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Cites 12 docs - [View All]
Article 7 in The Constitution Of India 1949
Section 9(2) in the Citizenship Act, 1955
Section 8 in The Foreigners Act, 1946
Article 5(a) in The Constitution Of India 1949
the Citizenship Act, 1955
Citedby 26 docs - [View All]
Syed Safiullah Qadri vs State Of Andhra Pradesh And Others on 4 September, 1996
State Of Gujarat vs Yakub Ibrahim on 3 December, 1973
Mehraj Mohammed vs State Of Rajasthan And Anr. on 18 August, 1972
Abdul Gafar vs State Of Gujarat on 27 April, 1962
Sejal Vikrambhai Patel And Etc. vs State Of Gujarat And Ors. on 17 February, 1993

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Supreme Court of India
State Of Andhra Pradesh vs Abdul Khader on 4 April, 1961
Equivalent citations: 1961 AIR 1467, 1962 SCR (1) 737
Author: A Sarkar
Bench: Sinha, Bhuvneshwar P.(Cj), Das, S.K., Sarkar, A.K., Gupta, K.C. Das, Ayyangar, N. Rajagopala
           PETITIONER:
STATE OF ANDHRA PRADESH

	Vs.

RESPONDENT:
ABDUL KHADER

DATE OF JUDGMENT:
04/04/1961

BENCH:
SARKAR, A.K.
BENCH:
SARKAR, A.K.
SINHA, BHUVNESHWAR P.(CJ)
DAS, S.K.
GUPTA, K.C. DAS
AYYANGAR, N. RAJAGOPALA

CITATION:
 1961 AIR 1467		  1962 SCR  (1) 737
 CITATOR INFO :
 R	    1971 SC1382	 (10)
 R	    1974 SC  28	 (1)
 F	    1974 SC 645	 (8)


ACT:
Externment  Order-Indian  citizen going to  Pakistan  for  a
short  Period  and coming back with  Pakistan  passport	 and
Indian	 visa,	 if  becomes  a	  foreigner-Conviction	 for
overstaying,  if  sustainable 'Foreigners Act, 1946  (13  of
1946),	ss.  3(2)(c), 8, 9-Citizenship Act,  1955  (LVII  of
1955), s. 9-Constitution of India, Art. 5(a).



HEADNOTE:
The respondent was born in India in 1924 and had lived there
all  along till about the end of 1954.	He had	been  paying
rent for his shop in India for ten years upto about 1958 and
his family was and had always been in India.  At the end  of
1954  or  the beginning of 1955 lie went  to  Pakistan	from
where he returned on January 20, 1955, on a passport granted
by  the Pakistan Government which had a visa endorsed on  it
by the Indian authorities permitting him to stay in India up
to  April,  1955.   The respondent applied  to	the  Central
Government for extension of the time allowed by the visa but
the  records did not Show What order, if any, had been	made
on  it.	  As  the  respondent had  stayed  beyond  the	time
specified  in the visa, he was on September 3, 1957,  served
with an order made by the Government of Andhra Pradesh under
s.  3(2)(C)  Of the Foreigners Act, i946  requiring  him  to
leave  India.	The  order  described  him  as	a  Pakisthan
National. on his failure to comply with this order
93
738
he  was prosecuted under S. 14 of the Foreigners  Act.	 His
defence	 was  that he was an Indian  national.	 The  trying
magistrate  rejected this defence and convicted him  holding
(a)  that the fact that the respondent obtained	 a  Pakistan
passport proved that he had disowned Indian nationality	 and
ceased to be an Indian national and (b) that by refusing  to
extend the time fixed by the visa the Central Government had
decided	 that the respondent was a foreigner and under s.  8
of the Foreigners Act, such a decision was final.  An appeal
by the respondent was dismissed by the Sessions judge on the
ground	that the respondent's application for  extension  of
the time fixed by the visa proved that he had renounced	 his
Indian	nationality  and  had acquired	the  citizenship  of
Pakistan.   The High Court of Andhra Pradesh set  aside	 the
conviction  in revision.  On appeal by the State  of  Andhra
Pradesh,
Held, that neither the Magistrate nor the Sessions Judge was
competent  to come to a finding of his own that the  respon-
dent,  an Indian national, had disowned his nationality	 and
acquired  Pakistan  nationality	 for under s.  9(2)  of	 the
Citizenship  Act, 1955, that decision could only be made  by
the prescribed authority which under the Rules framed  under
the  Act  was  the Central Government.	The  fact  that	 the
Central	 Government had refused to extend the visa  did	 not
show  that  it	had  decided  under  the  section  that	 the
respondent had renounced his Indian nationality and acquired
Pakistan  citizenship.	 In  any event, in  order  that	 the
Central Government might come to a decision under s. 9(2) of
the Citizenship Act an enquiry as laid down in r. 30 Of	 the
Rules  framed  under  the Act had to be	 made  and  no	such
inquiry had been made.
On  the facts established, the respondent became  an  Indian
citizen	 under	Art. 5(a) of the Constitution when  it	came
into  force.  He thereby discharged the onus laid on him  by
s.  9 of the Foreigners Act to prove that he was  an  Indian
citizen when that was in dispute.  The passport obtained  by
the   respondent   from	 the  Pakistan	 Government   would,
therefore,   only  be  evidence	 that  the  respondent	 had
renounced   Indian   nationality   and	 acquired   Pakistan
citizenship.  Such evidence was however of no use in a court
for no court could in view of s. 9(2) of the Citizenship Act
decide	 whether  an  Indian  citizen  had   renounced	 his
citizenship  and  acquired  the	 citizenship  of  a  foreign
country.
Section	 8 of the Foreigners Act had no application  to	 the
case as it only applied where a foreigner is recognised as a
national  by  the law of more than one	foreign	 country  or
where it is uncertain what nationality is to be ascribed  to
a  foreigner  and  in  the present case	 that  was  not	 the
question but the question was whether the respondent was  an
Indian or a foreigner.
The respondent's short visit to Pakistan had not amounted to
a migration to that country.
Query,	whether	 Art.  7 of  the  Constitution	contemplates
migration from India to Pakistan after January 26, 1950.
			    739



JUDGMENT:

CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Criminal Appeal No. 192 of 1959.

Appeal by special leave from the judgment and order dated October 27, 1958, of the Andhra Pradesh High Court at Hyderabad in Criminal Revision Case No. 395 of 1958. M. C. Setalvad, Attorney-General of India, T. V. R. Tatachari and T. M. Sen, for the appellant. R. Thiagarajan for N. S. Mani, for respondent. 1961. April 4. The Judgment of the Court was delivered by SARKAR, J.-The respondent was convicted by the Judicial Magistrate of Adoni in the State of Andhra Pradesh, under s. 14 of the Foreigners Act, 1946. His appeal to the Sessions Judge of Kurnool was dismissed. He then moved the High Court of Andhra Pradesh in revision and the revision petition was allowed. Hence the present appeal by the State of Andhra Pradesh.

The facts found were these: On January 20, 1955, the respondent had come to Adoni on a passport granted by the Government of Pakistan which bore the date January 10, 1955. The passport had endorsed on it a visa granted by the Indian authorities which permitted the respondent to stay in India up to April 14, 1955. The respondent continued to stay on in India after that date. On some date, not precisely ascertainable from the record, he appears to have made a representation to the Government of India for extension of his visa till September 2, 1957, on grounds of health. The records do not however show what order, if any, was made on this representation. On September 3, 1957, an order dated August 9, 1957, made by the Government of Andhra, Pradesh requiring him to leave India, was served on the respondent As the respondent did not leave India as directed by this order, he was prosecuted with the result earlier stated. The passport showed that the respondent was born at Adoni in 1924 The respondent appears to have 740 produced an extract from the municipal birth register, which is not on the record, but presumably showed that he was so born. The only evidence on the record of the date when he left India, shows that must have been at the end of 1954 or early in 1955. There is evidence to show that he had been paying rent for his -,hop at Adoni for about ten years prior to 1958 and his parent s. brothers, wife, and children were. and bad always been in India.

The respondent was charged with the breach of the order to leave India which had been made under s. 3 (2)(c) of the Foreigners Act. Now the order could not be made on him, neither could he be convicted for breach of it, if lie was not a foreigner. That was the defence of the respondent, namely that he was not a foreigner. The question is, was a foreigner?

The learned Judicial Magistrate found that by obtaining the passport from the Pakistan authorities, "he has disowned Indian nationality and has ceased to be an Indian National." He also held that s. 9 of the Foreigners Act did not apply to the case but s. 8 of that Act did and that under that section a decision made by the Government that a person is a foreigner is final and such a decision had been made in this case regarding the respondent as the Government had decided not to grant him an extension of his visa. On these grounds he found that the respondent was a foreigner. It seems to us that both these grounds are untenable. Section 8 applies to a case where "a foreigner is recognised as a national by the law of more than one foreign country or where for any reason, it is uncertain what nationality if any is to be ascribed to a foreigner." The section provides that in such cases the prescribed authority has power to decide of which country the foreigner is to be treated as the national and such decision shall be final. The section, therefore, applies to a person who is a foreigner and the question is of which foreign country he is a national. In the case of the respondent no such question arose and no decision could be or was made by any prescribed authority of such question. The learned Magistrate therefore clearly went wrong in relying on s. 8.

741

As regards the passport, the learned Magistrate did not come to the finding that it proved the respondent to have been a Pakistani national all along. What he Al did was to think that the respondent who had earlier been an Indian national, had by obtaining it, disowned Indian nationality and ceased to be an -Indian national.

Now, s. 9(2) of the Citizenship Act, 1955, provides that if any question arises as to whether an Indian citizen has acquired the citizenship of another country, it shall be determined by such authority and in such manner as may be prescribed. Under r. 30 of the rules framed under that Act,, the authority to decide that question is the Central Government. So the question whether the respondent, an Indian citizen, had acquired Pakistani citizenship cannot be decided by courts. The learned Magistrate had no jurisdiction therefore to come to the finding on the strength of the passport that the respondent, an Indian citizen, had acquired Pakistani citizenship. Nor was there anything before the learned Magistrate to show that the Central Government had decided that the respondent had renounced Indian citizenship and acquired that of Pakistan. The learned Magistrate thought -that the fact that the Central Government had refused to extend the respondent's visa proved that it had decided that he had acquired Pakistani nationality. This view again was not warranted. There is nothing to show that the Central Government had refused to extend the respondent's visa. Even if it had, that would not amount to a decision by it, that the respon- dent, an Indian citizen, had acquired subsequently Pakistani nationality for there may be such refusal when an applicant for the extension had all along been a Pakistani national. Furthermore, in order that there may be a decision by the Central Government that an Indian citizen has acquired foreign nationality, an enquiry as laid down in r. 30 of the rules framed under the Citizenship Act has to be made and no such enquiry had at all been made. That being so, it cannot be said that the Central Government had decided that the respondent, an Indian citizen, had acquired the citizenship of Pakistan.

742

The question whether a person is an Indian citizen or a foreigner, as distinct from the question whether a person having once been an Indian citizen has renounced that citizenship and acquired a foreign nationality, is not one which is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Central Government to decide. The courts can decide it and, therefore, the learned Magistrate could have done so. He, however, did not decide that question, that is, find that the respondent had been a Pakistani national all along. On the evidence on the record such a finding would not have been warranted. For all these reasons we think that the conviction of the respondent by the learned Magistrate was not well founded.

Coming now to the decision of the learned Sessions Judge, he seems to have based himself on the reasoning that the "conduct of the appellant" that is, the respondent before us, "in applying for extension of time shows that he is not a citizen of India and that he has acquired citizenship of Pakistan. If he were a citizen of India, he could have raised this plea and this question could have been decided by the Central Government as envisaged by Rule 30, sub-Rule I of the Rules made under the Citizenship Act and there was no necessity to apply for extension." Quite plainly, the learned Sessions Judge was proceeding on the basis that the respondent had renounced his Indian citizenship and acquired Pakistani citizenship. As we have said earlier, that is not a question which is open to a court to decide and there is no evidence to show that it has been decided by the Central Government who alone has the power to decide it. The learned Sessions Judge did not direct himself to the question which lie could decide, namely whether the respondent had from the beginning been a Pakistani citizen. His decision, therefore, cannot also be sustained. We have examined the evidence on the record our.,elves and are unable to say that a conviction can be based on it. There can be no conviction unless it can be held on the evidence that the respondent is a foreigner, that is to say, a person who is not an Indian 743 citizen: see s. 2(a) of the Foreigners Act as amended by Act 11 of 1957.

The evidence shows that the respondent did go to Pakistan, but the only evidence with regard to that is that he went there about the end of 1954 or the beginning of 1955. This evidence also indicates that he stayed there for a short time. He was all along paying the rent for his shop in Adoni. His family bad always been there. Therefore it can be said that he had never migrated to Pakistan. Clearly, a short visit to Pakistan would not amount to migrating to that country. The passport obtained by him from Pakistan would no doubt be evidence that he was a Pakistani national. As on the facts of this case he must be held to have been an Indian citizen on the promulgation of the Constitution, the passport can show no more than that he renounced Indian citizenship and acquired Pakistani nationality. Such evidence would be of no use in the present case for, in view of s. 9(2) of the Citizenship Act, a Court cannot decide whether an Indian citizen has acquired the citizenship of another country.

The position then is this. The respondent has clearly discharged the onus that lay on him under s. 9 of the Foreigners Act to prove that he was not a foreigner, by proving that he was born and domiciled in India prior to January 26, 1950, when the Constitution came into force and thereby had become an Indian citizen under Art. 5(a) of the Constitution. He has further proved that he had never migrated to Pakistan. It has not been shown that the Central Government had made any decision with regard to him under s. 9 of the Citizenship Act that he has acquired a foreign nationality. Therefore, it cannot be held by any court that the respondent who was an Indian citizen has ceased to be such and become a foreigner. That being so, it must be held for the purpose of this case that the respondent was not a foreigner and no order could be made against him under s. 3(l)(c) of the Foreigners Act. Conviction for breach of such an order by the respondent would be wholly illegal.

744

Though we are upholding the decision of the High Court, we wish to observe that we do not do so for the reasons mentioned by it. It is unnecessary to discuss those reasons but we would like to point, out one thing, namely. that the High Court seems to have been of the opinion that Art. 7 of the Constitution contemplates migration from India to Pakistan even after January 26, 1950. We desire to make it clear that we should not be taken to have accepted or en- dorsed the correctness of this interpretation of Art. 7. The reference in the opening words of Art. 7 to Arts. 5 and 6 taken in conjunction with the fact that both Arts. 5 and 6 are concerned with citizenship (at the commencement of the Constitution) apart from various other considerations would appear to point to the conclusion that the migration referred to in Art. 7 is one before January 26, 1950, and that the contrary construction which the learned Judge has put upon Art. 7 is not justified, but in the view that we have taken of the facts of this case, namely, that the respondent had never migrated to Pakistan, we do not consider it necessary to go into this question more fully or finally pronounce upon it.

In the result we dismiss the appeal.

Appeal dismissed.