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Cites 5 docs
Article 21 in The Constitution Of India 1949
Maneka Gandhi vs Union Of India on 25 January, 1978
Moti Ram & Ors vs State Of M.P on 24 August, 1978
Article 3 in The Constitution Of India 1949
Article 179 in The Constitution Of India 1949
Citedby 443 docs - [View All]
Madheshwardhari Singh And Anr. vs State Of Bihar on 11 July, 1986
Jagannathan And Ors. vs The State on 23 September, 1983
Madheshwardhari Singh And Anr. vs State Of Bihar on 11 July, 1986
Jagannathan And Ors. vs The State on 23 September, 1983
Smt. Archana Guha vs Ranjit Alias Runu Guha Neogi And ... on 5 March, 1990

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Supreme Court of India
Hussainara Khatoon & Ors vs Home Secretary, State Of Bihar, ... on 12 February, 1979
Equivalent citations: 1979 AIR 1360, 1979 SCR (3) 169
Author: P Bhagwati
Bench: Bhagwati, P.N.
           PETITIONER:
HUSSAINARA KHATOON & ORS.

	Vs.

RESPONDENT:
HOME SECRETARY, STATE OF BIHAR, GOVT. OF BIHAR, PATNA

DATE OF JUDGMENT12/02/1979

BENCH:
BHAGWATI, P.N.
BENCH:
BHAGWATI, P.N.
PATHAK, R.S.
KOSHAL, A.D.

CITATION:
 1979 AIR 1360		  1979 SCR  (3) 169
 1980 SCC  (1)	81
 CITATOR INFO :
 RF	    1980 SC1789	 (112)
 RF	    1981 SC 746	 (3)
 RF	    1981 SC 939	 (2)
 E	    1981 SC1675	 (1,2)
 R	    1982 SC1167	 (1,2)
 R	    1983 SC 361	 ((2)19)
 RF	    1985 SC 231	 (2)
 R	    1986 SC 180	 (39)
 RF	    1986 SC1773	 (12)
 F	    1987 SC 149	 (9)
 RF	    1988 SC1531	 (87)
 F	    1989 SC1335	 (71)
 RF	    1992 SC1701	 (1,21,28,29,31,32,35)


ACT:
     Administration of	Justice-Pre-trial detention-Right of
under-trial prisoner  to have  a  speedy  trial-Art.  21  of
Constitution of India.
     Pre-trial release-Concept	of-Determinative factors  in
grant  of  bail	 and  release  of  under-trial	prisoner  on
personal bond without monetary obligation explained.



HEADNOTE:
     In their  petition for  the issue	of a  writ of habeas
corpus the petitioners stated that a large number of men and
women including	 children were	in jails  for years awaiting
trial in  courts of  law and  that  the	 offences,  even  if
proved, would  not warrant  punishment for  more than  a few
months. Although sufficient opportunity was given, the State
did not appear before the Court.
     Directing the  release  of	 the  undertrials  on  their
executing a personal bond.
^
     HELD :
(Per Bhagwati & Koshal, JJ.)
     1. A  procedure which  keeps  large  number  of  people
behind bars  without trial  for	 long,	cannot	possibly  be
regarded as  "reasonable, just	or fair"  so  as  to  be  in
conformity with the requirement of Art. 21. It is necessary,
therefore, that the law as enacted by the Legislature and as
administered  by   the	courts	must  radically	 change	 its
approach to pre-trial detention and ensure `reasonable, just
and fair'  procedure which  has a creative connotation after
the decision  of the  Supreme Court in Maneka Gandhi's case.
[174 C-D]
     2. Speedy	trial is  of the essence of criminal justice
and, therefore,	 delay in trial by itself constitutes denial
of  justice.   Though  speedy	trial  is  not	specifically
enumerated as  a fundamental  right, it	 is implicit  in the
broad sweep and content of Art. 21. Speedy trial which means
reasonably expeditious	trial, is  an integral	part of	 the
fundamental right  to life and liberty enshrined in Art. 21,
[179 H, 180 C, F]
     Art. 21  confers fundamental  right on every person not
to be  deprived of  his life or liberty except in accordance
with the procedure prescribed by law and it is not enough to
constitute compliance  with the	 requirement of that Article
that some  semblance of	 a procedure should be prescribed by
law, but  that the procedure should be "reasonable, fair and
just". If  a person  is deprived  of  his  liberty  under  a
procedure which	 is not	 "reasonable, fair  or	just",	such
deprivation would  be violative	 of  his  fundamental  right
under Art.  21 and  he would  be entitled  to  enforce	such
fundamental right  and secure  his  release.  Any  procedure
prescribed by  law for	depriving a  person of	his  liberty
cannot be  "reasonable, fair  or just" unless that procedure
ensures a  speedy trial	 for determination  of the  guilt of
such person. [180 D-E]
170
	  Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, [1978] 2 SCR 621;
referred to.
     3. Expeditious  trial and	freedom from  detention	 are
part of human rights and basic freedoms. The judicial system
which permits  incarceration  of  men  and  women  for	long
periods of  time without  trial is  denying human  rights to
such undertrials  and withholding  basic freedoms from them.
Law has	 become for them an instrument of injustice and they
are helpless  and despairing  victims of  the callousness of
the legal and judicial system. [173 C-E, F]
     4.	 One  reason  why  our	legal  and  judicial  system
continually denies  justice to	the poor by keeping them for
long   years   in   pretrial   detention   is	the   highly
unsatisfactory bail  system, which  suffers from  a property
oriented approach.  It proceeds	 on the erroneous assumption
that risk  of monetary	loss is	 the only  deterrent against
fleeing from  justice. Even after its re-enactment, the Code
of Criminal Procedure continues to adopt the same antiquated
approach. Where an accused is to be released on his personal
bond, it  insists that	the bond  should contain  a monetary
obligation requiring  the accused  to pay  a sum of money in
case he	 fails to  appear at the trial. Moreover, as if this
were not  sufficient  deterrent	 to  the  poor,	 the  courts
mechanically and  as a	matter of  course  insist  that	 the
accused should	produce sureties who will stand bail for him
and these sureties must again establish their solvency to be
able to	 pay the amount of bail in case the accused fails to
appear to answer the charge. [174 E-G]
     This system  of bails operates very harshly against the
poor and  it is	 only the  non-poor who	 are  able  to	take
advantage of  it by getting themselves released on bail. The
poor find it difficult to furnish bail even without sureties
because very often the amount of the bail fixed by the Court
is so  unrealistically excessive that in a majority of cases
the poor  are unable to satisfy the police or the Magistrate
about their  solvency for  the amount  of the bail and where
the bail  is with  sureties, as	 is  usually  the  case,  it
becomes an  almost impossible  task for	 the  poor  to	find
persons sufficiently  solvent  to  stand  as  sureties.	 The
result is  that either	they are  fleeced by  the police and
revenue officials  or by touts and professional sureties and
sometimes they	have even  to incur debts for securing their
release or,  being unable  to obtain  release, they  have to
remain in  jail until such time as the court is able to take
up their  cases for  trial, leading  to grave  consequences,
namely, (1)  though presumed innocent, they are subjected to
psychological and  physical deprivations  of jail  life, (2)
they are  prevented from  contributing to the preparation of
their defence and (3) they lose their job, if they have one,
and are	 deprived of  an  opportunity  to  work	 to  support
themselves and their family members with the result that the
burden of their detention almost invariably falls heavily on
the innocent members of the family. [174 G-175 D]
     The bail system, as it operates today, is thus a source
of great  hardship to  the poor	 and if the civil effects of
poverty are  to be  eliminated and a fair and just treatment
assured to  the poor in the administration of justice, it is
imperative  that   the	bail  system  should  be  thoroughly
reformed so  that it  should be	 possible for  the poor,  as
easily as  the rich,  to obtain	 pre-trial  release  without
jeopardizing the interest of justice. [177 C-D]
     Risk of monetary loss is not the only deterrent against
fleeing from justice. There are also other factors which act
as equal  deterrents against fleeing. Therefore, the courts,
even under  the law  as it  stands today,  must abandon	 the
antiquated concept  under which pre-trial release is ordered
only against  bail with sureties. If the court is satisfied,
after taking into account, on the basis of
171
information placed before it, that the accused has his roots
in the community and is not likely to abscond, it can safely
release the accused on his personal bond. [177 E, G, H]
     5. To  determine whether  the accused  has his roots in
the community  which would deter him from fleeing, the court
should take  into account  the following  factors concerning
the  accused:  (1)  The	 length	 of  his  residence  in	 the
community,  (2)	 his  employment  status,  history  and	 his
financial condition,  (3) his family ties and relationships,
(4) his	 reputation, character	and monetary conditions, (5)
his prior  criminal record  including any  record  of  prior
release on  recognizance or  on bail,  (6) the	identity  of
responsible members of the community who would vouch for his
reliability, (7)  the nature  of the offence charged and the
apparent probability  of conviction  and the likely sentence
in so  far as  these factors are relevant to the risk of non
appearance, and (8) any other factors indicating the ties of
the accused  to the  community or  bearing on  the  risk  of
wilful failure to appear. [178 A-E]
     If the  court is  satisfied on  a consideration  of the
relevant factors  that the  accused  has  his  ties  in	 the
community  and	 there	is   no	 substantial  risk  of	non-
appearance, the accused may, as far as possible, be released
on his	personal bond. If facts are brought to the notice of
the court  showing that,  having regard to the condition and
back-ground of	the accused,  his previous  record  and	 the
nature and  circumstances of  the offence,  there may  be  a
substantial risk  of his non-appearance at the trial, as for
example, where the accused is a notorious bad character or a
confirmed criminal  or the offence is serious, the court may
not release  the accused on his personal bond and may insist
on bail	 with  sureties.  But  in  the	majority  of  cases,
considerations like  family ties  and relationship, roots in
the community,	employment status  etc. may prevail with the
court in  releasing the	 accused on  his personal  bond	 and
particularly in cases where the offence is not grave and the
accused is  poor or  belongs to	 a  weaker  section  of	 the
community,  release  on	 personal  bond	 could,	 as  far  as
possible, be preferred. But even while releasing the accused
on personal  bond it  is necessary to caution the court that
the amount  of the  bond which	it fixes should not be based
merely on  the nature of the charge. The decision as regards
the amount  of the bond should be an individualised decision
depending on  the individual  financial circumstances of the
accused and the probability of his absconding. The amount of
the  bond  should  be  determined  having  regard  to  these
relevant  factors  and	should	not  be	 fixed	mechanically
according to  a schedule  keyed to the nature of the charge.
Otherwise, it  would be	 difficult for the accused to secure
his release  even by  executing a personal bond, it would be
very harsh  and oppressive  if he is required to satisfy the
court-and what	is said	 in regard  to the  court must apply
equally in  relation to	 the police while granting bail-that
he is  solvent enough  to pay  the amount  of the bond if he
fails to  appear at the trial and in consequence the bond is
forfeited. The	inquiry into the solvency of the accused can
become a  source of great harassment to him and often result
in denial of bail and deprivation of liberty and should not,
therefore, be  insisted upon as a condition of acceptance of
the personal bond. [178 F-179 D]
     6. Necessary  to provide  by an  amendment of the penal
law  that   if	an  accused  wilfully  fails  to  appear  in
compliance with	 the promise contained in his personal bond,
he shall be liable to penal action. [177 F]
     7. High  time that	 the State  Government realised	 its
responsibility to the people in the matter of administration
of justice  and set  up more  courts for the trial of cases.
[180 H]
172
Pathak J. (concurring)
     (1) The  primary principle	 of  criminal  law  is	that
imprisonment may  follow a judgment of guilt, but should not
precede it.  There is  also another principle which makes it
desirable to  ensure that  the accused is present to receive
his sentence in the event of being found guilty. [181 E]
     (2) It  is indisputable that an unnecessarily prolonged
detention in  prison of	 undertrials before being brought to
trial is  an affront to all civilized norms of human liberty
and any meaningful concept of individual liberty which forms
the bedrock  of a  civilized legal  system  must  view	with
distress  patently   long  periods  of	imprisonment  before
persons awaiting  trial can  receive the  attention  of	 the
administration of justice. [181 D]
     (3) The  Code of  Criminal Procedure  both the old Code
and the	 new include  provisions for the release of a person
on bail	 or on	the execution of a bond without sureties for
his appearance.	 There is  an amplitude of judicial power to
release	 a  prisoner  awaiting	trial  on  bail	 or  on	 the
execution of  a	 personal  bond	 without  sureties  for	 his
appearance within  the existing	 provisions of	the Code  of
Criminal Procedure  and	 it  is	 for  the  Courts  to  fully
acquaint themselves  with the  nature and  extent  of  their
discretion in  exercising it.  It is  no longer	 possible to
countenance a  mechanical exercise of the power. What should
be  the	  amount  of   security	 required  or  the  monetary
obligation demanded  in a  bond is  a matter calling for the
careful consideration  of several factors. The entire object
being only  to ensure  that the	 undertrial does not flee or
hide himself  from trial,  all the  relevant  considerations
which enter  into the determination of that question must be
taken into account. [181 E, 182 B-C]
     (4) The  abuses attendant	on the	prevailing system of
pre-trial release in India could be avoided or, in any event
greatly	 reduced,   if	considerations	 like  "nature	 and
circumstances of  the offence  charged, the  weight  of	 the
evidence against  the accused,	the accused's  family  ties,
employment,  financial	 resources,  character	 and  mental
condition, the length of his residence in the community, his
record of convictions, and his record or appearance at court
proceedings or	of flight to avoid prosecution or failure to
appear at  court proceedings",	are taken into consideration
when  determining   pre-trial  release	and  the  amount  of
security or monetary obligation to be imposed. [182 G, E-F]
	  United States	 Bail Reforms Act, 1966: 18 USS 3146
     (b), Moti	Ram & Ors. v. State of M.P. [1978] 4 SCC 47;
     referred to.
     (5) Urgent	 need for  a clear and explicit provision in
the Code  of Criminal  Procedure enabling  the	release,  in
appropriate cases,  of an  under trial	prisoner on his bond
without sureties and without any monetary obligation.[183 B]



JUDGMENT:

ORIGINAL JURISDICTION: Writ Petition No. 57 of 1979. Mrs. K. Hingorani for the Petitioners S. M. Jha and U. P. Singh for the Respondent.

The Judgment of Bhagwati and Koshal, JJ. was delivered by Bhagwati, J. Pathak, J. gave a separate Opinion.

173

BHAGWATI, J.-This petition for a writ of habeas corpus discloses a shocking state of affairs in regard to administration of justice in the State of Bihar. An alarmingly large number of men and women, children including, are behind prison bars for years awaiting trial in courts of law. The offences with which some of them are charged are trivial, which, even if proved, would not warrant punishment for more than a few months, perhaps for a year or two, and yet these unfortunate forgotten specimens of humanity are in jail, deprived of their freedom, for periods ranging from three to ten years without even as much as their trial having commenced. It is a crying shame on the judicial system which permits incarceration of men and women for such long periods of time without trial. We are shouting from house tops about the protection and enforcement of human rights. We are taking passionately and eloquently about the maintenance and preservation of basic freedoms. But, are we not denying human rights to these nameless persons who are languishing in jails for years for offences which perhaps they might ultimately be found not to have committed ? Are we not withholding basic freedoms from these neglected and helpless human beings who have been condemned to a life of imprisonment and degradation for years on end? Are expeditious trial and freedom from detention not part of human rights and basic freedoms ? Many of these unfortunate men and women must not even be remembering when they entered the jail and for what offence. They have over the years ceased to be human beings they are mere ticket-numbers. It is high time that the public conscience is awakened and the Government as well as the judiciary begin to realise that in the dark cells of our prisons there are large numbers of men and women who are waiting patiently, impatiently perhaps, but in vain, for justice-a commodity which is tragically beyond their reach and grasp. Law has become for them an instrument of injustice and they are helpless and despairing victims of the callousness of the legal and judicial system. The time has come when the legal and judicial system has to be revamped and restructured so that such injustices do not occur and disfigures the fair and otherwise luminous face of our nascent democracy.

Though we issued notice to the State of Bihar two weeks ago, it is unfortunate that on the 5th February, 1979 no one has appeared on behalf of the State and we must, therefore, at this stage proceed on the basis that the allegations contained in the issues of the Indian Express dated 8th and 9th January, 1979 which are incorporated in the writ petition are correct. The information contained in these newspaper cuttings is most distressing and it is sufficient to stir the consci-

174

ence and disturb the equanimity of any socially motivated lawyer or judge. Some of the undertrial prisoners whose names are given in the newspaper cuttings have been in jail for as many as 5, 7 or 9 years and a few of them, even more than 10 years, without their trial having begun. What faith can these lost souls have in the judicial system which denies them a bare trial for so many years and keeps them behind bars, not because they are guilty, but because they are too poor to afford bail and the courts have no time to try them. It is a travesty of justice that many poor accused, "little Indians, are forced into long cellular servitude for little offences" because the bail procedure is beyond their meagre means and trials don't commence and even if they do, they never conclude. There can be little doubt, after the dynamic interpretation placed by this Court on Art. 21 in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India(1) that a procedure which keeps such large numbers of people behind bars without trial so long cannot possibly be regarded as 'reasonable, just or fair' so as to be in conformity with the requirement of that Article. It is necessary, therefore, that the law as enacted by the Legislature and as administered by the courts must radically change its approach to pretrial detention and ensure 'reasonable, just and fair' procedure which has creative connotation after Maneka Gandhi's case supra.

Now, one reason why our legal and judicial system continually denies justice to the poor by keeping them for long years in pretrial detention is our highly unsatisfactory bail system. It suffers from a property oriented approach which seems to proceed on the erroneous assumption that risk of monetary loss is the only deterrent against fleeing from justice. The Code of Criminal Procedure, even after its re-enactment, continues to adopt the same antiquated approach as the earlier Code enacted towards the end of the last century and where an accused is to be released on his personal bond, it insists that the bond should contain a monetary obligation requiring the accused to pay a sum of money in case he fails to appear at the trial. Moreover, as if this were not sufficient deterrent to the poor, the courts mechanically and as a matter of course insist that the accused should produce sureties who will stand bail for him and these sureties must again establish their solvency to be able to pay up the amount of the bail in case the accused fails to appear to answer the charge. This system of bails operates very harshly against the poor and it is only the non-poor who are able to take advantage of it by getting themselves released on bail. The poor find it difficult to furnish bail even without sureties because very often the amount of the bail fixed by the courts is so 175 unrealistically excessive that in a majority of cases the poor are unable to satisfy the police or the Magistrate about their solvency for the amount of the bail and where the bail is with sureties, as is usually the case, it becomes an almost impossible task for the poor to find persons sufficiently solvent to stand as sureties. The result is that either they are fleeced by the police and revenue officials or by touts and professional sureties and sometimes they have even to incur debts for securing their release or, being unable to obtain release, they have to remain in jail until such time as the court is able to take up their cases for trial, leading to grave consequences, namely, (1) though presumed innocent, they are subjected to psychological and physical deprivations of jail life, (2) they are prevented from contributing to the preparation of their defence and (3) they lose their job, if they have one, and are deprived of an opportunity to work to support themselves and their family members with the result that the burden of their detention almost invariably falls heavily on the innocent members of the family. It is hero that the poor find our legal and judicial system oppressive and heavily weighted against them and a feeling of frustration and despair occurs upon them as they find that they are helplessly in a position of inequality with the non-poor. The Legal Aid Committee appointed by the Government of Gujarat under the chairmanship of one of us, Mr. Justice Bhagwati, emphasised this glaring inequality in the following words:

"The bail system, as we see it administered in the criminal courts today, is extremely unsatisfactory and needs drastic change. In the first place it is virtually impossible to translate risk of non- appearance by the accused into precise monetary terms and even its basic premise that risk of financial loss is necessary to prevent the accused from fleeing is of doubtful validity. There are several considerations which deter an accused from running away from justice and risk of financial loss is only one of them and that too not a major one. The experience of enlightened Bail Projects in the United States such as Manhattan Bail Project and D. C. Bail Project shows that even without monetary bail it has been possible to secure the presence of the accused at the trial in quite a large number of cases. Moreover, the bail system causes discrimination against the poor since the poor would not be able to furnish bail on account of their poverty while the wealthier persons otherwise similarly situate would be able to secure their freedom because they can afford to furnish bail. This discrimination arises even if the amount 176 of the bail is fixed by the Magistrate is not high, for a large majority of those who are brought before the Courts in criminal cases are so poor that they would find it difficult to furnish bail even in a small amount."

The Gujarat Committee also pointed out how the practice of fixing the amount of bail with reference to the nature of the charge without taking into account relevant factors, such as the individual financial circumstances of the accused and the probability of his fleeing before trial, is harsh and oppressive and discriminates against the poor:

"The discriminatory nature of the bail system becomes all the more acute by reason of the mechanical way in which it is custormarily operated. It is no doubt true that theoretically the Magistrate has broad discretion in fixing the amount of bail but in practice it seems that the amount of bail depends almost always on the seriousness of the offence. It is fixed according to a schedule related to the nature of the charge. Little weight is given either to the probability that the accused will attempt to flee before his trial or to his individual financial circumstances, the very factors which seem most relevant if the purpose of bail is to assure the appearance of the accused at the trial. The result of ignoring these factors and fixing the amount of bail mechanically having regard only to the seriousness of the offence is to discriminate against the poor who are not in the same position as the rich as regards capacity to furnish bail. The Courts by ignoring the differential capacity of the rich and the poor to furnish bail and treating them equally produce inequality between the rich and the poor: the rich who is charged with the same offence in the same circumstances is able to secure his release while the poor is unable to do so on account of his poverty. These are some of the major defects in the bail system as it is operated to-day."

The same anguish was expressed by President Lyndon B. Johnson at the time of signing the Bail Reforms Act, 1966:

"Today, we join to recognize a major development in our system of criminal justice: the reform of the bail system.
This system has endured-archaic, unjust and virtually unexamined-since the Judiciary Act of 1789. The principal purpose of bail is to insure that an accused person will return for trial if he is released after arrest.
177
How is that purpose met under the present system ? The defendant with means can afford to pay bail. He can afford to buy his freedom. But poorer defendant cannot pay the price. He languishes in jail weeks, months and perhaps even years before trial.
He does not stay in jail because he is guilty. He does not stay in jail because any sentence has been passed.
He does not stay in jail because he is any more likely to flee before trial.
He stays in jail for one reason only-because he is poor....."

The bail system, as it operates today, is a source of great hardship to the poor and if we really want to eliminate the evil effects of poverty and assure a fair and just treatment to the poor in the administration of justice, it is imperative that the bail system should be thoroughly reformed so that it should be possible for the poor, as easily as the rich to obtain pretrial release without jeopardizing the interest of justice.

It is high time that our Parliament realises that risk of monetary loss is not the only deterrent against fleeing from justice, but there are also other factors which act as equal deterrents against fleeing. Ours is a socialist republic with social justice as the signature tune of our constitution and Parliament would do well to consider whether it would not be more consonant with the ethos of our constitution that instead of risk of financial loss, other relevant considerations such as family ties, roots in the community, job security, membership of stable organisations etc., should be the determinative factors in grant of bail and the accused should be in appropriate cases be released on his personal bond without monetary obligation. Of course, it may be necessary in such a case to provide by an amendment of the penal law that if the accused wilfully fails to appear in compliance with the promise contained in his personal bond, he shall be liable to penal action. But even under the law as it stands today the courts must abandon the antiquated concept under which pretrial release is ordered only against bail with sureties. That concept is outdated and experience has shown that it has done more harm than good. The new insight into the subject of pretrial release which has been developed in socially advanced countries and particularly the United States should now inform the decisions of our Courts in regard to pretrial release. If the Court is satisfied, after taking into account, on the basis of information placed before it, that the accused has his roots in the community and is not likely to abscond, it can safely release the accused 178 on his personal bond. To determine whether the accused has his roots in the community which would deter him from fleeing, the Court should take into account the following factors concerning the accused:

1. The length of his residence in the community.
2. his employment status, history and his financial condition,
3. his family ties and relationships,
4. his reputation, character and monetary condition,
5. his prior criminal record including any record or prior release on recognizance or on bail,
6. the identity of responsible members of the community who would vouch for his reliability.
7. the nature of the offence charged and the apparent probability of conviction and the likely sentence in so far as these factors are relevant to the risk of non appearance, and
8. any other factors indicating the ties of the accused to the community or bearing on the risk of wilful failure to appear.

If the court is satisfied on a consideration of the relevant factors that the accused has his ties in the community and there is no substantial risk of non-appearance, the accused may, as far as possible, be released on his personal bond. Of course, if facts are brought to the notice of the court which go to show that having regard to the condition and background of the accused his previous record and the nature and circumstances of the offence, there may be a substantial risk of his non-appearance at the trial, as for example, where the accused is a notorious bad character or a confirmed criminal or the offence is serious (these examples are only by way of illustration), the court may not release the accused on his personal bond and may insist on bail with sureties. But in the majority of cases, considerations like family ties and relationship, roots in the community, employment status etc. may prevail with the court in releasing the accused on his personal bond and particularly in cases where the offence is not grave and the accused is poor or belongs to a weaker section of the community, release on personal bond could, as far as possible, be preferred. But even while releasing the accused on personal bond it is necessary to caution the court that the amount of the bond which it 179 fixes should not be based merely on the nature of the charge. The decision as regards the amount of the bond should be an individualised decision depending on the individual financial circumstances of the accused and the probability of his absconding. The amount of the bond should be determined having regard to these relevant factors and should not be fixed mechanically according to a schedule keyed to the nature of the charge. Otherwise, it would be difficult for the accused to secure his release even by executing a personal bond. Moreover, when the accused is released on his personal bond, it would be very harsh and oppressive if he is required to satisfy the court-and what we have said here in regard to the court must apply equally in relation to the police while granting bail-that he is solvent enough to pay the amount of the bond if he fails to appear at the trial and in consequence the bond is forfeited. The inquiry into the solvency of the accused can become a source of great harassment to him and often result in denial of bail and deprivation of liberty and should not, therefore, be insisted upon as a condition of acceptance of the personal bond. We have no doubt that if the system of bail, even under the existing law, is administered in the manner we have indicated in this judgment, it would go a long way towards relieving hardship of the poor and help them to secure pretrial release from incarceration. It is for this reason we have directed the undertrial prisoners whose names are given in the two issues of the Indian Express should be released forthwith on their personal bond. We should have ordinarily said that personal bond to be executed by them should be with monetary obligation, but we directed as an exceptional measure that there need be no monetary obligation in the personal bond because we found that all these persons have been in-jail without trial for several years, and in some cases for offences for which the punishment would in all probability be less than the period of their detention and moreover, the order we were making was merely an interim order. The peculiar facts and circumstances of the case dictated such an unusual course.

There is also one other infirmity of the legal and judicial system which is responsible for this gross denial of justice to the undertrial prisoners and that is the notorious delay in disposal of cases. It is a bad reflection on the legal and judicial system that the trial of an accused should not even commence for a long number of years. Even a delay of one year in the commencement of the trial is bad enough; how much worse could it be when the delay is as long as 3 or 5 or 7 or even 10 years. Speedy trial is of the essence of criminal justice and there can be no doubt that delay in trial by itself constitutes denial 180 of justice. It is interesting to note that in the United States, speedy trial is one of the constitutionally guaranteed rights. The Sixth Amendment to the Constitution provides that "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial." So also Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides that:

"every one arrested or detained-shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release pending trial."

We think that even under our Constitution, though speedy trial is not specifically enumerated as a fundamental right, it is implicit in the broad sweep and content of Article 21 as interpreted by this Court in Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India. We have held in that case that Article 21 confers a fundamental right on every person not to be deprived of his life or liberty except in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law and it is not enough to constitute compliance with the requirement of that Article that some semblance of a procedure should be prescribed by law, but that the procedure should be "reasonable, fair and just". If a person is deprived of his liberty under a procedure which is not "reasonable, fair or just", such deprivation would be violative of his fundamental right under Article 21 and he would be entitled to enforce such fundamental right and secure his release. Now obviously procedure prescribed by law for depriving a person of his liberty cannot be 'reasonable, fair or just' unless that procedure ensures a speedy trial for determination of the guilt of such person. No procedure which does not ensure a reasonable quick trial can be regarded as 'reasonable, fair or just' and it would fall foul of Article 21. There can, therefore, be no doubt that speedy trial and by speedy trial we mean reasonably expeditious trial, is an integral and essential part of the fundamental right to life and liberty enshrined in Article

21. The question which would, however, arise is as to what would be the consequence if a person accused of an offence is denied speedy trial and is sought to be deprived of his liberty by imprisonment as a result of a long delayed trial in violation of his fundamental right under Article 21. Would he be entitled to be released unconditionally freed from the charge levelled against him on the ground that trying him after an unduly long period of time and convicting him after such trial would constitute violation of his fundamental right under Article 21 ? That is a question we shall have to consider when we hear the writ petition on merits on the adjourned date. But one thing is certain and we cannot impress it too strongly on the State Government that it is high time that the State Government realised its responsibility to the people in the matter of admini-

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stration of justice and set up more courts for the trial of cases. We may point out that it would not be enough merely to establish more courts but the State Government would also have to man them by competent judges and whatever is necessary for the purpose of recruiting competent judges, such as improving their conditions of service, would have to be done by the State Government, if they want to improve the system of administration of justice and make it an effective instrument for reaching justice to the large masses of people for whom justice is to-day a meaningless and empty word.

These are the reasons for which we made our order dated 5th February, 1979. We shall now proceed to hear the writ petition on 19th February, 1979.

PATHAK, J.-It is indisputable that an unnecessarily prolonged detention in prison of undertrials before being brought to trial is an affront to all civilized norms of human liberty. Any meaningful concept of individual liberty which forms the bedrock of a civilized legal system must view with distress patently long periods of imprisonment before persons awaiting trial can receive the attention of the administration of justice. The primary principle of criminal law is that imprisonment may follow a judgment of guilt. But should not precede it. But there is another principle which makes it desirable to ensure that the accused is present to receive his sentence in the event of being found guilty. Now, the Code of Criminal Procedure, both the old Code and the new, include provision for the release of a person on bail or on the execution of a bond without sureties for his appearance. Nonetheless, as appears prima facie from the record before us, a large number of persons whose names, find mention in copies of the Indian Express of January 8 and 9, 1979, have been in prison for long year without even being brought to trial. Although sufficient opportunity was given to the State of Bihar to meet the allegations made, it is unfortunate that no one has appeared on behalf of the State. In view of the importance of the questions arising on the habeas corpus petition, we have provided further opportunity to the State to appear and accordingly have posted the petition for final hearing on February 19, 1979. But at the same time we see no reason why interim relief should be denied to these undertrials. After carefully considering what has been said in respect of each individual undertrial, we have considered it appropriate, in the interests of justice, to make the order of February 5, 1979 directing the release of the persons mentioned in that order on their executing a personal bond. The order is somewhat unusual in that it directs that the personal bond to be taken in each 182 case should not be based on any monetary obligation. The condition has been included as an exceptional measure, under the persuasive pressure of the particular facts and circumstance of the case.

In regard to the exercise of the judicial power to release a prisoner awaiting trial on bail or on the execution of a personal bond without sureties for his appearance, I have to say this briefly. There is an amplitude of power in this regard within the existing provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, and it is for the Courts to fully acquaint themselves with the nature and extent of their discretion in exercising it. I think it is no longer possible to countenance a mechanical exercise of the power. What should be the amount of security required or the monetary obligation demanded in a bond is a matter calling for the careful consideration of several factors. The entire object being only to ensure that the undertrial does not flee or hide himself from trial, all the relevant considerations which enter into the determination of that question must be taken into account. A synoptic impression of what the considerations could be may be drawn from the following provision in the United States Bail Reform Act of 1966:

"In determining which conditions of releases will reasonably assure appearance, the judicial officer shall, on the basis of available information, take into account the nature and circumstances of the offence charged, the weight of the evidence against the accused, the accused's family ties, employment, financial resources, character and mental condition, the length of his residence in the community, his record of convictions, and his record of appearance at court proceedings or of flight to avoid prosecution or failure to appear at court proceedings.

These are considerations which should be kept in mind when determining the amount of the security or monetary obligation. Perhaps, if this is done the abuses attendant on the prevailing system of pretrial release in India could be avoided or, in any event, greatly reduced See Moti Ram and Others v. State of Madhya Pradesh.

I consider it desirable to refrain from making any final comment or observation on the legality and propriety of the continued detention of the undertrial prisoners whether on the ground of infringement 183 of Article 21 of the Constitution or on other grounds. That, I think, should await the final determination of the habeas corpus petition.

These are the reasons which have influenced me in making the order dated February 5, 1979.

While concluding, it seems desirable to draw attention to the absence of an explicit provision in the Code of Criminal Procedure enabling the release, in appropriate cases, of an undertrial prisoner on his bond without sureties and without any monetary obligation. There is urgent need for a clear provision. Undeniably, the thousands of undertrial prisoners lodged in Indian prisons today include many who are unable to secure their release before trial because of their inability to produce sufficient financial guarantee for their appearance. Where that is the only reason for their continued incarceration, there may be good ground for complaining of invidious discrimination. The more so under a constitutional system which promises social equality and social justice to all of its citizens. The deprivation of liberty for the reason of financial poverty only is an incongruous element in a society aspiring to the achievement of these constitutional objectives. There are sufficient guarantees for appearance in the host of considerations to which reference has been made earlier and, it seems to me, our law-makers would take an important step in defence of individual liberty if appropriate provision was made in the statute for non-financial releases. N.V.K.

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