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Nagesh vs State Of Karnataka on 18 August, 1989
The Indian Penal Code-Vol I
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Central Government Act
Section 29 in The Indian Penal Code
29. “Document”.—The word “document” denotes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures, or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, as evidence of that matter. Explanation 1.—It is immaterial by what means or upon what substance the letters, figures or marks are formed, or whether the evidence is intended for, or may be used in, a Court of Justice, or not. Illustrations A writing expressing the terms of a contract, which may be used as evidence of the contract, is a document. A cheque upon a banker is a document. A power-of-attorney is a document. A map or plan which is intended to be used or which may be used as evidence, is a document. A writing containing directions or instructions is a document. Explanation 2.—Whatever is expressed by means of letters, fig­ures or marks as explained by mercantile or other usage, shall be deemed to be expressed by such letters, figures or marks within the meaning of this section, although the same may not be actual­ly expressed. Illustration A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange payable to his order. The meaning of the endorsement, as explained by mer­cantile usage, is that the bill is to be paid to the holder. The endorsement is a document, and must be construed in the same manner as if the words “pay to the holder” or words to that effect had been written over the signature.