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Article 2 in The Constitution Of India 1949
Article 21 in The Constitution Of India 1949

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Karnataka High Court
Dr B R Ambedakar Mission vs State Of Karnataka on 20 July, 2009
Author: K.L.Manjunath And Malimath
BETWEEN:

1.

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EN THE HIGH COURT OF KARNATAKA AT BNVGALORE

DATED THIS THE 207" um' 99 auznr 2039    

PRESENT:

THE HGWBLE MR. JUSTICE x;a;m:mrg%A  

A?\iD_

THE H0¥'\i'BLE MR. 3US'?VI€$:"RAVI.§ri.¢3\i.I?vi}3§*§'i-§i"' r" 

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T.RAMAPt'-'A  '  
 - APPELLANT

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:3TA'fé'<E?F §<A§NATAKA

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THE DIRECTGR (HIGH SCHGGL)
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 . ._  J   RESPQNDENTS
(B.':'s.;~1T. A;-i?§.\fIi.')'z':fi.., AGA ma R1 AND 3.4)

3635*

 -TuFiE5:§Ew...V\r{*¥3g$V:'.i;fi\RE mas W5 4 or THE KARNATAKA

 fiI$%:%%%ccuaT%%gaCr PRAYING "re sew ASIDE THE oaoen
 95552:: axis; THE WRIT mmom wo.4z71s;2aa7 amen
.  ';3f§.1;_zea?, ETC.,

 _  j 1  mesa wm APPEALS ARE comm: on ma HEARING
  jaw INTERLGCUTORY Am.zcA"r:o:s; THIS om',

fv%ANJUNATH.3. EPIELIVEREE THE FGi.LOWING:-

~?~/



JUDGEMENT

The wesent appeals are flied by t¥1e__;v"'2s~;§.;:g$fiéiéz;f chaiierggina ersiy" the martian of the abservi;_tés::§§i_i$V.Vvr:§:ajj:dfi; Para--34 by the learned Sinaie Judge j;¥a§s 13-11-2667 in w.s-'=. N0. 4271a;2ao7°=a;-ice mgr' ;f::§§_1het;tAéd writ petitiefis. _ -. '_

2. The facts lea}:lin§..i"'t¢fitiiae cases'/are as hereunder:

in figéfvrit certain empioyees of the apgzéilant in:§ti?.;§tivc:§ i-:r:V*e':f;'P«_:."~f%5e. 4271812607 and aisa in writ

-"'.:.'_:v_etiti.:;;a_:15*::.§§§AédVv%_by"'éma&iiafit in W.P. No. 2913112003, the '-i,e'as".1Vré'&»§ _E'£§.:f::§%§'_e'@'2::i':cige came :5 the canciusion that an enquiry has'.€§"be.V ¥:uéVi?:;dVi.%fi§ed by the raiczondents 1 to 4 therain ta __ eV;*rsuré .tfia:t t£i1e apseiiarzi -~ management even far the ffiziffiiabge fif Sfiédfiififi the excess staff if any shauld : - : threuah the prcrceciure cc.-rstemtytated in h ' _ " :i:a"i:§ and the resaversderats 1 ta 4 are directed as fetiaws: 5*"

'33. A i2e€:r3$it)¥& mfe:'em:e is that the offiaers of the state eo'vemr"nent. who siioulci have em'or«;Eci the V. gyrmrisions of the Act and the Rates. are V' V. compiicity with the schooi manaqenwent to. '-':he *7 *' ' ciett'irneni of the employees. If the z>e_t£*.ér;a.ij§f:2isV"5f: _ S€:f"Vi£ZE.*$ had not been taut tcr EI!'1;'éi;i(}"i£%A_3zl'i1fii¥§ié§*._ I known to ¥aw by the school n1ai;a§eii1e'é1t foifowimgt cine :)rcx:edu1'e.»T'is3_. t!1i§..v_:"i.-*.g3a:r€£[.." ' irn::»ugt':ed smiers wsmot acii%za§E:=:.t!1%s :';v!.)_i_:=.-'<:..t._v".= (St) the owes' hand. it is the duty..§vf"iv£'xe"£es90iitie:f:£sV..1§ to 4 to enasre that-"t§:1é;--ma§f:ag;&t*i':ea"::._éve;:1 fer the puriaose of shezirjina étzaiff; go threugh ex pn;a;:*E.~:::ure~3':§éfi1'2f?,tv.=:fi«ih--jaw asiii as that has net .<;i_C$r.se.*«.fi"f:-..._ ¥'€:$x:-onc§e:nts 1 to 4 are efiireéteci as'f0il0w$:V_'J'

-{3} " atfiiwdafit .93? t?§€>:'ough £-mquiry firm the; fur:r:ti<;>mng~ .43? the fifth r%ndant school managernent E*xii;fiertr.>;

V' " {t;)V"57ii'as§i:aritaia1 what exacttv was the salary that 'w:.31=»,be%n§V paid to the empioyees of the schooi 2 and Vmgbat at-naunt the: payment feii shark af the.am.c.z2nt actuaiiy payebie §n respect off the aés'3eci- ffivate eajucatienai iixstitutism; {:3} 'To ensure :"vau:;s::ver"'v of this amemt fmm the ._ schaoi management and tea restate the same tr: the empizvyees, whgther petitioners £3!" '' respondents in this writ petition;

(cf) To» ensure that propa" i'f¥{)§"I§ti.')t'ifi(§ pm«;~edure is put in place so that grant that is being given by the state is no mere misutiiizad, but it is put ta: prcgxer use and recurrenoe af mlause is §)!'&V3!Tit':Ci.

<9' {fir To asceitain short payments of prcvident fund' ccntributions and to apprise the arcvicient fund aL:thz:>rit'ts3.s. in this regard and impzms upon them .. to initiate actien against the er:-mg managerner:t_...__ ' » " ' amfi ti"i.£'.3'€€:":% of the twat. .

(Q) To ensure that the :x'o'v'i$ions of Chapteef XVII of the Act is pressed intcr and'=.y necessary appropriate actinn is :initiatac§..agair$s% ._ '- the trustew of the trust managing the achocafor ' th-e£rfa%iui'es. V "

(Ea) ReS;)0¥"u'i€:fitE: i to 4 to rmessary' a1g:>ti'€;e " in this r@rd according not taniy t:::- the schnrgi rr_1ana43em_nt'b_:Jf arise to "nthgr persens concamw tcrhoiefi ..a}n érzqmry and " ne«:;e.~ssarv ta'; cgj:::3r£y_"vwEth_ these {i} Such a_néradu_i_i'y fifawuid ;_'3€'_Cf3?TIi:2§GfE<3' withifi a perioriof s_ix;'_manths._from of receipt of a crrpy gxftifais anVc§.__a'z:om;3§ia:'.-ta repart in this rega::§*f%.';ed in7fthe_r€g¥stry at this court without '§ai£K ._ --52egj:5:i:z*»,<_v put us} 'aha commiatwé l'&'i3<3¥"E tS«z=;fo:':a_ the..cou.rt fair. grdgrs. (3') The 5,i*n;:~u.§r:£ic:f" v9jT?Z3e$'S of the Q{)Vei'fi1"f'I3¥'It _ _(Annex'ure-Q3: T) to the extent they are adverse tar the interafl: the petiticnens is; hareby washed by a wrkt of certiorari. Liberty i'£*$€:'y'ez3. to respondents I to 4 to orde2's afreashfif be, 3n accardance with law and on ' r:£52*:7;1;>i~;i.r':§~,;V with the shave direiiicns." _ .T1§'i.Va§-éafter, in Para-34 the iearrseci Sirzaie 3udae "'~.,, w_i1iia dfiraaifiq of the writ petiticn awaréad the costs cf to each of the emaicvees tn' the anpeiiant ..._' ".;":-afafiaie by the appeiiant as was! as the State and permitted , jfthe State ta recaver the amount from the errina Officerfi. 8/ «a Acccrdirzcziy, the cest$ payable to the empioyees as'té-- .§§sfé..A' been said by the apfieiiant. The learned Single granting: iiberty ta recever the ::-zxsts.'fréf§{'_vV'4tf19é" ' Czrffifiers, EH-'rad eh:-served as here1mcf.;er;._1virhich'--iVs..:;ai}e<'§"«§n"--.. auestiars, In cther wards, ta eéi;:=.§,§'i*i~e:;e tiié .sa'idAJ'é.b§éj"vatiéns cf the teamed Single Judge" the _pré§i%_.fnt"appe ai' 'isfiieiiz ".. .. ..If the_cofidu¢tV_a:1r:§ éi__€t%V§n"'ef'fh¢'--'i3art cf the trusEe:=::§'_'-- ei'§i itiié -. fEfi;jh-. ijespandent manaagsifiééi 'A3i.s-';'--fe£1:i1;i__;':':a ire C:f§ne_ iébiatina the c:"it':j_i1r1_§f me;an.: sA;~,%c;..Aem the Indian Pei':_ai ._C9&fé--"¢t§;',%tE1é"'-rapbfidents 1 tr: 4 are heré'i;vy{ 'éi%rectée3I.%Fzé"ef§'sufe preiaer ersquiry and a:tioi1 "'<:agaén$i_ A'Ec.i§é~.--~"%'tru$t&es af tine fifth r%;=,§§bfiden§ 'rr§avtf;1f3;§r;a211ent." 'A VA.f'f??c;é~..!ve;arraed cmmsei far apgaeiiant reiaying can the éferfé$aid V"§":;s5é§ié.. ccntenfis that the absemiatians of the V §earr:'éfi SiV::}.qi2.¥"'Judge are uncaiiefi for ané unwarranted. He .%".,"'-gigrihaf fififimits that such an observatier: is not necessary fix' .. '_&i'i{'5 réiays an the ruiinq «cf the Herfbie Supreme Cam: in the 5 K T * .. "€:"a$e uf cewemow musa. A REGISTERED soczm vs UFHGN &/ 0? iNi3IA ANS omsks reperted in 19% AIR s¢..%2?§?'s.;l%»;5t4% H para-165 1:3 168, which reads as fclicnws: ".165. The ather direc:tir:::'x».'.__ nam?2iYn_.' direction tea the C.B.I. to Vi:'av_f$tig9até'~"any_»::i:.i'géf' A' _ offence" is wimiiv errana'c:.z§:'s"~%.and . tahmt: S sustained. Gbvicusiig direg:ti--éi?:"Lvfr::'r"--»i;*:v$1iiaatic.ri§ can be given orziy Vif4--:é:'1_¢>'ffLer?aj_§;é.;~ "i's.;g§:rima fade, fmmd ta have been ;jf'c:rxfi:I:?i§'t1t:éé-"'fi;?**é§_ barsc:-n's invciveme§nt':i:$'V;'.pri:i§°:a §fa{'r:ia..Vééta.bj£isfV;eii, but a directing?' tic ta i.l"r\}":.'€V3:51'.Vi_§éf(-'3 whether any11per5Q;§--- as éffance cur net Cai i h€:t "Such a directicr:

woiiid' he 'the cancept and phiiosimhv_af""i..iF£".§':2& "HBER'I'x'" guaranteed aLmsa;a%mer Art 21 cf the C¢n5ti-tuticra. «V/(;EiS"'AfiifECtifiiiVV'"'i§ in r.:c:mpiete' negation cf 'var'§v::§1§V"fiéeisions cf this Cam: in which the "'«AV".*r:orik:é}§_§.. 'c%f";'LIFE" has been expkaiiwed if} a "'*mar;fi'e-:27" which has infused "LIFE" min the 1 ieiteffi ofArt.21.

ififi. "Right cf ijfe," set wt 5?'! Art. 21. means mmething mere tfiars mere survivai ar 3.1332113! existerzce. '(Sm : State of Maharashtra v. Chandrabharz Taie, AIR 3383 SC 803:(1983) 3 ('V 34.7:

SEC 387 : 3383 (3) SCR 327). The riaht 315:') 5:»-scium the riaht to five with human diai':it'y_i~~ _ '-_ and an that was aiena with it, rzameiy, bare necessitia cf lifa $i.1C'.§"t as adg_ziu;a:teij_=. rzutritien, ciethina and sheitet.:'aw:rA tfie 4' and faciiities for readir":ev."A:. W:

exbressibn cmeseif in mfffar " _ waving about arzfi mixifi::«L..:ér:d c.:améT':£n_i3iifi'gv'V "' with feiicarw human ia¢infis,.%-{--S "e'§;~:Fra§:cis 'Ccraiié Mufiifi v. Administré'tt§§" ur;sar:;?em:o;+y or D-eihi, AIR 3981 scV746:(1;9_s'1%) i%'s§::c'L'550'é::vi§s1(2) SCR sz.5;§.% azzufia Ti};-isis %aanmay%%T& Municipai Cof§éFa*ti§:;, 1"9§E SC"_'i3fi: (paras 33 and

34); :ms;%3fscam: 1935 supp (2) sca 5:; 'exam: 'Tréifirzfift_ ri§:rp¢raticr: v. 0.7.: wgganzaotas ;;cn«:ress,';é.xR 1991 5:: 101 (paras %%%:23%;k%k23%4 anAé'2v§§!)': (1991) supp (1) sec 509: 1V'39j:{'}'«SLi4i;i}:'. (1) sea 142.) in Kharak Sifiah v. _ l[s:m%&af AIR x953 sc 1295 : 1954 (1) '._$CR,.332.,':'dnrniciiiary visit by the pence was midi :6 be vioiative of Art.2.

A man has, tfierefare, ta be iefi aiarse ta "a'§1jev "'i.IF£" witheut fetters. {vie cannot be fwunded wt by the £34;-fi::e er C.B.I merety ta find cut whethar he has comrnitteé any effence or is iivina as 3 law abifiina citizen. Even '(V under Art 142 sf the Constitution, such a directien carmot be issued. Whiie passing an". order under Art 142 cf the constitution, Csurt fiafifiét ianers the substantive prsx*isisn.::'V' A cf isw much isss the ct;:1s'titui_i<3na_i""r'E§h§§ ": avaiiabie to a person,(See: SiJ::_:;ifé;=.ifié:s' Bar Assaciatisn 'v. Urzisrr sf Isd§éz..(:i.$.98) '~ V' ms : AIR 1993 SC :ss5%j':__(19s3_A33 1796).

188. Mr. Gauss! Su'i:a;éms-n1iféfn"€é't}fi'sn.dsd that the Ccufi: has itssif..taken 'stasis fii:'2'v.s's'~;,r?.'v----i:*i":at the C.3;'i"**'iv;-*5. fi'r1s.ste:*.'.Vsf.inéémtégstion, wcuid mat hrs?.viAnfi.u'a:§:édj-$3:s §nr{'cbsasfvaticn made in the juédr"r:;_e"r':: a'r:w«:i t%é sf infispendentiv 111353 the invést_i§atViénA'*§n£6'Vthe sffence sf criminsi V ?i*:Fé§A¢h'V%_af tf*ast..__s.r.any othar sfferrce. Ta this, a_ §he_%ss.is'V*'a.. vehement rspiv from Mr. Parasaran 9¥tijz!.t§z-'< he is right. It is csrstesfied by " =€i1is Ccmri: having recsréed a firsdmg fzit-afiiié setiticxner on being appaintad as s AA .s,_Mi:'§'i"s.te:* in the Central Cabinet, heid a trust an * iééhsif of the pecpis sins further that $13 carmet be sermitteé to cémmit breach cf the trust rsssssd in mm by the pecxpée ans stiii further that the petitisnsr had deiissrateiy acted in a whsfiy arbitrary arid unjust msrmer and that tfie aiictmetita made by him were whaity maiaw" "- "'--. "v fifie and far éxtrarxeous cermsiéeratiors, _ direction tn the CB! net ta be influgrfecad by~'a»n§%:j~.v 'C « A observaticms mafia hy this nféuiff' _§ri'<__ tihe.:_": juéamerzt, is in the naturajnf pfiiéiétijyéé. "'f'%3 é-.v «. CB1 has been fiiféfitéd 'ie. L"'i<s:gis£é:V_a. against the petitiener in faesizect 'cf ?i;i1e aiieqatians deait with: 'aha fiifi§i§in1g*jsVVi'eaéched' "b'y** this Caurt in the j4fi&§mé.ni'»V:i'uz{d :éfr.V:review. Gate the firafiinés a:*é:"::"ireIctéci .j:'a_1Bév_ as wart af the ??;:irsi:,¥iT'Ir91fafn1a*i',i'aéé'iV': §§&;;}6§=t;v~th§é further d i refiiéfl ii': aji' ~ 9~«%1'.B'*I~ijfi';:Li%i§:a%§ A::1€i*i:V_ infiuerrced by amt'*'cb§§e:?vé:t%::+Vns~1§*aa:6é' mtvthis court If)?' the finéi':f;qs._ reééi*a$a§i" by' mere iuiiabv." t,U-

" uReia:yi's2..g "bn fhae paragraphs, the ieamed : ~ A. V. ..... 1 'W6 ¢\____ =«;c13'nsei fag' wpeiiant corxtenés that ever: befare canéuct fl ah"afi'Qg§%vvvih.§ié§rfieé Sinaie Judge has committed an ermr ifs fiEfé'€tiir':.;j ifiitiate the crimirzai actitm. He therfiare, i%"%',"'r%.{qzi€:s_t$ téwis Ceurt ta afiiew the sweat and expsmee the '_'_'§§i-;é?vaiiens made by the ieamed Siraeée Judge at Para--3-Q VT ids-f--i;i;:e arder, quoted Siiiifa.

(2/4

6. The learned cczrunsei far ap;3eiiar:iW__"§é ' 'fe§%v., disputing the diréctiens issuefi by the iearrseci in canéuctirzg the enquiry having reg:-#6 ie. thfi {éifv V' amaeiiarxt -- Institutians. The appa1a i*:i:__ rid initiating enquiry ané rrraceed wiith.théV"mait--afj'v_ifi""~~§$féef: ta " V find cut whethér the affasgjs ef.«'ti':é:"L_;ai5;::9.ri_Ianf?nana6etnent was prevperiy rannireg in fittérdanéé vaf'i}t?év"1t§1"e':..education act arr" net. The <3b§;er*§i:§if-%ons:;'_A§{a:éfi§ %:aj("'£?i:e.sVviéa':*:§'éd Sinaée Judge aicerdirsg ta?"iJé;--1v§i'a's?V'..__£2353}'*~:1::€_'féquirexri, as enauiry is oréerefi VvbY""th§;iea'f§::ed"*-Sinqie'éiasftae wiiin regaré ta the affairs cf"'Ati=:i34'1afi§iéé§73'n}t'T»<'v':'i?i%§.§t§fiutiens. In the ersquiry to be conducted V'a'e.aifi:'stV: éfiipeiiant ---- institutions_ if the ap9e.i:i_%§:ni5;__..TV:i~3.__ ffiuariei..._.g1siity, it is aiways wen fer the *S£3*»f eT!'¥'!¥f'£'i'»'=,:¥Qi'i: :afi}Ei21¢rities to initiate aétiéfi in accordance with iavfi. iifith '::.i1%:'éi ]*é:1ci criminai. Therfiara, 'share was no '-- _ !"§éC&S§?iY; fG.f4fhé iéarneé Simia £1639 ta obéerve these tfi*:i}f;fis--, fiver: etherwise, we are cf the cminian that the ____""."<:$sef§?ations made by the iéarrzed Singie Judge Witt not give V' '*.2.* a ése far any cause cf actiafi to the apaeiiarst ta fiie thig writ aapeai. Fufifier, we are ef the eainiérs that the abservatians 8/ made by the iearrxed Sinaie iudge are adviser}: in nature 321:3 cauié 'net emaewer the féfibdfifiéfii autho:*i£ié ég:f'e_. zareceeci afiainst the apaaeiiaht without crmduct c:f:'enq:i,§i:.2?§% terms ef the diréctierzs issued in Pam'-'-'33-- of teamed Sinaie Juciae.

?. Since, the at:-s.«ervatfi:izf:._¥.%;' cgf fie. Sirsqie Juéae are in the naturé ¢_'_"¢f a.& vi§'§Li§i.,__ i&e._do sfiflvwant to interfere with thasaifi o:%d;Ve?t,V 'J%fir§ar«fi§v:i§}1:'(,..'--¥we fiispczse cf ifiéfié writ a:1ri>e:e_3'i's'§j;i:~ ' _V Thér e"i.'js in fiiiru: these aapeais.

Since, we hévé éisj:r;sé:§" efthese amaeais an merit, we dc:

-'"~::¢t __is nAé:é$$..ary to ccmsider the appiicaticrs for '£énV«i 'cmja;tvér;:_fi% éf fieiav.

.84!-4 Ifidqe C sd/5 Jiidfi