLIC INSTRUCTIONS * O

SHIMOGA OESTRICT SHIMOQA, `

5. SMT B USHA W/O 'v'i5P;1WANF,TH * _

AGED 40 YEARSASST. TEACHERWO · O --_

OR.B.R.AMBEOKAR RESIDENTIAL SQHOOL,

RA€5IGL¥DOE,'·$HIMOGA OESTRIQT,

6. SMT NASEEMA EA?~iU WfO SHRMSUDOIN A MULLA AGEEO 42 YEA?-$,`®CC;STENO~CUM»CLERK,

OR.S,R.AMBEOKAR F·?..E?>10§NTIAL SCHOOL, RAGIGLIODE, `EHEMOCEAQ DXSTRICT.

7. SMTO G SUf·é?¤.?¤i_OA WFO M PRAKASH

Q * ~, A AGEO39 YEAP5,0QC;5TORE KEEPER

V ¤.D£i.B.R.A¥*$BEDKAR RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, FiAQIGL!DDE,,SH!MOGA DISTRICT,

` ` , 3. SMT SA£?;O3A WKO LATE CHANORU ¤ _ {MSE? Q¤i?·"'fE.»¤¤RS,OCC;AS>ST QOOK, _ _. , _'~_V DR,B.O§?;.A?*%§'éDKAR RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, *` 4 O, KAGIGUDOE, SHIMOGA OI$TRICT. V ·. Q` --, O Q 9.] °$¥*i`¥" MAYAMMA W/O HUCCHAPPA - 3 AGED 53 YEARS,OCC;AYA

_O ' * OR.B.R.AMBEOKAR RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, ' » _V = RAGIGUDDE, SHIMOGA OISTRICT,

3

19. SMT $A\i$THRAMMA Wi?} SUERAMANI __W_ Wl¤ j` . AGED 45 '¢'EARS,€>CC;AYA ' '».W ` _ DR.B.R.A¥*¥BEDKAR RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, .4 ' ° R.AGIG!}£3DE, SHIMOGA BETRICT. _____ V .. ` -·__ _

11. SP1? GANGAMMA WIG THIF'PESWAMY'·· "`'~ ···- . l`'· A AGED 43 YEAR5,QCC;AYA _ V __ _-- • ¤ . DR.B.R.AMBEGKAR RESIDEWHAL SCHOQL, .V` . Q VV V RAGIGUBDE, SHIMQGA = `

E2. SRI SURESH A SiC} A4`·v M M

AGED 42 YEAR.S,OCC;WAT€H§GAN, · ` .A DR..B.R.AMBEDFAR RE-SEDENYEAL SCHGOL,

RAGIGGDDE, SQHIMGSQA _ "

13. SRI i(E$i·iF·¤§

S/C} i.·?¤2·€¥=*!AN;B»€ii*%§.¥}H.UR

AGE!.} 45 YEA€%$_,®CC;WATC1é·MAN,

DR.B.R.AMEEOi{E\R. RESIDE9i'HAL SCHOOL,

R.AGI€§L5,{>BE, $HIMQ§'£¥·'._DISTRICY.

- » RESPGNDENTS

(BY ENT. A.O.\fID`t'é., AGA FOR R3. AND R4) . V QQQARE FILES U/'S 4 DF THE KARNATAKA IA i*iIGi·€ CGUR`Y PRAYING TG SET ASIDE THE ORDER _ _ ?ASSED _i?*£_ THE WRIT ?E"f'ITIG¥sI NO.42?18f2087 BATES? A 5 4 4, j3f§.i}.jZOG?, ETC.,

Vl_` V -- % THESE WRIT APPEALS ARE COMING ON FGR HEARING VV `~._ q·`A ION INTERLOCUTORY APPUCAHON THIS DAY, I · _ l__' f*%ANJUNATH.}. GELIVEREG THE FGLLGWINGI- QV

Juocemedr

The preeernt appeals are filed by the; ·'·' a·ppeliieeil;q"q crnaiierigirip oriiy the portion of the ebsarvar.%oaieir:§aide lor Para--34 by the learned Simple iri :h§aL order dated if ` 4W»l L 13-11-2007 iri W.P. No. 4271§;'2QG07·"'ar:d ether porieeofed writ petitions.

2. The facts leadineliiiie jizpxe caaee ere as hereunder: -

In fhewrit eerteiri ernpioyeea of the

appellant iriatiiiutiori i--riqW'v'lfvQ"l>·!lq--i~lo. 4271872607 and also ir: writ ·iperlti:;§d appeilarit irs WP. No. 39181/2003, the ie'erried _$§§lpeie·7iudge carrie to the cerlciueiori that an enquiry hae loe oeridiéered by the r@por¤deete 1 to 4 therein te _ __ 4q·i._v _'erieure ltliialthiwiie appellant ~ management even for the ,. _ _ pi:r_poee ef sheddirip the excess staff if any eheuid throuorn the procedure contemplated ie

..Aq4 -- , A ixiew and the respondents 1 to 4 are directed as foiiowe: i l ilii ge

5

'33. A pessibie mferemze is that the smrs of the _, state sovemrrieht. who sheuici have erifsricwsci the _ ' _ grmvisioris ef the Aer and the Ruies, are _W_W iii _"_`' ff _r C¤2>i"¤¤iiCiiZY with the schuoi meiiaqenaeiat t¤·2he_" v_ detriirierrt of the employees, if the ;;>ei;ir.5eheris' i Q {L servism had not been sui; ts zmerici i:r_s,ihs:ihe;i __ KIWWI1 te iaw by the school H}£§fi€t§¥€E¥TlE*i1I and _ [W " feiicwirre cine urcxzedurejiir this»_»re9ari:i," H _: V imsirqrieci erders warrior echieiie this object. Ori the other hens, it is the duty»sf_` the res¤cur<isirts,1: is 4 te ensure theig- the fi`IHi'iE'i{$&§`i`!E§`i{,£fV€»¥T fer the purpose of sheddiriq exams staff, if--.er'¤r;`r·_sshi;:uid as thmugh si prixedure,*i5errr*ii§ted··iii isis ered as that has HGI i;icirie. r'=s·sx2ei1cis:r1ts 1 tc 4 are ciirecieci asffeiiewscf

. ia} ` cerwduet is therough enquiry irrm the functioning raf the fifth rwandnnt schaczi if * ·, A rrisnsgiernesii: hiihsris; ' ' {E·) TO43EsCéiT3i!T what exacriy was the salary that was._beirig paid to the employees of the schooi V e and vii:-3 what amzmnt than payment feii shun csF ' V thewemcunt actuaiiy paysbie in respect arf the r _ s§¢;ie<i· eirivets eiziucstisnai irsstitufzieiws; ` ri.:} To ensure rsesvery of this srrrsuiit from the 4 ¤ v_ { ' _ f , schcrci management and to restore the same tc: --s_W ' _ "°A,· the smpicysm, whether wtiticners or 's.* . ` i respcnrisnzsin this writ petition; -· V -- I {ci} Te erasure that prcgmr rrsmiteiirng procedure

1. ' » _ is put in place so that gran'}; that is being given by ' . the state is nc: mers misutiiized, but it is mt to ¤ _ prcper use and recurrence sf misuse is . » isrsvemed.

si

if} To ascertain smrt paymerits of ;t>rcvicie·nt fund ~ __ - ccantribnitions and tc: apprise the prcviciant fund ' _ * - rsistmrities in this regard and impress umn irhsm . '·--.. to initiate action against the arrirag managasnmt _,.,, A -- · _ and i;i*usm% of the trust, . j » , ' , (Q) To ensure that the {revisions of Chapter 4 v_ XVII of the Act is pressed iri#;cz··--s¤rvsc¢a and y ` I Q macarasary appropriate action is initiata;¥.again~s·,i * · * the trustam of tm trust managing the a:;.hoc>i_f0r ' ` i theirfaiiuies. _ = = r r

(iw} Rwgaoridemts fi to 4 tc} iméSsary' ` " " V in this r@rd according pmpigr nppcrtu¤ity' not _ cpniy to the schcci managmrwmrwlibut aiscs to vibe! _ 1 permris ccrzcamw tcz·h<>i<5.a»m enquiry and " pm? riecessarv crciersi tc: wrrq:ii*;_"witr these (ii Such é_i1餤isii'Q¤ @ CiT}??i`iiZ€G{ECil within as periods? $;x_¤m¤nths._fr¤m the data ¤f receipt of a mpy giftiéiis aria}.,-:··i mmpiiavm repaid: in this jragardrfiiad inthe regkétry af this court without §zai£._ -Regj;s;iir=;_ to pm Li?} the mmpiiaiwcé rézziort taécre t1·a·s:+_c¤ui·if0r grdsgrg-

ij) V°F§*ge ii*n;§ugr¤£--d"--¤1i};;iei's of the §0vai'rm"i&r•t ' _ (Anrie><ura--Q.&· T) to the extant they are adverse _ _ Q {TDA, the intemxi: the petitioners isi hereby Q A quashad by a wm of certiorari. Liberty , i·<--;~s&rva¤_ to :'eis;>0ndeznts 1 to 4 to 0rde~i's ' _ ' ' ;zfr·;mh,_if new ba, in accordance with law and an Z i ' r:<:vm;>§~;ii&;i with the above ¢;3irecti¢::ms." r wr _W'Hé"&¥·éafter, in Para--34 the ieariaed Stacie mage _ _'··_V,r_ v·;?iiie drzwiasinq of the writ petition awaréad the costs af '~_ 'R$.5,£§i3$¤,¢'~ tc each cf the emvicryees of the appeiizmt i ` `payahie by the appeiiant as wei! as the State and perrnittavd ·i__ X_Q --iv, Dihe State to recover the amount from the errizm Ofiicers.

Aecardirzaly, the caste payable ta ihe employees a·ra~a §aa_ been paid by the apeeilaat. The learned Single Jiiaaeiehile. _''' W ·',_ arantlaa ilberiy ta recaver the eaeie ._frea?n V, fllee é¤'lSH'3Q` _ l S _ V lm.a0'V/ . ·v», ._._ , S `'· Q Gffieers, bead ebsewea as hereaacler; lwhlche is Wcailedln e auestlaa, Ia other wards, ta eeaaeae tlie.aa·l¢i abservatlaas · af the learned Single 3udgeWtl1apaeaeat"apaealia filej: ".. .. ..If the_caadu;_t_Waaa a1et=E_ae'af aha bart ef the truai:eea_ ¤ al', the ··._ fE&je_, jjesaaadent maaaqemaai' ·i,a·';famfp:l_ ta ae eee evlalatim; the calrala1al'·~l.aw·'"af tlreiaee _laclq'ainq the Indian Peixel VCade'e#;e";·, tl·:e"-rxaaaaente 1 ta 4 are hereby alreqeesifjaa 'aasmee araaer eequiry and action "··agal¤$i ltiiaee truatees af the efth aeaaaadeai raaa_aqee1ent."

2 VA l S --A.#F&•_a·elearaed counsel far aaaaliaat relaying an the _ afareaaiaé aaaaaaeu caetenee that the abeewatiaaa af the eieaaevea Siaaiajudee are uacallea far aaa unwarranted. He 4 4 1 - `_§arihea aaamits that such an abaervatiae ia not necessary ° '--, '·»V . V'le° u~¥'F'/

' ~ .__eae:~l relays an the anime af the Harfble Supreme Court in the ' _ ·.._`e'ase af CQMMGH CAUSE, A REGISTERED SOCIETY ve UHIGN _

2

OF ENBIA AND OTHERS reverted in 1999 AIR et » _ care-165 tc 168, which reeds as fcliewea H W » .""` Q "165. The cther direcccrnc rremeiY,cW'V-th'eq*j»___ '··» , e' q`'-- _ directicrw te the C.B.I. tc _i¥"i\(_%{i§1¢'%?EE""`&¥iY_G'{i¥`§€}' 2 j offence" is whciiv errcrrecee and 'cerarm*;: J sustained. Gbvicushc directi--eqr:' vfcrr--icvxtiueticeci cern be civen erziy if·--e£r_¤ffeece `re.; <eris·r:e facie, feurnd to have been _ccre1r¤_i1ttee'·cr e cersc·n's irweiverraeratciie j crirrre ife`cie4cleetec§icf_;ed, but a direction c ts; Wt§?» ef_ C.§.I_ ' cc iméecticgeie whether env cerece cars ccsr§re5itec ari; effence cr not ca:rr¤ct berr.lecef_iv jcerec. .q Such a directicr: wcrridw be cWccz`r;1;.recy-cvvqite Vthe ceraceet and phiicscehy cr"i..iFE"erz=d "LiBERT'¤"' guaranteed ' vic eeerrece §ricier' Art 21 cf the Cerneti-tutier:. "T}2ie>ei·recticri `ie in ccr¤p£ete' negation cf ~ 'wericiéccecisicns ef this Ceurt in which the W ccncecc.c ;'LIFE" has been expicirwed ic a v W "·cnerqr¤`ec,* which hes infused "i..IFE" irate the ieicere 0fAri.21.

2 A 'h 1·;W $65. "Rlcht cf Life/' set out ir: Art. 21, means » ·' W ·· I screeching mere than mere eurvwei cr anime! , .rr_ __`·L I existence. (See : State cf Maharashtra v. ' c qcr` Charrdrebhern Teie, MR 1983 SC 8€>3:(1983) 3 5/

9

SCC 387 : :1983 {3} SCR 327). The richt also q ~ icciudm the riaht tc iiva with human dignity »..__L sand ati that ques sicma with it, rzsmsiy, f;hs~` f bars rzeczcssitix cnf {ifs such as adgqustsf\ c »qqq I rwtriticn, ctcthinq and sheiter»~cvs·r_ thc lhésid Wq"' A _ and faciiitiss for reading m§t$'ns· a:5d¤ '''· » 1 V"'77 expression cmsscif in differ farms, fresh; 2 7; VV mcvirm about and mixinccjmd ccmsxécnqiisg 1* with fsiicw human i:•sir»¤s.1 v{Scs~:Fra¤cis 'Ccmiié Mumr: v. Administratsf U¥'1ii3E<TéT¥'{"fl€}1*Y pf Dsihi, AIR 3981 SC_746:(1981) $._7s;:<:'s ¤s7; 19S1(2) SCR 516;P@!_| Tsiiis ··.3ci¥1·f:§sy'"_j'Mu¤icipa§ Ccccc7a·tis:;, 1936 $@130; (paras 33 and 34}; (1§?»»5)q'3i·-$CC'·S§5: 1985 Supp (2) SCR 51; 'Qcihi 1T?'$¥`i3?Qlf2€11'Lf- i2:13fDC¥Y3tiGfE v. D.T.C Msnzéccsc iCc·s.é·rcss,q·QéIR 1991 SC 101 (paras cj * . _ f223»,- 23c4 cné"259}: (1991} Sump (1) SCC 680: __ 1 =1199G'·5L¤.1§¤ (1) SCR 142..) ir: Kharak Sinqh v. _ '=¤;'5tsi:c"~cf MR 1953 SC 1295 : 1964 (1) I }$CR133Z,7qvd¤mici¥iary visit by the pslics was _ _ 3 7_s13 7s3 amiga uewoaarm crm.; V. ·1_ V--». WW.W ·:·._67Q` A man has, thcrsfcrs, tc be iw: aims ts 7 q`s· l"si1j¤v "i.JIF£" without fsttsrs. Hs cannot be W""` 3 `X .1 % fwundcd cut by ths Pciicc cr C.B.I marsh; tc '~4_ _ 7,7 _·'· _4q" Q find sui whether hc has committed any offence · `__' or is iivicc as c law abidina citizen, Evan 6/