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The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973
The Police Act, 1888
Section 80 in The Representation of the People Act, 1951
Section 145 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Section 80 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973

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Allahabad High Court
Janmbhumi Is Also Written Below It ... vs ?Kfm+;Ky] 'Ka[K Dh /Ofu;Kwa ...

Janmbhumi is also written below it in English. The
photograph nos. 1, 2 and 3 do not depict any such thing on
whose basis can I say that a particular portion of the
building was part of any twelfth century Vaishnav temple.
The photograph no. 70 is the picture of the ceiling of one of
the dome of the structure. It is a construction of bricks with
thick lime plaster. There is a picture of lotus petals in the
center, which was probably made in colors and had a iron
chain hanging out from center. The learned counsel for the
plaintiff, Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi drew the attention of the
witness towards the colored photographs contained in the
album prepared by U.P. Archaeological Organization. On
looking at it, the witness stated that the photograph no. 44
is a slab of red stone with numeral '1' and Janmbhumi
written over it in Hindi. Janmbhumi is also written below it
in English. After looking at the photograph nos. 44, 45, 46,
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 the witness stated that these
photographs are of those two black stone pillars, which are
found on both side of the gate after entering the structure.
The photograph no. 55 is the picture of boundary wall of
that structure. The photograph nos. 62, 63, 64, 65 are also
pictures of boundary wall of that very structure. The
photograph nos. 59, 60, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 73, 76,
77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 84 are of inside the structure and have
been photographed from inside. I have carefully seen the
photograph nos. 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111,
112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123,
124, 125, 126, 127, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144,
145, 146, 147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165,
166, 167, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184,

185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196,
197, 198, 199 and 200 and these colored photographs are
also of those black Shistas stones, which in local language
are called touch stone. These photographs are like the
black photographs and the sole difference is of color.
However, I would like to draw attention towards
photograph nos. 186 and 187 which contain the lower part
of some God in the stage of 'Padamasan' (a posture of
Yoga) over lotus and the entire upper part has been
damaged. According to my knowledge, this photograph
gives evidence of an idol of lord Vishnu in the form of
Yoga. This further supports the evidences led by me herein
above on the point that the temples, of which they were
pillars, were certainly related to a Vaishnav temple dated
around twelfth century inasmuch as from the point of art
style, the Yoga form idol of Vishnu and such carvings, were
characteristic of the twelfth century. After looking at
photograph nos. 134, 135 and 174 the witness stated that
these photographs were also of the ceiling beneath the
dome, which had colored lotus petals in the center and a
iron chain appearing to be hanging out from the center.
This has also been referred above by me. From my point of
view, the most important feature of these photographs is
eight petaled lotus. That structure had three domes. This
photograph is of the ceiling beneath one of the domes and
was made up of bricks with plaster over it."
       **oknh ds fo}ku vf/koDrk Jh ohjs'oj f}osnh us vU; ewyokn la0
5@89 esa nkf[ky ,yce ds dkxt la0 286 lh 1@4 , dh vksj
fnyk;kA xokg us c;ku tkjh j[krs gq, dgk fd bl ,yce esa fn;s x;s
lkjs QksVksxzkQ~l tc [khps x;s Fks rc eSa ml le; ekStwn Fkk A QksVks
ua0 2 tc [khapk x;k rc reke ekStwn O;fDr;ksa esa ls eSa Hkh ekStwn Fkk

dk QksVks gSA bl fp= esa Jh ftykuh lkgc vkSj vU; vf/koDrkvksa ds
fp= gSa vkSj blh fp= esa esjk Hkh ,d fp= gSaA ftuesa ls Jh jathr yky
oekZ] vf/koDrk] Jh vt; dqekj ik.Ms;] vf/koDrk] Jh enu eksgu
ik.Ms;] vf/koDrk ,oa Jh eq'rkd vgen fln~nhdh vf/koDrk dk fp=
gSa ;s lkjs fp= jkedFkk dqUt rFkk JhjketUeHkwfe ls lacaf/kr gSa A fp=
la0 2 esa Jh Mh0ih0nwcs vkSj Jherh lq/kk eyS;k iqjkys[ku rFkk vkVZ
fgLVª~h ds fo}ku gSaA blh fp= esa Jh nsosUnz Lo:i vxzoky dk Hkh fp=
gS tks ns'k ds tkus ekus bfrgkldkj gSaA bl fp= esa ihNs fNis gq, dksV
vkSj VkbZ igus gq, ,d ,sls egku e/; ;qx ds bfrgkl ds fo}ku dk
fp= yxrk gS tks vc bl lalkj esa ugha gS fdUrq os izksQslj oh0vkj0
xzksoj FksA fp= la0 1 esa izksQslj oh0vkj0 xzksoj] Mk0 lq/kk eyS;k dk
fp= gSa fp= la0 5] 6] 7] 8] 9] 10 ml f'kykys[k ds fofHkUu va'kksa ds
fp= gSa tks f'kykys[k 6 fnlEcj 1992 ds fnu feyk FkkA ;g fp= ,d
f'kykys[k ds fp= gSa ;g f'kykys[k 6 fnlEcj 1992 ds fnu bekjr ls
fudyh Fkh vkSj jkedFkk dqUt esa j[kh x;h FkhA bl f'kykys[k dks esjh
mifLFkfr esa iqjkys[k fo}kuksa us i<+k Fkk vkSj lquk;k Fkk buesa ls nks
fo}kuksa ds uke bl izdkj ls gSaA Mk0 Mh0ih0 nwcs ,oa Mk0 lq/kk eyS;k A
fp= la0 4 esa nks f'kykys[k gSa bu f'kykys[kksa dks Hkh mUgha nksuksa gh
fo}kuksa us i<+k vkSj lquk;k FkkA izks0 oh0vkj0 xzksoj bfUM;u dkSafly
vkQ fgLVkfjdy fjlpZ ds ps;jeSu FksA QksVks ua0 19 ls 26 rd LrEHkksa
ds fp= gSaA ;g lHkh LrEHk jke dFkk dqUt esa j[ks x;s FksA QksVks la0 &
29] 30 }kjk 'kk[kk ds bu fp=ksa dks <kWpk fxjus ds igys eSaus ugha ns[kk
FkkA fp= la0 11] 12] 13] 14] 15] 16] 17] 18] ;g lHkh fp= fgUnw nsoh
nsorkvksa ds fp= gSaA budh QksVksxzkQh jkedFkk dqUt esa esjs lkeus gqbZ
FkhA ;g lc iRFkj dh ewfrZ;ksa ds fp= gSa eSaus mUgsa ns[kk FkkA ;g fp=
oS".ko efUnj tks 12 oh 'krkCnh dh 'kSyh esa mRrj Hkkjr esa cuk Fkk]
mlds LFkkiR; ds fofHkUu vaxksa ds fp= gSaA QksVks ua0&26 esa esjk fp= gS]
Mk0 lq/kk eyS;k dk fp= gS ,oa izks0 oh0vkj0 xzksoj dk fp= gSA ,d
vkSj O;fDr dk fp= gS ftldk eq>s /;ku ugha vk jgk gSA QksVks la0 63
ml le; dk fp= gS] tc bu oLrqvksa dh ohfM;ksxzkQh gks jgh FkhA blesa
ml le; ds dfe'uj Jh ,l0ih0 flag rFkk muds ikl cSBs gq, ml
le; ds ,l0ih0 dk fp= gS rFkk esjk Hkh fp= gSA**

      **The learned counsel for the plaintiff drew attention
towards the album, paper no. 286C-1/4 filed in O.O.S no.
5/89. The witness continued his statement and stated that I
was present when all the photographs of this album had
been taken. At time of the photograph no. 2, I was also
present amongst various persons present. This photograph
includes Sri Jilani and other advocates and I also appear
in it. It includes Sri Ranjit Lal Varma, Advocate, Sri Ajay
Kumar Pandey, Advocate, Sri Madan Mohan Pandey,
Advocate and Sri Mushtaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate. All
these photographs are related to Ramkatha Kunj and Sri
Ramjanmbhumi. Sri D.P. Dubey and Smt. Sudha Malaiya
appearing in photograph no. 2 are scholars in epigraphy
and art history. This photograph also includes Sri
Devendra Swaroop Agarwal, who is a renowned historian
of the country. In background of this photograph, there
appears to be the picture of a famous historian of medieval
history in a coat and tie, who is no longer alive viz. Prof.
V.R. Grover. The photograph no. 1 contains the picture of
Prof. V.R. Grover and Sudha Malaiya. The photograph
nos. 5,6,7,8,9,10 are pictures of different parts of that
inscription, which was found on 6th December, 1992. This
photograph is of an inscription. It was recovered from the
structure on 6th December, 1992 and had been kept at
Ramkatha Kunj. This inscription had been read out by
epigraphists in my presence. Two of the scholars were Dr.
D.P. Dubey and Dr. Sudha Malaiya. The photograph no. 4
contains two inscriptions. These inscriptions had also been
read out to me by the said two scholars. Prof. V.R. Grover
was the Chairman of Council of Historical Research. The

photograph nos. 19 to 26 are of pillars. All these pillars
were kept at Ramkatha Kunj. The photograph nos. 29, 30
are of Dwarshakha. I had not seen these photographs prior
to demolition of the structure. I had not earlier seen these
photographs of Dwarshakha. The photograph nos.
11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18 are pictures of Hindu Gods-
Goddesses. These photographs were taken in my presence
at the Ramkatha Kunj. These are pictures of stone idols
and I have seen them. These photographs are pictures of
different aspects of architecture of twelfth century
Vaishnav temple of north India. I figure in photograph no.
26 along with Dr. Sudha Malaiya and Prof. V.R. Grover.
Another person appears in the photograph, but I am unable
to identify him. The photograph no. 63 is of that time when
all these articles were being videographed. It contains the
picture of the erstwhile Commissioner, Sri S.P. Singh, the
erstwhile S.P. sitting next to him and as also of me."
        **izks0 ch0ch0yky us 1975 vkSj 1980 esa ;gkWa [kksnkbZ dh FkhA ;gka
fiyj cslsl mudh [kksnkbZ esa feys FksA vkSj mUgksaus blds fo"k; esa dbZ
ys[k fy[ks FksA eSa mudh bl fjiksVZ ls iw.kZ :i ls lger gwWaA izks0 ,0ds0
ukjk;.k }kjk tks [kksnkbZ gqbZ Fkh 1970 ds yxHkx] mudh oLrqvksa dks eSaus
ch0,p0;w0 esa ns[kk FkkA eSa mudh fjiksVZ ls Hkh iw.kZ :i ls lger gwWaA
eSaus bl efUnj ds vo'ks"kksa dk v/;;u ftu fczrkuh rjhdk ls fd;k gS]
os fuEu gSa%&
1-      vkfdZVsDpjy LVkby vkQ , ukFkZ bf.M;u VSEiy vkQ V~osYFk
lsUpqjh ,0Mh0
2-      vkVZ fgLVksfjdy vFkkZr ftrus Hkh fp= ogkWa mdsjs gq, feys] mu
lcdk dykRed LVkby dk ijh{k.kA
3-      f'kykys[kksa esa iz;qDr v{kjksa dh cukoV] ftuds vk/kkj ij frfFk dk
fu/kkZj.k gksrk gSA
4-      ,ihxzkQh A eSaus Lo;a LFkkiR; ,oa vkVZfgLVksfjdy lEcU/kh LVMh

dhA 'ks"k dh vU; fo}kuksa us dh FkhA**
        **Prof. B.B. Lal had carried out excavation here in
the years 1975 and 1980. Pillar bases were found in said
excavation and he has written many articles in that regard.
I am in total agreement with his said report. The articles
recovered in the excavation carried out by Prof. A.K.
Narayan around the year 1970, had been seen by me at
BHU. I am in total agreement with his report as well. The
(British) methods by which I have studied the remains of
this temple, are as follows:

Architectural Style of a North Indian Temple of Twelfth Century AD.

2. Art Historical i.e. examination of art style of all the pictures found engraved over there.

3. The make of letters used in inscriptions, on whose basis date in determined.

4. Epigraphy. I myself carried out the studies regarding architecture and art historical. The rest work was done by other scholars."

**f'kykys[k ^cQ lsisM LVksu* ds f'kyk[k.M ij vafdr gSA eSaus vkfdZ;ksyksth ij dbZ iqLrda fy[kh gSa fdUrq jketUe Hkwfe dh vkfdZyksth ij ;|fi fd vusd ys[k fy[ks gSa] fdUrq iqLrd dsoy ,d fy[kh gS vkSj og Hkh vius ,d lg;ksxh Mk0 Vh0ih0 oekZ ds lkFk feydj fy[kh gS ftUgk sau s ,sf rgkfld i{k dk fgLlk fy[kk gS ] tcfd eS au s iq j krkfRod i{k dk fgLlk fy[kk gS A ;g iqLrd eSa vius lkFk yk;k gwWaA bl iqLrd dk uke gS%& v;ks/;k dk bfrgkl ,oa iqjkrRo ¼_Xosn dky ls vc rd½ eSa bl iqLrd dks nkf[ky djuk pkgrk gwWaA** **The inscription 'Buff sand stone' is to be found over stone block. I have written many books on archaeology. However, despite having written many articles on 757 archaeology of Ram Janmbhumi, I have written only one book and that, too, jointly with Dr. T.P. Verma, who has written the historical part and the archaeological part has been written by me. I have brought along the said book. This book is titled 'Ayodhya ka Itihaas Evam Puratatva (Rigveda Kaal Se Ab Tak)'. I want to file this book."

**v;ks/;k esa tks lsehukj v;ks/;k fo"k; ij gqvk Fkk] mlesa nks fjT;wyw'ku ikl gqvk Fkk] mlls eSa lger gwWA ;g lsfeukj v;ks/;k esa gh gqvk FkkA** "I am in agreement with the resolutions arrived at in the seminar held at Ayodhya regarding Ayodhya. That seminar had been held at Ayodhya."

515. OPW 9, Dr. Thakur Prasad Verma, aged about 69 years (as per his affidavit dated 31.10.2002). His cross examination followed as under :

Part-I(a) 31.10.2002- by defendant no. 2 through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 10-19)
(b) 01.11.2002- by defendant no. 3 through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 20-34)
(c)15/16/18/19/21.11.2002, 09.01.2003, 18/20/24/25/26/27.02.2003- by plaintiff no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 36-179)
(d) 28.02.2003, 03/04/05.03.2003-by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 180-
215) Part-II :(e) 10/11/13/20.03.2003-by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 216-
(f)20/21/26/27/28.03.2003, 21/22/23/24/25/29/30.04.2003, 01/02/05/ 06.05.2003 - by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4, through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p.
(g) 06.05.2003- defendant no. 26 through Sri Irfan Ahmad, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5, and 6 (p. 428)
(h) 06.05.2003- defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5, and 6 (p.

516. He is plaintiff no. 3 (Suit-5) and looking after the said suit on behalf of plaintiffs no. 1 and 2. He did his Post-Graduation in Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology in 1958 and got Ph.D. in Palaeography from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (in short "BHU"). His subject of research was "Palaeography of Brahmi Script in North India from 2nd Century B.C. to 3rd Century A.D." He worked as a Lecturer and Reader between 1967 to 1993 in the Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology in BHU and retired in 1993. During this period he also worked as Principal D.A.V. College, Varanasi for about five months and in 1989 as Professor and Head of the Department, Gurukul Kangari University, Haridwar in the Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology for about a month. He has guided about 27 research students for Ph.D. out of which six research work relates to Palaeography. He is well conversed with several topics and member of "Numismatic Society of India", "Indian Epigraphical Society", "Indian History and Culture Society" etc; has authored the books like, "Palaeography of Brahmi Script Dwitiya Shatabdi Isvi Purva Se Lekar Tritiya Shatabti Isvi Purva Tak"; "Bhartiya Lipi Shastra of Abhilekhaki"; Puraabhilekh Sangrah"; Ayodhya Ka Itihas Evam Puratatva 759 (Rigved Kal Se Ab Tak) etc. Besides he has also edited six parts of "Sri Ram Viswa Kosh" a magazine published by Bharitya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, U.P., has written several articles on Numismatic, Epigraphy, Palaeography, History, Arts etc. published in various journals in the country, is a born Vasnavite, worshipped Lord Ram and his incarnations. He said about his religious belief, in paras 10 and 11 of the affidavit, as under:

^10- esjk tUe oS".ko ifjokj esa gqvk gSA tUe ls gh Hkxoku fo".kq vkSj muds vorkjksa ds izfr esjh vkLFkk ,oa HkfDr dh Hkkouk gSA lkFk gh vU; nsoh&nsorkvksa tSls Hkxoku f'ko] nqxkZ vkfn ds izfr Hkh J)k ,oa HkfDr gSA fgUnqvksa dh J)k dsoy ewfrZ iwtk esa gh ugha vfirq muds fy, LFky Hkh iwT; gSa tSls dsnkjukFk eafnj] fo".kqin eafnj] x;k vkfn esa LFky gh iwT; gSaA blh izdkj Jhjke tUeHkwfe vfr ifo= ,oa iwT; LFky gSA** **10- I have been born in a Vaishnavite family. Since birth, I had faith and belief in Lord Vishnu and His incarnations. I also had faith and belief in other Gods-Goddesses such as Lord Shiva, Durga etc. The faith of Hindus is not restricted only to idol worship and the place is also worshippable for them e.g. place is worshippable at Kedarnath temple, Vishnupad temple, Gaya etc. Similarly, Sri Ramjanmbhumi is a very sacred and worshippable place." **11- Hkxoku Jhjke ,d ,sfrgkfld iq:"k gq, gSa muds firk dk uke n'kjFk ,oa ekrk dk uke dkS'kY;k FkkA y{e.k] Hkjr] 'k=q?u muds HkkbZ FksA Hkxoku Jhjke us vius d`R;ksa ,oa vkpj.k ls lekt esa ,d vkn'kZ LFkkfir fd;k Fkk ftlds dkj.k mudks e;kZnk iq:"kksRre Hkh dgk tkrk gSA Jhjke Hkxoku fo".kq ds vorkj ekus tkrs gSaA** **11- Lord Sri Rama was a historical identity. His father's name was Dashrath and mother's Kaushalya. Laxman, Bharat, Shatrughan were His brothers. By His actions and conduct, Lord Sri Rama set an example in the society, due to which He is also called Maryada Purshottam. Sri Rama 760 is considered as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu."

517. About Ayodhya, the present one where Lord Ram was born, existence of temple at the disputed place, birth of Lord Ram at the disputed place and construction of the disputed structure after demolition of a temple of Lord Ram he said in paras 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 of the affidavit as under:

**12- Hkxoku Jhjke dk vorkj blh Hkkjr Hkwfe ij gqvk FkkA leLr Hkkjrh; okaxe; ,d Loj ls bl ckr dh ?kks"k.kk djrs gSa fd egkjktk n'kjFk ds iq= Jhjke dk tUe v;ks/;k esa gqvk FkkA v;ks/;k dksbZ dkYifud LFky ugha gS oju~ ,d okLrfod uxj gS ftldh HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr ds ckjs esa Hkkjrh; lkfgR; esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh erfofHkUurk ugha gSA ;g ,d vR;Ur izkphu uxjh gS] ftldk mYys[k osnksa esa Hkh vk;k gSA vFkoZosn vkSj rSfRrjh; vkj.;d esa bl ekuo 'kjhj dks nsorkvksa dh uxjh dgk x;k gS rFkk mldh rqyuk v;ks/;k ls dh xbZ gSa ;fn v;ks/;k dk vfLrRo u gksrk rks bl izdkj dh miek ugha nh tk ldrh FkhA ;g ogh v;ks/;k gS tks lj;w unh ds rV ij clh gSA leLr Hkkjrh; lkfgR; esa vkSj lEiw.kZ Hkkjrh; miegk}hi esa u rks nwljh v;ks/;k gS vkSj u gh nwljh lj;w unhA** "Lord Sri Rama incarnated himself on this very Bharat Bhumi. The whole of India is one in declaring that Sri Rama, son of King Dashrath was born in Ayodhya.

Ayodhya is not an imaginary place; rather, it is a real town about whose geographical location no difference of opinion is found in Indian literature. It is a very ancient town which also finds mention in Vedas. Atharvaveda and Taitriya Aranyak has spoken of this human body as the abode of Gods and has compared it to Ayodhya. If Ayodhya had not existed, such sort of comparison could not have been made. This is the Ayodhya that is located on the bank of River Saryu. There is neither any other Ayodhya nor any other Saryu river in the entire Indian literature and in the 761 whole of Indian subcontinent."

**13- v;ks/;k esa ftl LFky ij Hkxoku Jhjke us tUe fy;k Fkk og fgUnqvksa ds fy, fo'ks"k egRo j[krk gSa vusd 'krkfCn;ksa vkSj vla[; ihf<+;ksa ls fgUnw turk ml LFky dh iwtk djrh vk;h gS rFkk bl vfofPNUu ijEijk ds dkj.k ml LFky dks Hkwyus vFkok mlesa fdlh Hkh izdkj ds Hkze dh dksbZ xqatkbZ'k ugha gSA ^^;gh og LFky gS ftldk fookn bl okn esa py jgk gSA**vusd ns'kh] ijfl;u vkSj ;qjksih; ys[kd ;g crkrs gSa fd v;ks/;k esa eqlyeku 'kkldksa ds 'kkludky esa de ls de rhu egRoiw.kZ oS".ko eafnjksa dks /oLr djds mu ij efLtnsa cuk nh xbZ FkhA og gSa v;ks/;k fLFkfr JhjketUeHkwfe eafnj] LoxZ}kj eafnj vkSj =srk ds Bkdqj dk eafnjA buesa JhjketUeHkwfe eafnj ds fy, gh vuojr la?k"kZ gq, vkSj fgUnqvksa dk ogka ij iwtk djus dk vkxzg jgk gS vkSj vHkh Hkh ogka iwtk djrs pys vk jgs gSaA bldk dkj.k ;g jgk gS fd nsoh nsorkvksa ds eafnj dgha Hkh vkSj dHkh Hkh cuk;s tk ldrs gSa] rFkk muesa ewfrZ dh izk.kizfr"Bk djkdj iwtk dh tk ldrh gS fdUrq fdlh ds tUeLFky dks dnkfi cnyk ugha tk ldrkA blh dkj.k fgUnqvksa dk ml ije ifo= JhjketUeHkwfe ¼LFky½ ds izfr fo'ks"k vkxzg jgk gSA JhjketUeHkwfe eafnj rksM+dj tcjnLrh efLtn cuk fn, tkus ds ckotwn ogka ij mlh ijEijkxr <ax ls izfr o"kZ Hkxoku Jhjke ds tUefnu] pS='kqDy jkeuoeh ds volj ij J)kyq jkeHkDrksa dh HkhM+ meM+ iM+rh jgh gS vkSj mldh ifjdzek&iwtk djds vius J)k lqeu vfiZr djds g`n; esa ,d Vhl fy, okil tkrh jgh ftldk mYys[k ;wjksih; ;k=h VkbQsuFksyj us fd;k gS] ^^ftldk ,LV~sDV dkxt la[;k 107lh&1@98&108 bl okn esa nkf[ky gSA 107lh&1@109 ,aM 107lh&1@110 tks ekfVZu }kjk fyf[kr mYys[k Hkh bl okn esa nkf[ky gSA** "The place where Lord Sri Rama was born in Ayodhya, holds a special importance for Hindus. For many centuries and for innumerable generations Hindu public has been worshipping this place. Due to this constant tradition it has continued to worship that place and for this very reason there is no room for them to forget the said place or to have any sort of confusion about it. This is the 762 place which in dispute in this suit. Many native, Persian and European authors tell that in Ayodhya at least three important Vaishnavite temples were demolished and mosque were built in their places during the tenure of Muslim rulers. They are Ayodhya-situated Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple, Swarg Dwar temple and Thakur temple of Treta Era. Out of these, there has been a consistent struggle only for Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple and Hindus have been insisting on performing pooja there and they are continuing to perform pooja there even today. Its reason has been that temples of gods and goddesses can be built at any place and at any time and pooja can be performed after deifying the idols placed therein. But someone's birthplace can never be changed. For this very reason Hindus have been laying particular insistence on the holiest place called Sri Ram Janam Bhumi. Despite the mosque having been forcibly constructed after demolishing Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple, on the occasion of Sri Rama's birth anniversary falling on Chaitra Shukla Navami, devout Rama worshippers converge there every year in that very traditional manner and perform parikrama and pooja and offer flowers as a mark of reverence and go back from there with a pain in their heart which has been described by a European traveller Typhen Thaylor. Its extract is filed in this suit as paper nos. 107C- 1/98-108. The written account of Martin is also filed in this suit as paper nos. 107C-1/109 and 107C-1/110." **14- tgka rd bfrgkl dk iz'u gS v;ks/;k vius vfLrRodky esa mtM++h vkSj clkbZ xbZa okYehfd jkek;.k 7@111@10 esa mYys[k gS fd Hkxoku Jhjke us vius thou dky esa v;ks/;k dks fotu dj fn;k Fkk vkSj viuh lkjh iztk ds lkFk LoxZ pys x,A vius iq=ksa dks v;ks/;k ds 763 ckgj jgdj jkT; djus dk izcU/k dj fn;k FkkA cM+s iq= yo dks JkoLrh ¼lgsV&egsV½ esa jkt/kkuh cukdj jkT; djus dks dgk Fkk rFkk ;g LFky Hkxoku cq) ds dky rd dks'ky jkT; dk jkt/kkuh cuh jghA ckn esa ekS;Zdky esa Hkh ;g dks'ky izkUr ¼ex/k lkezkt; dk ,d izkUr½ dh jkt/kkuh cuh jghA nwljs iq= dq'k dks dq'kkorh uxj clk dj jkT; djus dk izca/k fd;k tks foa/; {ks= esa gS vkSj ckn esa rFkk vc rd egkdks'ky ds uke ls izfl) gSA jkek;.k esa ;g Hkh crk;k x;k gS fd Hkxoku Jhjke ds ckn _"kHk ds le; esa v;ks/;k iqu% clkbZ tk;sxhA ;g tSfu;ksa ds izFke rhFkZadj Fks ftUgsa vkfnukFk Hkh dgk tkrk gSA fgUnqvksa esa ,slh fdonarh gS fd v;ks/;k dks rhljh ckj clkus dk Js; mTtSu ds egkjktk fodzekfnR; dks gS] ftUgksaus tSlk fd bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 107lh&1@10] 107lh&1@28] 107lh&1@35] 107lh&1@55 ls Li"V gksrk gS] v;ks/;k esa 360 eafnj cuok;sA dqN mUgsa mTtSu ds xnZfHkYy oa'k ds egkjktk fodzekfnR; ekurs gSaA ftUgksaus 57 bZlk iwoZ esa 'kdksa dk fouk'k djds fodze laor~ dh LFkkiuk dh Fkh rFkk dqN mUgsa xqIroa'k ds pUnzxqIr fodzekfnR; ekurs gSaA tks Hkh gks bu 360 eafnjksa esa JhjketUeHkwfe dk eafnj vo'; gh 'kkfey FkkA** **14- Insofar as history is concerned, Ayodhya was ruined and established in its existence period. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana 7/111/10 that during His lifetime Lord Sri Rama had depopulated Ayodhya and had proceeded to heaven along with His entire subjects. He had arranged for His sons to rule from outside Ayodhya. The elder son Luv was asked to rule with Shrawasti (Sahet-Mahet ) as capital and till the period of Buddha, this place continued to be the capital of Kaushal estate. Subsequently, in the Maurya period as well this Kaushal estate (province of Magadh empire) was the capital. The city of Kushawati, which is in the Vindhya region, was established for the rule of the other son Kush and thereafter till date it is famous as Mahakaushal. It has also been mentioned in the Ramayana 764 that after Lord Sri Rama, Ayodhya would again be inhabited during the times of Rishabh. He was the first Tirthkar of Jains and is also known as Adinath. It is so believed amongst the Hindus that the credit for inhabitance of Ayodhya for third time, goes to Vikramaditya, king of Ujjain. It appears from paper no. 107C-1/10, 107C-1/28, 107C-1/35, 107C-1/55 filed in this suit that he had built 360 temples in Ayodhya. Few consider him to be king Vikramaditya of Gardbhill dynasty of Ujjain, who had destroyed the Shakas in 57 BC and had started the Vikram era and few consider him to be Chandragupta Vikramaditya of Gupta dynasty. Be that as it may, the Sri Ramjanmbhumi temple was certainly included in those 360 temples."

**15- JhjketUeHkwfe ds LFky ij cus eafnj dh orZeku J`a[kyk dk izkjEHk blh dky ls ekuk tkrk gSA eafnj th.kZ gksrs jgs mudk iqulaLdj.k gksrk jgk vkSj ;g dk;Z bZlk dh X;kjgoh 'krkCnh ds izkjEHk rd pyrk jgkA lkykj elwn 1032&33 bZ 0 esa ;gk a vk;k vkS j tUeLFky eaf nj dk s {kfrxz L r fd;kA og cgjkbp ds ;q) esa jktk lqgsynso ds }kjk 14 twu] 1033 esa ekjk x;kA** **15- The present series of the temple built at Sri Ramjanmbhumi site, is considered to have started in this very period. The temples kept frailing with age and they were renovated, which work continued till the start of 11th century AD. Salar Masud came here in 1032-33 AD and damaged the Janmsthal temple. On 14th June, 1033 he was killed by king Suhel dev in the battle of Bahraich." **16- v;ks/;k esa fookfnr <kapk ds fo/oal ds le; 6 fnlEcj] 1992 dks mlds eyos esa izkIr 20 iafDr;ksa okys f'kykys[k ¼bl ckn esa nkf[ky bLVSEist dk dkxt 203 lh&1@3½ ls ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd xgM+oky jktk xksfoUn pUnz ¼1114 ls 1154 bZ0½ ds 'kkludky esa lkdsr e.My ds 765 'kkld us ;gka ij ,d vfr lqUnj fo'kky eafnj dk fuekZ.k djk;k FkkA blds fuekZ.k dh vko';drk blfy, iM+h fd og yxHkx 70&80 o"kksZ iwoZ {kfrxzLr dj fn;k x;k FkkA ysfdu bl vof/k esa Hkh ogka iwtk gksrh jghA bLVSEist dks eSaus Lo;a ns[kk o mldh mn~okpu Hkh fd;k gSA** **16- From the 20 line inscription (estampage filed in this suit as paper no. 203C-1/3) found in the debris of the disputed structure demolished on 6th December, 1992 at Ayodhya, it transpires that during the reign of Gaharwal king Govindchandra (from 1114 to 1154 AD) the ruler of Saket division built a very grand temple at this place. The need for construction of the same arose in view of the fact that it had been demolished about 70-80 years ago, but in this period also worship was taking place here. I have myself seen the estampages and have deciphered them." **17- jktk vu; pUnz }kjk cuok;k x;k 11oha&12oha 'krkCnh ¼xgM+oky dky½ dk ;g eafnj iqu% ckcj ds lsukifr ehjckdh }kjk 1528 esa rksM+k x;kA ehjckdh dsk ckcj vo/k esa NksM+dj Xokfy;j dh vksj fudy x;k FkkA yxHkx 13 eghus ckn og ml {ks= esa tc okil vkrk gS rc ehjckdh vo/k dh lsuk ysdj mlls feyrk gS] bldk mYys[k ckcjukek esa n`"VO; gSA** "17- This temple of 11th - 12th century (of Gaharwal period) built by king Anaychandra, was again demolished by Babar's commander Mir Baqi in the year 1528. Babar proceeded towards Gwalior after leaving Mir Baqi at Awadh. The meeting of the two after about 13 months on his return to the area, is mentioned in Babarnama." **18- eSaus ,d iqLrd ^v;ks/;k dk bfrgkl ,oa iqjkrRo** ¼_Xosn dky ls vc rd½ bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 289lh&1 Mk0 ,l0ih0xqIrk ds lkFk feydj fy[kh gS ftlds dsoy vfUre v/;k; 11 ds ys[kd Mk- ,l-lh-xqIrk gSaA bl iqLrd esa vius }kjk fyf[kr ckrksa dh iw.kZ iqf"V djrk gwWaA bl iqLrd dks fy[kus esa ftu xazUFkksa dk v/;;u eSaus 766 fd;k gS mudk lanHkZ Hkh iqLrd esa of.kZr gSA iqLrd esa fooj.k ,Sfrgkfld rF;ksa ij gS fdlh nqHkkZouko'k ;k ncko ls ughaA** **18- I have written a book titled 'Ayodhya Ka Itihaas evam Puratatva' (from Rigveda to date) along with Dr. S.P. Gupta, which has been filed in this suit as paper no. 289C-1, and only the last chapter-11 has been authored by Dr. S.C. Gupta. I verify the facts written by me in this book. The treatises studied by me in writing this book, have been referred in the book. The descriptions in the book are on basis of historical facts and not due to mala fide or any compulsion."

518. Besides, he sought to prove certain documents vide his statement in paras 19, 20 and 21 of the affidavit which are as under:

**19- bl ds vfrfjDr bl okn esa oknhx.k dh vksj ls lwph la[;k 107 lh&1@1 ls ysdj 107 lh&1@9] 116 lh&1@1 ] 118 lh&1@1 ,&ch] 119 lh&1@lh ] 120 lh&1@1 ] 120 lh&1@4 ls 120 lh&1@5] 121 lh&1@1] 189 lh&2@1] 154 lh&1@1&2] 155 lh&1@1] 158 lh&1@1 ] 159 lh&1@2] 160 lh&1@1 ] 160 lh&1@2] 160 lh&1@1 ] 188 lh&1] 186 lh&1@4,] 186,] 306 lh&1@1] 307 lh&1 ds lkFk vfHkys[k ewy iqLrd] dSlsV],yce vkfn nkf[ky fd;s x;s gSa ftudh iw.kZ iqf"V eSa djrk gwWaA** **19- Apart from these, the plaintiffs have filed records, original book, cassette, album etc. along with list number 107C-1/1 to 107C-1/9, 116C-1/1, 118C-1/1A-B, 119C-1/C, 120C-1/1, 120C-1/4 to 120C-1/5, 121C-1/1, 189C-2/1, 154C-1/1-2, 155C-1/1, 158C-1/1, 159C-1/2, 160C-1/1, 160C-1/2, 160C-1/1, 188C-1, 186C-1/4A, 186A, 306C-1/1, 307C-1, in this suit and I verify the same." **20- eSaus ,d ys[k ^iSfy;ksxzkfQd ,ohMsUl vkQ fn v;ks/;k baLdzsI'ku* fy[kk gS tks bfrgkl niZ.k uked if=dk esa izdkf'kr gqbZ gSA vkSj tks 767 bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 254lh&1@3 gSA** **20- I have written an article called 'Palaeographic Evidence of the Ayodhya Inscription', which was published in a magazine called Itihaas Darpan and which has been filed in this suit as paper no. 254 C-1/3." **21- eSa v;ks/;k izFke ckj vDVqcj] 1992 esa bafM;u fgLV~h ,.M dYpjy lkslkbVh] ubZ fnYyh }kjk vk;ksftr lsfeukj esa 'kkfey gqvk Fkk ftlesa nks izLrko ikfjr fd, x, FksA bl lsfeukj esa 'kkfey fo}kuksa us lsfeukj esa lgHkkfxrk lwph ij vius gLrk{kj cuk;s FksA bl lwph esa iUnzgos uEcj ij esjk uke vafdr gS vkSj ml ij esjs gLrk{kj Hkh gSaA ^^izLrko] lgHkkfxrk lwph bl okn esa crkSj dkxt la[;k 118lh& 1@129 ls 118lh&1@135 rd nkf[ky gS** ftldh iqf"V eSa iw.kZr;k djrk gwWaA mlh le; eSaus fookfnr LFky dk izFke n'kZu fd;k tgka Hkou [kM+k FkkA vU; rF;ksa ds vfrfjDr eSaus LFky ij dlkSVh ds 14 [kEHks yxs gq, ns[ks Fks ftu ij vusd fgUnw nsoh&nsorkvksa ds fp= mRdh.kZ gq, FksA** **21- In Ayodhya, I participated for the first time in the seminar organised by Indian History and Cultural Society, New Delhi in October, 1992 wherein two resolutions were passed. The scholars participating in this seminar, had put their signatures on the participation list of seminar. My name finds place at serial no. 15 of this list along with my signature. I certify that 'The resolution and participation list have been filed in this suit as paper no. 118C-1/129 to 118C-1/135'. I had then seen the disputed site for the first time, where a structure was standing. Besides other issues, I had seen 14 touchstone pillars on the spot, which had the pictures of many Hindu Gods-Goddesses carved over them."

519. OPW 11, Satish Chandra Mittal, aged about 65 years (as per his affidavit dated 25.11.2002), is resident of Saharanpur (U.P.). His cross examination followed as under :

Part-I:(a) 25-11-2002-by Nirmohi Akhara, Defendant no.3, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 8-16)
(b) 26-11-2002-by defendant no. 6 through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (17-20) (c/1) 26/27/28/30-11-2002, 02/03/04/05/09/10/11/12/13- 12-2002- by defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 20-172) Part-II:(c/2) 07/08/09/15/16-04-2003- by defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 173-215)
(d) 16/17/18-04-2003, 12/13/14/19-05-2003, 24/25/26/27- 06-2003- by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 216-346)
(e) 27-06-2003, 01-07-2003-by defendant no. 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Aftab Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 346-351)
(f) 01-07-2003 -defendant no. 26 through Sri Syed Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate, adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p. 351)

520. OPW-11 is a Professor (retired) from Kurukshetra University, has sought to support the version of the plaintiffs (Suit-5) that the disputed structure was constructed after demolition of the then temple of Lord Ram and the place in dispute is one where Lord Ram was born. He did Post- Graduation in History in 1959 from Agra University and in Political Science in 1962 from Punjab University, Chandigarh. He was conferred Doctorate in History in 1972 by Kurukshetra University. His subject of studies and teaching has been Modern History. He was a teacher in History in R.K.S.D. College, Kaithal from 1959 to August, 1974 and thereafter was appointed as Lecturer in History Department of Kurukshetra University in 769 1974 wherefrom ultimately reached to the status of Professor and retired in December, 1997. Under his guidance seven students were conferred Ph.D. and 30 research students got M.Phil. He has authored 12 books relating to history, some of which are as under:

^^¼d½ QzhMe ewoesUV bu iatkc 1905&1926 ubZ fnYyh 1977 ¼[k½ gfj;k.kk&, fgLVksfjdy ijLisfDVo 1761&1966 ubZ fnYyh 1986 ¼x½ , lsysDVsM ,UuksosVsM fccfYy;ksxzkQh vkQ QzhMe ewoesuV bu bf.M;k iatkc ,.M gfj;k.kk 1858&1947 ubZ fnYyh 1992 ¼?k½ bf.M;k fMLVkVsZM , LVMh vkQ fczfV'k fgLVksfj;al vku bf.M;k 3 okY;we ubZ fnYyh 1995&1998 ¼M-½ lkslsZt vku us'kuy ewoesUV 1919&1920 izks0 ch0,u0 nRrk ds lkFk feydj** "(A) Freedom Movement in Punjab 1905-1926. New Delhi 1977 (B) Haryana- A Historical Perspective, 1761- 1966 New Delhi, 1986 (C) A Selected Innovated Bibliography of Freedom Movement in India, Punjab and Haryana, 1858 - 1947, New Delhi, 1992 (D) India Distorted - A Study of British Historians on India, III Volume, New Delhi, 1995-1998 (E) Sources of National Movement 1919-1920 (co-authored by Prof. B.N. Dutta)."

521. Besides, he also is the author of several chapters and research articles in certain books. In the Haryana State Gazetteer and Rohtak District Gazetteer, the History Section has been written by him and about 30 dozen research papers published in several journals, has participated in several seminars and conferences relating to history and at times also chaired the function. He is life member of several history societies and research committees, was appointed member by the University in Indian Historical Record Commission. He sought to prove paper No. 118C-1/132 and in this regard in para 7 of the affidavit said as under:

^7- eSaus bf.M;u fgLV~h ,.M dypjy lkslkbVh ubZ fnYyh }kjk v;ks/;k esa 10 vDVqcj lu~ 1992 ls 13 vDVqcj 1992 rd v;ks/;k 'kks/k laLFkku v;ks/;k esa vk;ksftr odZ'kki lsfeukj esa Hkkx fy;k Fkk ftuesa yxHkx 40&45 bfrgklfonksa rFkk iqjkrRofonksa us lgHkkfxrk fd;k FkkA ml lsfeukj esa Jh jke tUe Hkwfe v;ks/;k ls lEcfU/kr nks izLrko ikfjr fd;s x;s FksA bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 118 lh&1@129 ls 1@135 rd odZ'kki lsfeukj esa ikfjr izLrko rFkk mlesa lgHkkxh fo}kuksa dh lwph gS ftlesa dkxt la[;k 118 lh&1@132 esa dze la[;k 12 ij esjk uke fy[kk gS rFkk esjk gLrk{kj gS ftldh eSa igpku djrk gwaA** "7. I participated in a workshop/seminar organised at Ayodhya Research Institute, Ayodhya by Indian History and Cultural Society, New Delhi from 10th October, 1992 to 13th October, 1992. Nearly 40-45 historians and archaeologists attended the said workshop. Two resolutions in relation to Sri Ram Janam Bhumi, Ayodhya were passed in the Seminar. Paper Nos. 118 C-1/129 to 1/135 filed in this suit, contains the resolutions passed in the said workshop/seminar and also the list of the scholars who had participated in it. Paper No. 118C-1/132, bears my name and signature at serial no.12 which I identify." (E.T.C.)

522. Regarding the construction of Babri Mosque after demolition of the temple, in paras 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19 and 20 of the affidavit, OPW-11 said as under:

^^8- eSaus Jh jke tUeHkwfe@rFkkdfFkr ckcjh efLtn ds lEcU/k esa fons'kh ys[kdksa] ;kf=;ksa ds fo'odks"k] xtsfV;lZ] fons'kh ;kf=;ksa ds ;k=k fooj.k ,oa vU; miyC/k lUnHkZ xzUFkksa dk v/;;u fd;k gSA bl laca/k esa eSusa ltZu tujy ,MoMZ csYQksMZ dk bUlkbDyksihfM;k vkQ bf.M;k ,.M vkQ bLVuZ ,.M lnuZ ,f'k;k 1858] bUlkbDyksihfM;k fczVsfudk dk 15oka laLdj.k Hkkx&1] 1978 csUtkfeu okdj dk fgUnw oYMZ 771 bUlkbDyksihfM;k vkQ fgUnwbTe yUnu izFke laLdj.k 1968 dk nwljk laLdj.k lu~ 1995] xtsfV;j vkQ nh VsfjVjht v.Mj fn xouZesUV vkQ bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh&,MoMZ FkkuZVu 1854 fgLVksfjdy Ldsp vkQ rglhy QStkckn foFk nh vksYM dsfiVYl v;ks/;k ,.M QStkckn ih0 dkusZxh lu~~ 1870] xtsfV;j vkQ nh izkfoUl vkQ vo/k lu~ 1877] ih0 dkusZxh] bEihfj;y xtsfV;j vkQ bf.M;k izksfoaf'k;y lhjht ;wukbVsM izkfoUlst vkQ vkxjk ,.M vo/k okY;we 2 lu~ 1881] ckjkcadh fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j ,p0vkj0 usfoy lu~ 1902 QStkckn fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j ,p0vkj0 usfoy lu~ 1905 QStkckn fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j vkQ ;wukbVsM izkfoUlst vkQ vkxjk ,.M vo/k&,p0vkj0 usfoy lu~ 1928 mRrj izns'k fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j QStkckn Jherh bZ'kk clUrh tks'kh bykgkckn lu~ 1960] vyhZ Vz~soYl bu bf.M;k 1583&1619 ,fMVsM ckbZ fofy;e QkLVZj yUnu lu~ 1921 fgLV~h ,.M T;ksxzkQh vkQ bf.M;k vksfjtuyh ifCy'kM bu ySfVu&VkUlysVsM bu Qsap fgLVksfjd ,.M T;ksxzkQh ,.M LvsfVfLVDl vkQ bLVuZ bf.M;k okY;we 2 ekUV xksxjh ekfVZu lu~ 1838 gsUl csdj dh v;ks/;k 1986] fjiksVZ vku fn lsfVyesUV vkQ fn yS.M jsosU;w vkQ fn QStkckn fMfLV~DV ,0vQ0 fxysV lu~ 1880 dk v/;;u fd;k gS ftuesa Jh jke tUeHkwfe efUnj rksM+dj mlds LFkku ij gh rFkkdfFkr efLtn cuk;s tkus dk mYys[k gSA [kkyh Hkwfe ij rFkkdfFkr ckcjh efLtn cukus dk dksbZ mYys[k ugha gSA ** "8. I have studied encyclopaedia and gazetteers of foreign authors & travellers, travel account of foreign travellers and other available reference books in relation to Sri Ram Janam Bhumi/the so called Babri Mosque. In this regard, I have studied Surgeon General Belford's Encyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, 1858; Encyclopaedia Britannica's 15th edition, part I;

Benjamin Walker's Hindu World - Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, the second edition (1995) of the first edition (from London); Edward Thornton's Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of East India and 772 Company (1854); P. Carnegi's Historical Sketch of Tahsil Faizabad with the old capitals Ayodhya and Faizabad (1870); P. Carnegi's Gazetteer of the Province of Awadh (1877); Imperial Gazetteer of India, Provincial Series, United Provinces of Agra and Awadh, Volume2, 1881; H.R. Navel's Barabanki District Gazetteer (1902); H.R. Navel's Faizabad District Gazetteer (1905); H.R. Navel's Faizabad District Gazetteer of United Provinces of Agra and Awadh (1928); Smt. Isha Basanti Joshi's Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteer, Faizabad (1960); Early Travels in India (1583-1619) edited by William Forester, London, 1921; History and Geography of India originally published in Latin, translated in French; History and Geography and Statistics of Eastern India, volume 2 by Gogri Martin (1838); Hens Becker's Ayodhya (1986); and A.F. Gillet's Report on the Settlement of the Land Revenue of the Faizabad District (1880). All of these make mention of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple having been demolished and the so called mosque having been constructed in its place. There is no mention of the so called Babri mosque having been constructed on the vacant land." (E.T.C.) **9- bUlkbDyksihfM;k ,d fo'o ekU; xzUFk gS ftlesa fo'ods fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ds fo}kuksa ds fopkj ladfyr jgrs gSaA bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 107 lh&1@120 o 121 bUlkbDyksihfM;k fczVsfudk dh izfr gS ftlesa Jh jke tUe LFkku LFky ij ckcj }kjk efLtn dk fuekZ.k djk;s tkus dk mYys[k gSA bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 107 lh&1@111 ltZu tujy csYQksj }kjk rS;kj bUlkbDyksihfM;k vkQ bf.M;k ,.M bLVuZ ,.M lnuZ ,f'k;k dh izfr gSA** "9. Encyclopaedia is a globally acknowledged book which compiles opinions of scholars of the world on various subjects. Paper No. 107C-1/120 and 121 filed in 773 this suit, is a copy of Encyclopaedia Britannica which makes mention of the mosque having been built by Babur on the site of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi. Paper No. 107C- 1/111 filed in this suit, is a copy of Encyclopaedia of India and Eastern and Southern Asia prepared by Surgeon General Belford." (E.T.C.) **10- eSaus cStkfeu okdj }kjk fyf[kr fgUnw +oYMZ ,.M bUlkbDyksihfMd losZ vkQ fgUnwbTe okY;we 1 Hkh i<+k gS ftlesa v;ks/;k esa fLFkr Jh jke tUeHkwfe efUnj dks fou"V djds ml LFkku ij efLtn fufeZr djus dk mYys[k gSA cStkfeu okdj }kjk fyf[kr bl iqLrd ds i`"B la[;k 103 o 104 vkoj.k i`"B lfgr dh Nk;kizfr crkSj layXud&1 izLrqr dh tkrh gSA** "10. I have also read Benjamin Walker's Hindu World and Encyclopaedic Survey of Hinduism, volume1 which makes mention of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple having been demolished and the mosque having been built on its locus. Photocopies of pages 103 and 104 and also of cover page of this book, authored by Benjamin Walker, are annexed as annexure no.1." (E.T.C.) **12- bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la-0 107 lh&1@42 yxk;r 45 QStkckn fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j lu~ 1905 dkxt la0 107lh&1@49 ls 53 QStkckn fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j lu~ 1928 dkxt la0 107 lh&1@54 yxk;r 61 QStkckn fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j lu~ 1960 vkSj bEihfj;y xtsfV;j izkfcf'ka;y fljht Hkkx 2 lu~ 1880 dkxt la0 107 lh&1@127 ls 130 gS] ftlesa v;ks/;k fLFkr Jh jke tUeHkwfe ij fLFkr eafnj dk o.kZu vk;k gS vkSj ml eafnj dks fou"V djds efLtn cuk;s tkus dk mYys[k gSA** "12. Papers filed in this suit include Faizabad District Gazetteer (1905) being paper no. 107C-1/42 to 45, Faizabad District Gazetteer (1928) being paper no. 107 C- 1/49 to 53, Faizabad District Gazetteer (1960) being paper 774 no. 107C-1/54 to 61 and Imperial Gazetteer, Provincial Series being paper no. 107C-1/127 to 130, all of which make mention of a temple located at Sri Ram Janam Bhumi situated in Ayodhya and also of the said temple having been demolished and a mosque having been built at its place." (E.T.C.) **13- feLVj ih0 dkjusxh tks lu~ 1870 esa QStkckn ds vkfQf'k;sfVax fMIVh dfe'uj Fks] mUgksaus viuh iqLrd fgLVksfjdy Ldspst vkQ fMfLV~DV QStkckn foFk nh vksYM dSfiVYl vkQ vk;ks/;k ,.M QStkckn dkxt la0 107 lh 1@17 ls 24 esa v;ks/;k fLFkr rhu izfl) izeq[k efUnjksa dk tks tUe LFkku efUnj] LoxZ}kj efUnj =srk dk Bkdqj efUnj dk o.kZu fd;k gS ftlesa tUe LFkku efUnj dks fou"V djds mlh LFkku ij lu~ 1528 esa ckcj }kjk efLtn cuk;s tkus dk o.kZu gSA blh izdkj bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la0 107 lh&1@25 o 26 xtsfV;j vkQ izkfcUl vkQ vo/k oky;we 1 lu~ 1877 esa Hkh ih0 dkjusxh }kjk viuh iqLrd esa fy[kh mijksDr ckr dk mYys[k gSA "13. Mr. P. Carnegi, who was officiating Deputy Commissioner of Faizabad in 1870 has in his book 'Historical Sketches district Faizabad with the old capitals of Ayodhya and Faizabad (paper no. 107C-1/17 to 24) described three Ayodhya situated famous temples known as Janam Sthan Mandir, Swarg Dwar Mandir and Thakur Mandir of Treta Era. The said book has the mention of the Janam Sthan Temple having been destroyed and the mosque having been built at its place by Babur in 1528. Similarly, Gazetteer of Province of Awadh, volume 1, 1877 filed in this suit as paper nos. 107C-1/25 and 26, also has the aforesaid mention as contained in the book of P. Carnigi." (E.T.C.) **14- bl okn es nkf[ky dkxy la0 107 lh 1@40 o 41 ckjkcadh fMfLV~DV xtsfV;j dh izfr gS tks lu~ 1902 esa ,p0vkj0 usfoy ds 775 funsZ'ku esa izdkf'kr gqbZ ftlesa v;ks/;k fLFkr Jh jke tUe LFkku efUnj dks ckcj }kjk /oLr djds mlh LFkku ij efLtn cuk;s tkus dk mYys[k gSA blh rjg ckn esa nkf[ky dkxt la0 107 lh&1@10 o 11 xtsfV;j vkQ nh VsjhVkjht vUMj nh xouZesUV vkQ bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh lu~ 1854 dh izfr gS ftls ,MoMZ FkuZVu ds funsZ'ku esa izdkf'kr fd;k x;k ftlesa egkjktk fodzekfnR; }kjk v;ks/;k esa Hkxoku Jh jke ls lEcfU/kr 360 efUnjksa ds cuok;s tkus dk mYys[k gS rFkk ckcj }kjk efLtn cuok;s tkus dk o.kZu gSA** "14. Paper Nos. 107C-1/40 and 41 filed in this suit, are the copy of Barabanki District Gazetteer, which was published under the guidance of H. R. Navel in 1902 and which makes mention of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple having been demolished and a mosque having been built at that very place by Babur. Likewise, Gazetteer of the territories under the Government of East India Company (1854) forms paper nos. 107C-1/10 and 11 filed in the suit and it was published under the guidance of Edward Thornton. It has the description of 360 temples associated with Lord Sri Rama having been built in Ayodhya by King Vikramaditya and also that of a mosque having been constructed there by Babur." (E.T.C.) **18- bu ;k=k o.kZu ds vykok fjiksVZ vkQ lsfVyesUV vkQ fn yS.M jsosU;w vkQ QStkckn fMfLV~DV lu~ 1880 ,0,Q0 fxysV }kjk izdkf'kr dh xbZ ftlds lqlaxr i`"B dkxt la0 107 lh&1@28 ls 30 bl okn esa nkf[ky gS ftlesa tUe LFkku efUnj] LoxZ}kj efUnj] =srk dk Bkdqj efUnj dk o.kZu gS ftlds vuqlkj ckcj lu~ 1528 esa ckcj v;ks/;k ds vkl ikl dgha ,d lIrkg rd Bgjk Fkk vkSj tUe LFkku efUnj dks /oLr djds efLtn dk fuekZ.k djk;k FkkA** "18. Besides this account of travel, Report of Settlement of Land Revenue of Faizabad district (1880) was published by A. F. Gillet and its relevant pages are filed as paper nos.


107C-1/28 to 30 in this suit and they have the description of Ram Janam Sthan temple, Swarg Dwar temple and Thakur temple of Treta Era as per which description, Babur stayed for week somewhere in the vicinity of Ayodhya and got the Janam Sthan temple demolished and a mosque constructed." (E.T.C.) **19- izfl) Mp fo}ku gsal csdj us viuh iqLrd v;ks/;k tks lu~ 1986 esa 2 okY;we esa izdkf'kr gqbZ esa ;g Li"V fy[kk gS fd /kjrh ds ftl ikou LFky ij jke dk vorkj gqvk Fkk ml LFkku ij fLFkr tUeHkwfe efUnj dks ckcj us lu~ 1528 esa u"V fd;k vkSj blds <kps ls ehjckdh us efLtn dk fuekZ.k fd;k ftlesa 14 dkys iRFkj ds LrEHk yxs gq, FksA** "19. Famous Dutch Scholar Hens Becker in his book 'Ayodhya' published in two volumes in 1986 has clearly written that in 1528 Babur destroyed the Janam Bhumi temple located at the holy place where Rama had incarnated himself and out of its structure Mir Baqi built a mosque having 14 pillars of black stone." (E.T.C.) **20- miyC/k lkexzh ds vk/kkj ij esj k fuf'pr er gS fd jketUeHk wf e efUnj LFkku dk s ckcj us fou"V djds mldh lkexz h ls efLtn dk fuekZ . k djk;kA** "20. On the basis of the materials available I am of a definite view that Babur destroyed Ram Janam Bhumi Mandir/Sthan and got the mosque constructed from its materials." (E.T.C.)

523. Regarding the place in dispute being the birthplace of Lord Ram he said in paras 15, 16 and 17 of the affidavit :

^^15- le; le; ij iwjksih; fons'kh ;kf=;ksa us Hkkjr ,oa vk;ks/;k dh ;k=k dh vkSj vius ;k=k&o`rkUr esa vk;ks/;k vkSj vk;ks/;k esa fLFkr Jh jketUeHkwfe dk o.kZu fd;k gSA fczfV'k lkSnkxj fofy;e QzhUp dSIVu gkfdUl ds lkFk lu~ 1608 ls 1611 rd Hkkjr ;k=k fd;k FkkA bl 777 nkSjku og vk;ks/;k Hkh x;k Fkk mlus vk;ks/;k ds jkedksV ds vkl&ikl iqjkus [k.Mgjksa dh fo|ekurk dh iqf"V dh gS ftlds lEcU/k esa fgUnqvksa dh ekU;rk jgh fd gtkjksa lky igys Hkxoku jke us ;gka vorkj fy;k Fkk bldh iqf"V fofy;e QkLVZj }kjk lEikfnr iqLrd vyhZ VsosYl bu bf.M;k lu~ 1583 ls 1619 bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la0 107 lh 1@65 eas Hkh dh xbZ gSA ;g iqLrd lu~ 1921 esa yUnu ls izdkf'kr gqbZ FkhA** "15. Foreign travellers hailing from Europe travelled India and Ayodhya from time to time and they have in their travel-accounts have made mention of Ayodhya and Sri Ram Janam Bhumi located there. A British merchant William Finch, along with Captain Hawkins, travelled India between 1608 and 1611. In course of it he had also visited Ayodhya. He has confirmed there being traces of old remains in and around Ram Kot of Ayodhya, where Hindus hold that Lord Rama had incarnated himself. This fact also gets corroborated by William Forester - edited book titled 'Early Travels in India (1583-1619)', filed in this suit as paper no. 107C-1/65. This book was published from London in 1921." (E.T.C.) **16- tkslsQ VkbQu Fksyj vkLV~sfy;u iknjh us lu~ 1766 ls 1771 dh vof/k rd vo/k {ks= dk nkSjk fd;k Fkk mlus ySfVu Hkk"kk esa iqLrd fy[kh ftldk Qzsap vuqokn lu~ 1785 esa fgLVksfjd ,V ft;ksxzkfQd Mh0,y0 b.Ms] thu cjuky }kjk fd;k x;k ftldh izfr bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la0 107 lh&1@96 ls 108 gS blesa ;g mYys[k gS fd ckcj us vk;ks/;k fLFkr jketUeHkwfe efUnj dks /oLr dj mlds [kEHkksa dk iz;ksx djds ,d efLtn dk fuekZ.k djk;k tgkWa 18oha 'krkCnh rd fgUnw iwtk djrs jgs gSaA ;g iwtk fgUnw nksuksa LFkku ;kuh [kqys izkax.k rFkk efLtn esa vUnj djrs jgs blesa ckbZ rjQ pcwrjs ij iwtk dk o.kZu Hkh feyrk gS tks ml le; izpfyr FkhA ;g lkspuk xyr gksxk fd fgUnqvksa us iwtk dh dksbZ u;h ijEijk efLtn ds fudV 'kq: dh FkhA 778 "16. Joseph Typhen Thaylor, an Australian clergyman travelled the Awadh region from 1766 to 1771. He wrote a book in Latin language which was translated into French by D.L.Inday and Jean Barnal in 1785 which was titled 'Historic at Geographic', copy of which is filed in this suit as papers nos. 107C-1/96 to 108. It mentions that Babur demolished Ayodhya situated Ram Janam Bhumi temple and by using its pillars constructed a mosque where Hindus continued to worship till the 18th century. Hindus continued to offer pooja at both in the open courtyard and inside the mosque. It also contains description of pooja being performed at the chabutra located towards the left which was then vogue. It would be wrong to think that Hindus started any new tradition of performing pooja near the mosque." (E.T.C.) **17- izfl) fczfV'k losZ;j ekUV xksxjh ekfVZu us lu~ 1838 esa viuh iqLrd fgLV~h ,UVhDohVht ,.M LVsfVfLVDl vkQ bZLV bf.M;k oky;we 2 dh izfr bl okn esa nkf[ky dkxt la[;k 107 lh&1@109&110 esa ;g mYys[k fd;k gS fd egkjktk fodzekfnR; }kjk fufeZr efUnj ds [kEHkksa dks efLtn cukus esa yxk;s x;s ;|fi [kEHkksa ij cuh ewfrZ;ksa dks ckcj }kjk /kekZU/k ¼fcxkV½ dh lUrqf"V ds fy;s [kf.Mr fd;k x;k gSA** "17. Famous British surveyor Mont Gogari Martin in his 1838-published book History, Antiquities and Statistics of East India, volume II, copy of which is filed in this suit at paper nos. 107C-1/109-110, has mentioned that the pillars of the temple built by King Vikramaditya were used in the construction of the mosque but the idols carved on the pillars were broken by Babur for the satisfaction of bigots." (E.T.C.)

524. OPW-11 also gave his opinion about the gazetteer as a source of history and in para 11 of the affidavit said as under:


^^11- xtsfV;j vk/kqfud Hkkjr ds bfrgkl ds ,d egRoiw.kZ Jksr gS ftuls izkphu o e/;dky ds bfrgkl dh Li"V >yd feyrh gSA fdlh lkezkT; izkUr ;k ftys ds xtsfV;j ml LFkku dk 'kCn vFkok bUMsDl gksrs gSa ftuls ,sfrgkfld] lkekftd] iqjkrkfRod O;kikfjd vkSj vkdaM+s vkfn lEcU/kh tkudkjh feyrh gSA Hkkjr o"kZ esa bu xtsfV;lZ dh jpuk 19oha 'krkCnh ds e/;dky esa 'kq: gqbZA bldh foLr`r ;kstuk lu~ 1866 esa xouZj tujy ykMZ es;ks ds dk;Zdky esa cuh tks ckn esa lu~ 1881 esa bEihfj;y xtsfV;j vkQ bf.M;k ds :i esa izdkf'kr gqbZA izkjEHk eas fczfV'k ljdkj rFkk Lora=rk izkfIr ds ckn Hkkjr ljdkj rFkk jkT; ljdkjksa us djksM+ks :i;s O;; djds le;&le; ij xtsfV;j fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ds fo}kuksa dh ns[kjs[k esa ifjofrZr] la'kksf/kr rFkk izdkf'kr fd;s gSaA tSls lu~ 1960 ds QStkckn xtsfV;j dh ,Mokbtjh cksMZ esa Mk0 ,l0 uq:y glu] v/;{k ,oa funs'kd bfrgkl foHkkx eqfLye ;wfuoflZVh vyhx<+] Mk0 ,l0 eqtQ~Qj vyh] izksQslj ,oa v/;{k Hkwxksy foHkkx lkxj fo'ofo|ky; lkxj rFkk Mk0 xksfoUn pUnz ik.Ms;] izks0 izkphu Hkkjrh; bfrgkl xksj[kiqj fo'ofo|ky; xksj[kiqj vkfn fo}ku lfEefyr jgs ftUgksaus viuh ns[kjs[k] funsZ'ku ,oa vius fo"k; ls lEcfU/kr v/;k;ksa dks ns[kus ds ckn xtsfV;j eas izdk'ku dh vuq'kalk dh FkhA** "11. Gazetteer is a vital source of History of Modern India giving a clear glimpse of ancient and medieval history. The gazetteer of any empire, province or district are an index of the said place providing historical, social, archaeological, statistical and trade- related knowledge. In India these gazetteers began to be written in the middle of 19th century. Its comprehensive plan was prepared in 1866 during the tenure of Governor General Lord Mayo. It was later published as Imperial Gazetteer of India in 1881. In the beginning, the British Government and after the dawn of Independence Indian Government and State Governments by spending crores of rupees have got the gazetteers amended, revised and published under the 780 supervision of scholars of various subjects from time to time. For example, the Advisory Board of the 1960 Faizabad Gazetteer comprised scholars like Dr. S. Narul Hasan, Chairman and Director, Department of History at Aligarh Muslim University; Dr. S. Mujaffar Ali, professor and head, Department of Geography at Sagar University, Sagar and Dr. Govind Chandra Pandey, a professor of Ancient History at Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur and so on who under their supervision and direction and after going through the chapters related to their subjects recommended for the publication of the gazetteer." (E.T.C.)

525. OPW 16 Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Swami Rambhadracharya, aged about 54 years (vide his affidavit dated 15.7.2003) and his cross examination is as under :

(a) 15-07-2003-by Nirmohi Akhara, defendant no. 3, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 10-25)
(b) 16-07-2003- by defendant no. 6 through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 26-29)
(c) 16/17/18-07-2003- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 29-64)
(d) 18/21-07-2003- by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 64-75)
(e) 21-07-2003- defendant no. 26 through Sri Sayad Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p.75)

526. He is blind since the age of 2 months due to lack of 781 medical assistance. His real name given by the family is Girdhar Mishra and his father's name is Pt. Rajdeo Mishra. He has studied from Prathama to Acharya, Vidya Varidhi and Vachaspati from Sampurnanand Sanskrit Unviersity, Varanasi and did Shastri in 1973 securing highest marks, was awarded gold medal by the University. Similarly, in Acharya Examination passed in 1976 he secured highest marks and got five gold medals. He did his research in "Adhyatmaramayane Apaniniya Prayoganam Vimarshah" and was conferred Ph.D. in 1982. In 1995 he was conferred D.Lit. on the subject "Paniniyashtadhyayh Pratisutram Shabdabodh Samiksha". He has studied Veda, Vedanga, Upnishahd, Vyakaran and Dharmshastra thoroughly and is author of 76 books. Residing at Chitrakoot since 1983, changing his name as Rambhadracharya, he established in 1987 Sri Tulsi Peeth at Chitrakoot. He was honoured as Jagadguru Ramanandacharya in 1988 at Varanasi and was seated as Sri Tulsi Peethadheeshwar Jagadguru Ramanandacharya Swami Rambhadracharya in Kumbh Allahabad in 1989. He established Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Viklang Vishwavidyalaya Chitrakoot of which he is Vice Chancellor. Presently 14 students are undergoing research under his guidance. He belongs to Ramanandi Sampradaya and worships Lord Sri Ram. He has studied about Lord Sri Ram in religious books. He has knowledge of all Indian languages including English except Urdu; and in Sanskrit he possesses special knowledge. He has widely travelled abroad. Regarding the place of birth of Lord Ram at the disputed site, he stated in para 18 to 27 of his affidavit as under:

^^18- esjs v/;;u o tkudkjh ds vuqlkj v;ks/;k fLFkr fookfnr LFky gh Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeHkwfe gSA ;g loZfofnr gS fd Hkxoku Jhjke dk tUe v;ks/;k esa gh gqvk Fkk rFkk fookfnr LFky fgUnw 782 /kekZuq;kf;;ksa }kjk Hkxoku Jhjke ds tUeHkwfe ds :i esa vuardky ls vkLFkk] ijEijk ,oa fo'okl ds vuqlkj ekU;rk izkIr gS rFkk ml LFky dh iwtk vuojr gksrh pyh vk jgh gSA** "18. As per my study and knowledge, Ayodhya-situated disputed site itself is the birthplace of Lord Sri Rama. It is known to all that Lord Sri Rama was born in Ayodhya itself and the disputed site is, as per faith, tradition and belief, recognised by the followers of Hinduism as the birthplace of Sri Rama since the time immemorial, and the worship of that place has consistently been performed." (E.T.C.) **19- fgUnw /keZ'kkL= ds vuqlkj ewfrZ rFkk nsoLFky iwT; gS ftudh iwtk&vpZuk ls euq"; dks eks{k dh izkfIr gksrh gSA "19. As per Hindu scriptures, idols and the places of gods are revered worshipping which a man attains liberation."

(E.T.C.) **20- fgUnw /keZ'kkL=ksa esa LFkku fo'ks"k dh fo'ks"k egRrk gS tks Lo;aHkwnso ds :i esa Lo;a izk.k izfrf"Br ,oa iwT; gSaA bl izdkj ds LFkku vrardky ls tuekul esa vkLFkk] ijEijk ,oa iwtk ds dkj.k loksZRd`"V iwT; LFky gSaA bl izdkj ds nsoR; izkIr LFkyksa ij f'koSr ;k loZjkgdkj ;k egar dh dksbZ vko';drk ugha gksrh gSA ekuo fufeZr nsoLFkyksa esa f'koSr ;k loZjkgdkj ;k egar dh fu;qfDr dh vko';drk gksrh gSA** "20. Particular places have special importance in Hindu scriptures and they are self deified and revered as Swayambhudev (God of land in themselves). By virtue of faith, tradition and worship, this type of places are the most exalted places of worship in the minds of people from eternity. This type of places blessed with divinity do not require 'Shivait' or 'Sarvarahakar' or 'Mahanta'. Appointment of 'Shivait' or 'Sarvarahakar' or 'Mahanta' needs to be made at man-made places of gods." (E.T.C.) **21- ckYehfd jkek;.k] vFkoZosn] ;tqosZn] jkerkiuh;;ksifu"kn] 783 LdUniqjk.k] rqylhnkl ds lkfgR; esa v;ks/;k esa vkjk/; nso jk?kosUnz ljdkj Hkxoku Jhjke o fookfnr LFky Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeHkwfe gksus dk fooj.k feyrk gSA rqylhd`r ^^Jh rqylh nksgk'krd** esa xksLokeh rqylhnkl th us Li"V :i ls eqfLyeksa rFkk ckcj ds d`R;ksa ,oa v;ks/;k esa Jhjke tUe efUnj ehjckdh }kjk rksM+dj efLtn cuokus dk o.kZu fd;k gS tSls& ea= mifu"kn czkg~eugqW cgq iqjku bfrgklA tou tjk;s jks"k Hkfj dfj rqylh ifjgklAA fl[kk lw= ls ghu dfj] cy rs fgUnw yksxA Hkefj Hkxk;s ns'k rs] rqylh dfBu dqtksx ckcj ccZj vkbds] dj yhUgs djokyA gus ipkfj&ipkfj tu] rqylh dky djkyAA lEcr lj olq cku uHk] xzh"e _rq vuqekfuA rqylh vo/kfga tM+ tou] vujFk fd; vu[kkfuAA jke tue efga eafnjfga] rksfj elhr cuk;A tofg cgq fgUnqu grs] rqylh dhUgh gk;AA nY;ks ehjckdh vo/k] efUnj jkelektA rqylh jksor g`n; gfr] =kfg =kfg j?kqjktAA jke tue eafnj tgkWa] ylr vo/k ds chpA rqylh jph elhr rgW] ehjckdh [ky uhpAA jkek;u ?kfj ?kUV tgWa] Jqfr iqjku mi[kkuA rqylh tou vtku rgW] fd;ks dqjku vtkuAA "Description of Ayodhya being the birthplace of Raghavendra Lord Sri Rama and the disputed site being Sri Rama's birthplace, is found in Valmiki Ramayana, Atharvaveda, Yajurveda, Ramtapniyayopanishad, Skandapurana and Tulsidas's literature. Goswami Tulsidas, in his 'Sri Tulsishatak' has clearly described the deeds of Muslims and Babur and the mosque having been built by Mir Baqi after demolishing Sri Ram Janam Mandir at Ayodhya, which runs as follows:


Goswami Tulsidas Ji says that 'Yavans' (barbarians /Mohammedans) ridicule hymns, several Upnishads and treatises like Brahmans, Puranas, Itihas (histories) etc. and also the Hindu society (orthodox religion) having faith in them. They exploit the Hindu society in different ways.

Goswami Tulsi Das says that forcible attempts are being made by Muslims to expel the followers of Hinduism from their own native place (country), forcibly divesting them of their Shikha (lock of hair on the crown of head) and 'Yagyopaveet' (sacrificial thread) and causing them to deviate from their religion. Tulsi Das terms this time as a hard and harrowing one.

Describing the barbaric attack of Babur, Goswami Ji says that he indulged in gruesome genocide of the natives of that place (followers of Hinduism), using sword (army).

Gowami Tulsi Das Ji says that countless atrocities were committed by foolish 'Yavans' (Mohammedans) in Awadh (Ayodhya) in and around the summer of Samvat 1585, that is, 1528 AD (Samvat 1585- 57=1528 AD).

Describing the attack made by 'Yavans', that is, Mohammedans on Sri Ramjanambhumi temple, Tulsi Das Ji says that after a number of Hindus had been mercilessly killed, Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple was broken to make it a mosque. Looking at the ruthless killing of Hindus, Tulsi Ji says that his heart felt aggrieved, that is, it began to weep, and on account of incident it continues to writhe in pain.

Seeing the mosque constructed by Mir Baqi in Awadh, that is, Ayodhya in the wake of demolition of Sri 785 Ram Janam Bhumi temple preceded by the grisly killing of followers of Hinduism having faith in Rama and also seeing the bad plight of the temple of his favoured deity Rama, the heart of Tulsi began to always cry tearfully for Raghuraj (the most revered among the scions of the Raghu Dynasty). Being aggrieved thereby, submitting himself to the will of Sri Rama, he shouted: O Ram ! Save....Save...

Tulsi Das Ji says that the mosque was constructed by the wicked Mir Baqi after demolishing Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple, situated in the middle of Awadh, that is, Ayodhya.

Tulsi Das Ji says that the Quran as well as Ajaan call is heard from the holy place of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi, where discourses from Shrutis, Vedas, Puranas, Upnishads etc. used to be always heard and which used to be constantly reverberated with sweet sound of bells."(E.T.C.) **22- xksLokeh rqylh nkl us viuh jpuk dforkoyh esa fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa ds }kjk lekt ls fojDrrk vkSj Hkxoku jke ds izfr viuh vklfDr ,oa vkLFkk izdV djrs gq, fookfnr LFky ds ckjs esa mYys[k fd;k gS%& /kwr dgkSa vo/kwr dgkSa] jtiwr dgkSa] tksygk dgkSa dksÅA dkgw dh csVh ls csVk u C;kgc] dkgw dh tkfr fcxkju lksÅAA rqylh lj uke xqykeq gS jke dks] tkdks :ps lks dgS dNq tksÅA ekafx ds [kScksa] elhr esa lksbcks] ySos dks ,dq u nSos ds nksÅAA** "22. In his work 'Kavitavali', Goswami Tulsidas while expressing detachment from the society and his attachment and faith towards Lord Rama has mentioned about the disputed site in the following lines:-

"Dhoot Kahaun, Avadhoot Kahaun, Rajpoot Kahaun, Jolha Kahaun Kou.
Kahu Ki Beti Se Beta Na Byahab, Kahu Ki Jati Bigaran Sou.
Tulsi Sar Naam Gulamu Hai Ram Ko, Jako Ruche So kahe Kachhu Jou.

Mangi Ke Khaibon, Maseet Me Soibo, Laive Ko Eku Na Deve Ke Dou." (E.T.C.) **23- osn lEer okYehfd jkek;.k dh jpuk Hkxoku Jhjke ds le; dh gh ekuh tkrh gSA ckYehfd jkek;.k ds ckydk.M ds lxZ 18 esa Hkxoku Jhjke ds tUe ds le;] _rq] xzg] u{k= vkfn dk o.kZu djrs gq, egf"kZ ckYehfd us fookfnr LFky dks ^^loZyksd ueLd`r** 'kCn ds ek/;e ls Hkxoku Jhjke ds tUe LFkyh dks fuEufyf[kr 'ykdks }kjk Li"Vr% of.kZr fd;k gS%& rrks ;Ks lekIrs rq _rquka "kV~ leR;;q%A rr'p }kn'ks ekls pS=s ukofeds frFkkSAA u{k=s·fnfr nSoR;s LoksPplaLFks"kq iUtlqAA xzgs"kq ddZVs yXus okD;rkfoUnquk lgAA izks|ekus txUukFka loZyksd ueLd`re~A dkS'kY;ktu;n~ jkea fnO; y{k.k la;qre~AA** "23. The Veda equivalent Valmiki Ramayana is considered to have been composed in the period of Lord Sri Rama. While describing the time, climate, planets etc. of the birth of Lord Sri Rama in Sarga-18 of Balkand in the Valmiki Ramayana, Maharishi Valmiki has clearly described the birthplace of Lord Sri Rama through the words 'Sarvalok Namaskrit' in the following Shloka-

"Tato Yagye Samapte Tu Ritunam Shat Samatyuyah.
Tatasch Dwadashe Mase Chaitre Navamike Tithau.
Nakshatre-aditi Daivatye Swochchsanstheshu Panjasu.
Graheshu Karkate Lagne Vakyatavinduna Sah.
              Prodyamane              Jagannatham              Sarvalok
Kaushalyajanayad Ramam Divya Lakshan Samyutam." (E.T.C.) **24- /keZxzUFk fo'ks"kr% jkerkiuh;ksifu"kn] osn]&osnkax esa Hkxoku ds pkj :iksa vFkkZr ¼1½ uke ¼2½ :i ¼3½ yhyk ¼4½ /kke dk o.kZu gS ftuds iwtk djus dk fo/kku gSA ^^/kke ls vk'k; tUeHkwfe ls gS tSlk fd fuEufyf[kr 'yksd ls Li"V gS%& /keZ LFkkus izdk'ks p tUeHkwekS rFkSo pAA fdj.ks pSo foKs;e~ rFkk pUnujf'euksAA bl izdkj Li"V gS fd Jh jke tUeHkwfe vkjk/;nso ds leku iwT;

gS rFkk vuardky ls mlh :i esa fgUnw /kekZoyfEc;ksa }kjk muds vkLFkk dsUnz ds :i esa fujUrj iwftr pyk vk jgk gSA** "24. The religious books specially Ramtapniopanishad, Veda-Vedangas contain description of all four forms of God Almighty viz. (1) Name, (2) Form, (3) Leela (actions) and (4) Dham (abode), besides the method of offering prayer. The word Dham implies Janmbhumi (birthplace), as is clear from the following Shloka-

"Dharm Sthane Prakashe Cha Janmbhumau Tathaiva Cha.
Kirane Chaiv Vigyeyam Tatha Chandanrashmino." (E.T.C.) Accordingly it is clear that the Sri Ramjanmbhumi is worshipable alike favoured deity and since time immemorial, the Hindu devotees have been continuously revering the said place as the centre of their faith."

(E.T.C.) 788 **25- Jhd`".knklkRet {ksejkt Jsf"B }kjk LFkkfir osadVs'oj ¼LVhe~½ eqnz.kky; esa lEcr~ 1966 esa eqfnzr ,oa izdkf'kr LdUn iqjk.k ds oS".ko [k.M ds v;ks/;k egkRE; dh tkudkjh eq>s gSA ftlesa Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeHkwfe dk Li"V o.kZu fd;k x;k gSA bl xzUFk ds eq[k i`"B ,oa v/;k; 10 ds i`"B la[;k 292 ij 'yksd la[;k 1 ls 25 rd dh Nk;k izfr layXud&1 ds :i esa bl 'kiFki= ds lkFk layXu gS tks ewy iqLrd dh ;FkkFkZ Nk;kizfr gSA** "25. I know about the Ayodhya Mahatamya of Vaishnava part of Skand Purana printed and published in the year 1966 by Venkateshwar (esteem) Printing Press established by Kshemraj Shreshti son of Shrikrishnadas, which contains clear description of the Janmbhumi (birthplace) of Lord Sri Rama. The photocopy of page no. 292 of chapter 10 of this book containing Shloka 1-25 as well as that of the cover page, has been enclosed with this affidavit as Enclosure-1, which is exact photocopy of the original book." (E.T.C.) **26- eSa jkerkiuh;ksifu"kn] ckYehfd jkek;.k vkfn iqLrdsa Hkh vius lkFk yk;k gwWaA** "26. I have brought along Ramtapniopanishad, Valmiki Ramayana and other books." (E.T.C.) **27- ;tqosZn ds rSrjh; 'kk[kk ds Hkxorh J`fr ds vuqlkj v;ks/;k nsorkvksa dh iqjh gS tgkWa ij Hkxoku Jhjke dk tUe gqvk FkkA** "27. As per Bhagwati Shruti of Taiteriya branch of Yajurveda, the entire Ayodhya is of Gods, where Lord Sri Rama was born." (E.T.C.)

527. DW 13/1-3, Dr. Bishan Bahadur, aged about 59 years (vide his affidavit dated 07.04.2005), is resident of Rajeshwar Colony, Surendra Nagar, Aligarh. His cross examination is as under:

(a) 07/08/11.04.2005- by Nirmohi Akhara, plaintiff (Suit-
3) through Sri Tarunjeet Verma, Advocate (p. 7-36)
(b) 11/12.04.2005- by plaintiff no. 9 and 10/1 Mahmood Ahmad and Mohd. Faruk Ahmad through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 37-50)
(c) 12/13/15/19/20/21/25/26/27.04.2005- by plaintiffs no. 1, 6/1, 8/1 Sunni Central Board of Waqf, Jiyauddin and Maulana Mahafujurrhman through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p.50-149)
(d) 27/28.04.2005, 02/03/04/05.05.2005- by plaintiff no. 7 (Suit-4) through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 150-191)
(e) 05.05.2005-defendant no. 6/1 (Suit-3) through Sri Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendant no. 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate and defendant no. 26 (Suit-5) through Sri C.M. Shukla, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by Sri Abdul Manna, Sri Zafaryab Jilani and Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocates (p. 191)

528. He was working as Reader in Sri Varshneya Degree College, Aligarh in the Department of History and was Incharge Head of the Department at that time. He is M.A. in History and English Literature and Ph.D. His subject of research was "Hindu Resistance During Saltanat Period" and he got Ph.D. in 1975 after doing his Post-Graduation in History in 1969. He is engaged for 35 years in the teaching of history to graduate and post-graduate students, guided about 22 students for Ph.D. conferred by Agra and Ruhelkhand University, guided 64-65 short researches and got published 19 research papers. Besides, he has authored a book "Viswa Ka Itihas" and "Maharan Pratap

- Ek Sambal Ek Chunauti". He claims to be a specialist in 790 "medieval history" and appeared as a witness expert (Historian) as per para 6 of the affidavit:

^^6- ;g fd eSaus Hkkjr o"kZ ds bfrgkl ds e/;dkyhu le; ds bfrgkl dk fo'ks"k:i ls v/;;u fd;k gSA bfrgkl dh n`f"V ls izFkk,a ,oe~ ijEijk,a Loeso bfrgkl ds lk{; ds :i esa ekU; gSA** **6- That I have specially studied the medieval period of Indian History. From the point of history, customs and traditions are in themselves acceptable as evidence of history." (E.T.C.)

529. Regarding the medieval history and its co-relation with the disputed site, construction of temple of Lord Ram and its destruction for construction of disputed structure he said in para 7 to 14 of the affidavit as under:

^^7- ;g fd xgM+oky oa'k dk izkjfEHkd 'kkld ;'kksfoxzg FkkA ;'kksfoxzg dk iq= eghpan Fkk eghpan dk iq= panznso mldk mRrjkf/kdkjh cuk ftlds 'kklu ds vUrxZr dUukSt] dk'kh ¼cukjl½] dkSf'kd ¼bykgkckn {ks=½] dkS'ky ¼vo/k ftlesa v;ks/;k lfEefyr Fkh½] banzLFkku ¼orZeku cqyan 'kgj ftys esa ½ lfEefyr FkkA panznso lu~ 1085 ls lu~ 1100 rd 'kkld jgk ftlus viuh jkt/kkuh dUukSt dks rFkk nwljh jkt/kkuh dk'kh dks cuk;k FkkA** **7- That the first ruler of Gaharawal dynasty was Yashovigrah. Mahichand was the son of Yashovigrah.

Mahichand Kaak son of Chandradev became his successor, during whose reign Kannauj, Kashi (Varanasi), Kaushik (Allahabad area), Kaushal (Awadh including Ayodhya), Indrasthan (present Bulandshahar district) were under him. Chandradev ruled from the year 1085 to 1100 and he had Kannauj as his capital and Varanasi as the second capital." (E.T.C.) **8- ;g fd panznso ds ckn enupan ¼enuiky@enunso½ lu~ 1100 ls lu~ 1110 rd mi;qZDRk {ks= dk 'kkld jgkA xksfoUnpUn tks 791 xksfoUnpUnnso ds uke ls Hkh tkus tkrs gSa] lu~ 1110 ls lu~ 1156 rd mlds ckn fot; pUn lu~ 1156 ls lu~ 1170 rd rnksijkUr t;pUn lu~ 1170 ls lu~ 1194 rd mlds ckn gfj'pUn lu~ 1194 ls lu~ 1226 rd 'kkld jgs ftuds 'kklu ds vUrxZr v;ks/;k jghA" "8. That after Chandradev, Madanchand (Madanpal/ Madandev) became the ruler of said area from the year 1100 to 1110. Govind chand, who is also known as Govind Chand Dev was the ruler from the year 1110 to 1156, Vijay Chand from 1156 to 1170, Jai Chand from 1170 to 1194 and Harishchandra from 1194 to 1226 and Ayodhya remained under their rule."

**9- ;g fd lu~ 1032&33 esa lS;n lkykj elwn dh lsuk }kjk v;ks/;k tgkWa Hkxoku Jhjke yyk dk eafnj fLFkr gS] ij vkdze.k djds eafnjksa dks {kfrxzLr fd;k x;k lS;n lkykj elwn lrj[k ls cgjkbp vk;k vkSj jktk lqgsynso ¼lkfgynso@lksgy/kso½ ds }kjk ;q) esa gkfVyk v'kksdiqj esa ekjk x;kA** **9- That in the year 1032-33, the force of Syed Salar Masud attacked Ayodhya, where the temple of Lord Sri Ramlala is situated, and damaged the temples. Syed Salar Masud came from Satrakh to Bahraich and was killed in battle at Hatila Ashokpur by king Suhel dev (Sahildev/ Sohal dhev)." (E.T.C.) **10- ;g fd Hkkjro"kZ esa dqrcqn~nhu ,scd us fnYyh esa lu~ 1206 esa 'kklu izkjEHk fd;k ftls lkekU;r% e/;dkyhu Hkkjrh; bfrgkl dk izkjEHk ekuk tkrk gSA bl dky dh lekfIr Iyklh ds ;q) lu~ 1757 esa gksrh gSA** **10- That Qutub-ud-din Aibak founded his empire in Delhi in the year 1206, which is usually considered as the beginning of medieval Indian history. This period ends in the year 1757 with the battle of Plassey." (E.T.C.) **11- ;g fd lu~ 1393 ls lu~ 1479 rd v;ks/;k tkSuiqj ds 'kdhZ oa'k 792 ds 'kkldksa ds v/khu jghA tkSuiqj 'kdhZ 'kklu dh jkt/kkuh FkhA jkT; ds 'ks"k LFkkuksa ij thou lkekU; xfr ls pyrk jgkA f'k{kk] Hkou fuekZ.k dk dk;Z pyrk jgk ,oe~ lwQh larksa dk i;kZIr izHkko jgkA ** **11- That from the year 1393 to 1479, Ayodhya remained in the rule of rulers of Shirky dynasty of Jaunpur. Jaunpur was the capital of Shirky rule. The life in other parts of the country passed off in due course. The education and building construction work continued and there was sufficient influence of the Sufi saints." (E.T.C.) **12- ;g fd ckcj vius ewy jkT; lejdan vkSj Qjxuk esa vusdksa ckj ijkftr gqvk vkSj varr% fu"dkflr dj fn;k x;kA vius dqN lkfFk;ksa ds lkFk dkcqy igqWap dj ckcj us fot; izkIr dh vkSj mldks LFkkbZ :i ls dCts esa j[kus ds fy, iatkc ds {ks= esa 5 vkdze.k fd;sA fo/oal o vR;kpkj djrk gqvk ckcj us fnYyh ds lqYrku bczkfge yksnh dks lu~ 1526 esa ijkftr fd;kA mlds ckn lu~ 1527 esa jk.kk laxzke flag ¼jk.klaxk½ ls tsgkn fd;k rRi'pkr pansjh ds ;q) esa Hk;adj ujlagkj djrs gq, ujeq.Mksa dk fijkfeM [kM+k dj fn;kA** **12- That Babar was defeated number of times in his own country Samarkand and Fargana and was ultimately driven away. Babar gained victory on reaching Kabul along with few of his associates and in order to maintain his possession on permanent basis, he carried out five invasions over the area of Punjab. Continuing with his destruction and cruelty, Babar defeated Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi in the year 1526. Thereafter, he engaged himself in Jehad with Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) in the year 1527. Subsequently, in the battle of Chanderi he carried out large scale homicide and created a pyramid of human skulls." (E.T.C.) **13- ;g fd esjs v/;;u ,oe~ tkudkjh ds vuqlkj v;ks/;k fLFkr Jh jke tUe Hkwfe ij fLFkr eafnj dks ckcj ds lsukifr ehjckdh }kjk /oLr 793 djds tks fuekZ.k djk;k ml fuekZ.k esa eafnj ds eycs dk bLrseky fd;k x;kA** **13- That according to my studies and knowledge, the debris of temple situated at Sri Ramjanmbhumi in Ayodhya and demolished by Mir Baqi, the commander of Babar, was used in the construction raised over there." (E.T.C.) **14- ;g fd esjs v/;;u ,oe~ tkudkjh ds vuqlkj v;ks/;k esa fLFkr fookfnr Hkwfe dks fgUnqvksa }kjk vukfndky ls vius vkjk/; Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeHkwfe ds :i esa izFkkxr ,oa ijaEijkxr :i ls iw.kZ vkLFkk ,oa fo'okl ds lkFkk n'kZu&iwtk fd;k tkrk jgk gSA** **14- That according to my studies and knowledge, the disputed site at Ayodhya has been revered by the Hindus since ancient times as the birthplace of their revered Lord Sri Rama out of their customary and traditional faith and belief." (E.T.C.)

530. DW 20/4, Madan Mohan Gupta, aged about 52 years (vide his affidavit dated 16.05.2005), is resident of T.T. Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.). His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 26/27.07.2005 - by Nirmohi Akhara plaintiff (Suit-3) through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate and Sri Tarunjeet Verma, Advocate (p. 9-32)
(b) 27/28.07.2005 - by plaintiff no. 9 and 10/1 Mahmood Ahmad through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 33-44)
(c) 28/29.07.2005, 01/10/11.08.2005, 21/22.11.2005- by plaintiffs no. 1, 6/1 and 6/2 Sunni Central Board of Waqf, Jiyauddin and Maulana Mahafujurrhman through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 44-115)
(d) 22/23.11.2005 - by plaintiff no. 7 (Suit-4) through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 115-137)
(e) 23.11.2005 - defendants no. 6/1 (Suit-3) through Sri Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendant no. 6/2 (Suit-3) 794 through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate and defendant no. 26 (Suit-5) through Sri C.M. Shukla, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by Sri Abdul Manna, Sri Zafaryab Jilani and Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocates (p. 137)

531. He himself is defendant No. 20 in Suit-4 and was Coordinator, Akhil Bhartiya Sri Ram Janma Bhumi Punruddhar Samiti. He is a Vaishnavite, follower of Vaisnav Hindu Sanatan Religion and worshipped Lord Ram since generations. His parents have got a temple of Sri Ram Janki Evam Shiv Ji constructed at Rewa (M.P.) known as Omkareshwar Temple Rewa. He sought to support his claim of the place in dispute as a birthplace of Lord Ram, continuously worshipped as such, non- observance of any Namaj by any Muslim at any point of time and construction of the disputed structure after demolition of a temple, and, in paragraphs no. 4 to 30 of the affidavit said as under:

^^4- ;g fd fookfnr Hkou vukfndky ls Hkxoku Jhjkeyyk dh tUeHkwfe ds :i esa iwT; jgh gS] tgka ij Hkxoku Jhjkeyyk dh ewfrZ fojkteku jgh gSA tks dHkh Hkh efLtn ugha jgh gSA** **4- That the disputed structure has been revered since ancient times as the birthplace of the Lord Sri Ramlala with the idol of Lord Sri Ramlala existing over there and it was never a mosque." (E.T.C.) **5- ;g fd eSa fookfnr LFky dks Hkyh HkkWafr tkurk gwWa ,oa cpiu ls gh vius LoxZoklh ekrk&firk o bZ"V fe=ksa ds lkFk rFkk dkykUrj esa Lo;a vius ifjokj ds lkFk le;&le; ij tkrk jgk gwaA Hkxoku Jh jke esa vkSj budh tUeLFkyh esa esjh iw.kZ vkLFkk ,oa fo'okl lnSo ls jgk gS blds vfrfjDr v;ks/;k ds ije iwT; LoxhZ; lUr Jh jke eaxynkl th egjkt esjh LoxhZ; ekrk Jherh lkseorh xqIrk ds vk/;kfRed xq: jgs gSa bl dkj.k esjk vkSj esjs ifjokj dk v;ks/;k tkuk yxkrkj cuk gh jgrk 795 gSA** **5- That I know the disputed site very well and since my childhood I have visited the said place along with my late parents, friends and subsequently with my family. I have always had full faith and belief in Lord Sri Ram and His birthplace. Apart from this, late Sant Ram Mangal Das ji Maharaj was the spiritual teacher of my late mother Smt .

Somwati Gupta and due to this I and my family used to regularly visit Ayodhya." (E.T.C.) **6- ;g fd fgUnw /keZ dh ekU;rkvksa] vkLFkkvksa ,oa ijEijkvksa ds vuqlkj Hkxoku Jh jkeyyk v;ks/;k ds pdzorhZ egkjkt n'kjFk vkSj egkjkuh dkS'kY;k dks ek/;e cukdj v;ks/;k esa mlh LFkku ij izdV gq, Fks vkSj Hkxoku Jh jke yyk ds izkdV~; ds fo"k; esa okYehdh jkek;.k tks Hkxoku Jh jke ds ledkyhu gS ,oa xksLokeh rqylhnkl d`r ^^Jh jkepfjr ekul** esa foLr`r o.kZu gS ftldk eSaus v/;;u fd;k gS Jhjke pfjr ekul dk laxr i`"B crkSj lcwr dkxt la[;k 43,1@29 nkf[ky gSA** **6- That according to the faith, customs and believes of Hindu religion, Lord Sri Ramlala had appeared/incarnated at that very place in Ayodhya through emperor Dashrath and queen Kaushalya. The Valmiki Ramayana contemporay to Lord Sri Rama, and Goswami Tulsidas's Sri Ramcharit Manas contain detailed description about the incarnation of Lord Sri Rama. I have studied the same and the relevant page of Sri Ramcharit Manas has been filed in evidence as Paper no. 43A-1/29." (E.T.C.) **7- ;g fd fgUnw turk viuh vkLFkk vkSj fo'okl ls nso Lo:i Jh jke tUeHkwfe dh iwtk lnSo ls djrh jgh gS tgka ij izkphudky esa Jh jke tUeHkwfe efUnj fo|eku jgk gSA vkSj dkykUrj esa egkjktk fodzekfnR; us Jhjke tUeHkwfe efUnj dk iqu:)kj djk;kA** **7- That the Hindu public has all along revered the 796 Ramjanmbhumi out of their faith and belief, where the Sri Ramjanmbhumi temple has existed since ancient times and which had been renovated with passage of time by king Vikramaditya." (E.T.C.) **8- ;g fd fgUnw /kkfeZd ekU;rk ds vuqlkj Hkxoku Jh jke pUnz th dk vorj.k ^^=srk;qx** esa v/keZ dk uk'k djus vkSj /keZ dh LFkiuk gsrq ,oa lUrksa dh j{kk gsrq gqvk Fkk vkSj mudh iwtk vukfndky ls Hkkjr esa gh ugha oju iwjs fo'oesa dh tkrh gSA** **8- That according to Hindu religious belief, Lord Sri Ramchandra had incarnated in Treta Yuga to destroy the evil, propagate religion and protect the saints and He has been worshipped since ancient times not only in India but in the entire world." (E.T.C.) **9- ;g fd iwjs fo'oesa Hkkjr o"kZ dh igpku Hkxoku Jhjke vkSj mudh tUeLFkyh v;ks/;k ds dkj.k gSA /kkfeZd iqLrdksa rFkk vU; Hkk"kkvksa dh iqLrdksa esa Lo;a Hkwnso Jhjke tUeHkwfe Hkxoku Jhjke ,oa v;ks/;k uxjh dk o.kZu Hkyh HkkWafr feyrk gSA** **9- That India is recognised in the whole world on account of Lord Sri Rama and His birthplace Ayodhya. The religious books as well as the literature in other languages contained a detailed description about Sri Ramjanmbhumi, Lord Sri Rama and the city of Ayodhya." (E.T.C.) **10- ;g fd xksLokeh rqylhnkl us viuh ^^Jhjkepfjr ekul** esa Hkxoku Jhjke] v;ks/;k ,oa Jhjke th dh yhykvksa ,oa pfj= dk o.kZu fd;k gS] ijUrq Jhjke tUeHkwfe LFky ij fdlh efLtn o uekt i<+us dk dksbZ o.kZu ugha fd;kA** **10- That in his Sri Ramcharit Manas, Goswami Tulsidas has described Lord Sri Rama, Ayodhya and the Leelas (acts) and character of Sri Rama. However, there is no description about existence of any mosque at Sri Ramjanmbhumi site or the offering of Namaz therein."


(E.T.C.) **11- ;g fd Hkxoku Jhjke dk tUe pS= ekl dh 'kqDy i{k dh uoeh frfFk dks gqvk Fkk vkSj mUgksaus jk{kl jkt jko.k dk o/k fd;k Fkk vkSj vkt rd fot;n'keh ioZ ds :i esa iwjs fo'ods fgUnqvksa }kjk euk;k tkrk gS vkSj yadk fot; ds i'pkr~ Hkxoku Jhjke ds v;ks/;k ykSVus ij iwjs fo'oesa nhikoyh ioZ eukus dh ijEijk lfn;ksa ls pyh vk jgh gS ftldk dkj.k gS fd bl fnu Hkxoku Jhjke yadk fot; ds i'pkr~ v;ks/;k okil ykSVs FksA** **11- That Lord Sri Rama was born on the ninth day in Shukla Paksha of Chaitra month and He had killed demon king Ravana, which day is celebrated as Vijayadashami by Hindus all over the world and the tradition of celebrating the day of return of Lord Sri Rama to Ayodhya after the victory over Lanka as Deepawali, has been continuing for centuries across the world." (E.T.C.) **12- ;g fd cgqr izkphu iqLrd v;ks/;k egkRE; ftls rFkkdfFkr 'kkks/k djus okys ;g dgrs gSa fd ;g vdcj ds dky esa izdk'k esa vk;h ijUrq bl iqLrd esa dgha Hkh fons'kh vkdzkUrk ckcj }kjk rFkkdfFkr efLtn cuok;s tkus dk mYys[k ugha gSA** **12- That a very old book 'Ayodhya Mahatmya', claimed by alleged researchers to have seen light of day during the reign of Akbar, does not contain any reference of construction of the alleged mosque by foreign invader Babar." (E.T.C.) **13- ;g fd ;w0ih0 ftyk xtsfV;j QStkckn 1960 tks Jherh ;'kk clUrh tks'kh }kjk lEikfnr ,oa mRrj izns'k ljdkj }kjk izdkf'kr gS] esa fookfnr Hkou esa yxs f'kykys[k dk o.kZu gS fdUrq mlesa fdlh efLtn ds fuekZ.k dh dksbZ ckr ugha fy[kh gqbZ gSA cfYd nsonwrksa ds mrjus ds LFkku ij Hkou fuekZ.k dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gSA blls Hkh ;gh lkfcr gksrk gS fd fookfnr LFky Hkxoku Jhjke yyk dk vorj.k LFky gS ftl ij fLFkr Jhjke tUeHkwfe efUnj dks rksM+dj fookfnr Hkou dk fuekZ.k 798 fons'kh vkdzkUrk ckcj ds lykgdkj ehjckdh us djok;k Fkk blh xtsfV;j esa iwohZ eq[; xsV ls nf{k.k rjQ nhoky esa fLFkr okjkg Hkxoku dk mYys[k feyrk gSA** **13- That the U.P. District Gazetteer, Faizabad 1960, which has been edited by Smt. Yasha Basanti Joshi and published by Uttar Pradesh Government, mentions about the inscriptions at the disputed structure but it nowhere mentons about construction of any mosque and instead there is mention about construction of building at the place of descendence of angels. This also proves that the disputed site is the place of descendence of Lord Sri Ramlala and that the disputed structure was built by Mir Baqi, the advisor of foreign invader Babar after demolishing the Sri Ramjanmbhumi temple situated at the said place. This very Gazetteer mentions about Lord Varah situated in the wall to south of the eastern main gate." (E.T.C.) **14- ;g fd Jh jke tUeHkwfe efUnj dks rksM+dj fookfnr Hkou cuk;k x;k fQj Hkh og dHkh efLtn dk :i ugha ys ldh D;ksafd bl fookfnr Hkou esa dksbZ ehukj o ^^otw* djus ds fy, ikuh dh O;oLFkk ugha FkhA fookfnr Hkou esa ckjg dlkSVh ds [kEHks Fks ftuesa fgUnw nsoh&nsorkvksa dh vkd`fr;kWa mdsjh Fkha blds vfrfjDr fgUnw /keZ ds izrhd eksj] dy'k o ;{k ds fp= Hkh mdsjs gq;s FksA blds vfrfjDr ogkWa ij Jh jke ;a=] rksj.k x.kifr] izkdkj eafnj Hkh cuk FkkA** **14- That the disputed structure had been built after demolishing Sri Ramjanmbhumi temple, but it could never assume the form of a mosque because there was no minaret and arrangement of water for Vajoo. There were 12 touchstone pillars in the disputed structure with deities of Hindu Gods-Goddesses engraved over them. Besides these, the pictures of Hindu religious symbols peacock, pitcher and demi Gods had also been engraved. The Sri Rama 799 Yantra, Toran, Ganpati and Prakar temple also existed over there." (E.T.C.) **15- ;g fd Jh jke tUeHkwfe efUnj dks /oLr dj fookfnr Hkou dk fuekZ.k gksus ds ckn Hkh Jh jke tUeHkwfe dh ifo=rk ds izfr yksxksa dh vkLFkk ,oa fo'okl lnk cuk jgk ,oa cuk jgsxkA** **15- That despite construction of the disputed structure after demolition of Sri Ramjanmbhumi temple, the faith and belief of public continued and would continue towards the sacredness of Sri Ramjanmbhumi." (E.T.C.) **16- ;g fd ftl izdkj ;gwfn;ksa ds fy, ^^;s:'kye** vkSj eqlyekuksa ds fy, ^^eDdk enhuk** /kkfeZd vkLFkk dk izrhd gS mlh izdkj Hkkjr ds gh ugha oju~ fo'ods fgUnqvksa dh /kkfeZd vkLFkk ,oa fo'okl dk izrhd v;ks/;k fLFkr Jhjke tUeHkwfe LFkku gSA** **16- That similar to Jerusalem to the Jews and Mecca- Medina to Muslims, is the Ayodhya situated Sri Ramjanmbhumi to the religious faith and belief of Hindus not only in India but in the whole world." (E.T.C.) **17- ;g fd Jhjke tUeHkwfe ijEijk vkLFkk ,oa fo'okl ls lnSo lEiw.kZ fo'ods leLr fgUnqvksa dk ifo= /kkfeZd ,oa nsorqY; iwT; LFky jgk gS eafnj esa ewfrZ dk izfrf"Br djuk izR;sd ifjfLFkfr esa vko';d ugha gSa ftl izdkj eFkqjk fLFkr d`".k tUe LFkku ij Hkxoku Jhd`".k dh dksbZ Hkh ewfrZ ugha gS ckotwn blds ;g LFkku fgUnqvksa ds fy, cgqr ifo=re ,oa iwT; LFkku gS mlh izdkj Jh jke tUeHkwfe Lo;a esa gh nsorqY; ,oa iwT; LFkku gSA** **17- That in view of tradition, faith and belief, the Sri Ramjanmbhumi has been a sacred religious revered place of all the Hindus across the world. The installation of idol is not essential in all situations. There is no idol of Lord Sri Krishna at the Mathura situated Krishna Janmsthan, still it is a very sacred and reverable place for Hindus. Similarly Ramjanmbhumi in itself is a sacred revered place."


(E.T.C.) **18- ;g fd Jh jke tUeHkwfe ftldk pUn yksxksa us vius NksVs ls LokFkZ ds fy, fookfnr LFky dk uke ns fn;k gS] ij lnSo ls gh Hkxoku Jhjke yyk dh iwtk gksrh pyh vk jgh gSA** **18- That the worship of Lord Sri Ramlala has always been performed at Sri Ramjanmbhumi, which has been named by few people as disputed site due to their vested interest." (E.T.C.) **19- ;g fd ckcj us dHkh Hkh dksbZ oDQ ugha fd;k Fkk u gh og v;ks/;k fLFkr Jhjke tUeHkwfe dk ekfyd o dkfct gks ik;kA tUeHkwfe lnSo ls Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeLFkyh jgh gS vkSj mlds ekfyd vkSj dkfct lnSo ls Hkxoku Jhjke yyk jgs gSaA fgUnw tuekul ml LFkku ij Hkxoku Jhjke yyk dh vukfndky ls iwtk vpZuk djrh pyh vk jgh gSA** **19- That Babar never executed any waqf nor was able to because owner in possession of Ayodhya situated Sri Ramjanmbhumi. The Janmbhumi has alwayas been the birthplace of Lord Sri Rama and Lord Sri Ramlala has always been its owner in possession. The Hindu public has been worshipping Lord Sri Ramlala at that place since ancient times" (E.T.C.) **20- ;g fd fons'kh vkdzkUrk ckcj dks fgUnqvksa ls muds vkjk/; nso dh tUeLFkyh dks Nhudj fdlh vkSj dks nsus dk vf/kdkj ugha Fkk] ckcj dk ;g d`R; lnSo ls HkRlZukRed o fuUnuh; jgk gSA** **20- That the foreign invader Babar had no right to grab from Hindus, the birthplace of their revered God and give it to somebody else. This conduct of Babar has always been condemnable." (E.T.C.) **21- ;g fd Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeLFkyh v;ks/;k esa LFky fo'ks"k ij gh gS tgkWa ij fookfnr Hkou Fkk bldks dgha ij Hkh LFkkukUrfjr ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ftl izdkj eDdk rFkk ;:'kye dks vU;= dgha 801 LFkkukUrfjr ugha fd;k tk ldrk mlh izdkj Jhjke tUeLFkyh dks vU;= dgha LFkkukUrfjr ugha fd;k tk ldrk] ijUrq efLtn o vU; /kkfeZd LFky dgha Hkh cuk;s tk ldrs gS a ijUrq tUeLFkyh dk dHkh dksbZ fodYi ugha gks ldrkA** **21- That the birthplace of Lord Sri Rama is at a particular place in Ayodhya, where the disputed structure existed. It can not be shifted elsewhere. As Mecca and Jerusalem can not be shifted elsewhere, so can not be Sri Ramjanmsthali. However, mosque and religious structures can be built at any place but there can be no alternative for the birthplace." (E.T.C.) **22- ;g fd ia0 tokgjyky usg: vkSj ljnkj iVsy us xqtjkr esa lkseukFk efUnj dk fuekZ.k dqN dV~VjiaFkh eqfLyeksa ds fojks/k ds ckn Hkh djok;k Fkk] mlh izdkj bZlkbZ dV~VjiafFk;ksa ds fojks/k ds ckn Hkh dU;kdqekjh esa ¼foosdkuUn jkWd] foosdkuUn efUnj½ dk fuekZ.k djk;k x;k vkSj dsUnz ljdkj us bls Lohdkj dj fy;k oSls gh Hkkjr o"kZ esa jgus okys izR;sd O;fDr dk izFke drZO; gS fd jk"Vªeaxy ds izrhd e;kZnk iq:"kksRre Hkxoku Jhjke ds efUnj dk fuekZ.k mlds ewy LFkku ij djokdj vius jk"Vªizse dks fl) djsaA** **22- That Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel had built the Somnath temple in Gujrat despite protest of few orthodox Muslims. Similarly, the construction at Kanyakumari (Vivekanand Rock, Vivekanand temple) was carried out despite protest of Christian orthodox and it was accepted by the Central Government. It is the prime duty of every person residing in India to get the temple of state welfare symbol Maryada Purshottam Lord Sri Rama, constructed at its original place and thereby prove his love for the country." (E.T.C.) **23- ;g fd ckcj ,d dzwj fons'kh vkdzkUrk Fkk blfy, mls u rks Jhjke tUeHkwfe LFkku ij efLtn cuokus dk vf/kdkj Fkk vkSj u gh ml 802 rFkk dfFkr LFkku dks eqlyekuksa dks nsus dk gh vf/kdkj FkkA** **23- That Babar was a cruel foreign invader and as such he neither had any authority to build a mosque at Sri Ramjanmbhumi site nor to give the said place to Muslims." (E.T.C.) **24- ;g fd eq>s ;g ekywe gS fd eqlyekuksa }kjk ogkWa dHkh Hkh dksbZ uekt ugha i<+h x;h vkSj u gh ml jke tUeHkwfe ifjlj dh vksj fdlh eqlyeku dks dHkh tkrs ns[kk x;kA eSaus ,slk i<+k gS fd esokM+ ls lq[kiky uked czkg~e.k Jh ehjkckbZ dk ,d i= tks xksLokeh rqylhnkl dks lEcksf/kr Fkk] ysdj vk;k Fkk] ftlesa ehjkckbZ us viuh O;Fkk vkSj mldk lek/kku xksLokeh th ls iwNk vkSj xksLokeh rqylhnkl us i= dk mRrj nsdj mudh O;Fkk dk lek/kku fd;k mudks i<+us ds ckn ehjkckbZ v;ks/;k vkbZ vkSj Jhjke tUeHkwfe LFky ij Hkxoku Jhjke ds izse esa ckmjh gksdj ukpus yxh vkSj yksx dgusa yxsa&^ix ?kqWa?k: ckWa/kh ehjk ukph js] yksx dgs ehjk gks x;h okmjh lkl dgs dqy uklh js** vkSj blh dkj.k og LFkku ckmjh ds uke ls Hkh izfl) gks x;kA ehjk ds lEcU/k esa JhHkDreky uked iqLrd ds dqN i`"Bksa dh izfr layXud la[;k 1 ds :i esa layXu gSA** **24- That to the best of my knowledge, Muslims never offered Namaz over there nor was any Muslim ever spotted going towards Ramjanmbhumi premises. I have so read that a brahman named Sukhpal had come from Mewar with a letter of Meera Bai addressed to Goswami Tulsidas, whereby Meera Bai had asked for the solution of her miseries from Goswami Ji and by replying the said letter, Goswami Tulsidas had resolved her miseries. After reading the same, came to Ayodhya and started dancing at Sri Ramjanmbhumi site in devotional love of Lord Sri Rama and people started saying that 'Pag ghunghru bandhi Meera nachi re, log kahe Meera ho gayi bavri, saas kahe kul nasi re' and due to this the said place became famous 803 as Bavri. Few pages of the book Sri Bhaktmal related to Meera, have been enclosed as Enclosure No. 1." (E.T.C.) **25- ;g fd eSa v;ks/;k dbZ ckj x;k gwWa] ijUrq dqN fo'ks"k ioksZ tSls pS= 'kqDy jkeuoeh] vxgu ekl esa Jhjke fookgksRlo rFkk lkou >wyk vkfn ds voljksa ij Hkh x;k gwWa vkSj lj;w esa Luku fd;k gS vkSj v;ks/;k fLFkr lHkh efUnjksa esa n'kZu o iwtu fd;k gS blds vfrfjDr dkfrZd ekg esa pkSng dkslh ,oa iapdkslh ifjdzek Hkh v;ks/;k esa dh tkrh gSA** **25- That I have been to Ayodhya on number of occasions including special occasions such as Chaitra Shukla Ramnavami, Sri Ramvivahotsav in the month of Aghan and Shrawan Jhula etc. and have also taken dip in Saryu. I had darshan and worship at all the temples at Ayodhya. Besides these, Chaudah kosi and Panch kosi circumambulation are also performed at Ayodhya in the month of Kartika." (E.T.C.) **26- ;g fd eSaus mDr fo'ks"k voljksa ij ns'k fons'k ls vk;s gq, gtkjksa dh la[;k esa J)kyqvksa rFkk jke HkDrksa dks ns[kk gSa bu volojksa ij iwjh v;ks/;k uxjh jkee; gks tkrh gS vkSj leLr okrkoj.k esa lhrkjke ds Hktu dhrZu rFkk ?k.Vs ?kfM+;ky] 'ka[k dh /ofu;kWa lquk;h nsrh gSA** **26- That on the above special occasions I have seen thousands of devotees of Rama from within and outside the country. The entire city of Ayodhya is gripped in the fervour of Rama on these occasions and the Bhajan-Kirtan of Sita-Ram as well as the sound of gangs-gongs and conch fill up the atmosphere." (E.T.C.) **27- ;g fd eSaus viuh ekrk th ls lquk gS fd Jhjke tUeHkwfe ifjlj esa igys v[k.M dhrZu rFkk jkepfjr ekul dk ikB gksrk FkkA** **27- That I have learnt from my mother that earlier Akhand (non stop) Kirtan and oration of Ramcharit Manas used to take place at the Sri Ramjanmbhumi premises." (E.T.C.) 804 **28- ;g fd Jh jke tUeHkwfe dksfV&dksfV fgUnwtuksa dh vkLFkk ,oa J)k dk LFkku gS ftlds n'kZu ek= ls gh ikiksa dk uk'k gks tkrk gS rFkk vusdksa iq.;ksa rFkk eks{k dh izkfIr gksrh gSA Hkxoku Jhjke dh tUeLFkyh gksus ds dkj.k ;g eks{knkf;uh uxjh gSA** **28- That Sri Ramjanmbhumi is the place of faith and belief of crores of Hindus, by mere darshan of which, the sins are forgiven and many blessings and salvation are obtained. On account of being the birthplace of Lord Sri Rama, it is a salvation according city." (E.T.C.) **29- pWwfd eSa ,d lEiknd gwWa vkSj bl ukrs eSaus ns'k fons'k dh dbZ ;k=k,Wa dh gS vkSj ;g ik;k gS fd Hkkjr ns'k dh igpku e;kZnk iq:"kksRre Hkxoku Jhjke o mudh uxjh v;ks/;k ls gSA** **29- As I am an Editor, I have travelled within and outside the country and have found that India as a country is recognised through Maryada Purshottam Lord Sri Rama and His city Ayodhya." (E.T.C.) **30- ;g fd eSaus Hkyh Hkkafr i<+k gS fd iwoZ esa fons'kh vkdzkUrkvksa }kjk fgUnqvksa ds /kkfeZd LFky rksM+us dh dzwj ijEijk jgh gS ftuesa lkseukFk efUnj] dk'kh fo'oukFk efUnj ,oa eFkqjk fLFkr Jh d`".k tUeHkwfe ij fons'kh vkdzkUrkvksa }kjk dzwj vkdze.k dj {kfr igqWapk;h x;h bu dzwj fons'kh vkdzkUrkvksa esa dqN ds uke ckcj] egewn xtuoh] fldUnj yksnh] vkSjaxtsc] bczkfge yksnh vkfn ds uke loksZifj gSaA** **30- That I have very well read that in past there was a cruel practise of demolition of Hindu religious places by the foreign invaders, which included the Somnath temple, Kashi Vishwanath temple and the Mathura situated Sri Krishna janmbhumi. Amongst these cruel foreign invaders, the names of Babar, Mahmud of Ghajini, Sikandar Lodi, Aurangzeb, Ibrahim Lodi etc. are on the top." (E.T.C.) D. ASI Report:

532. Witnesses have been produced to pursue this Court to 805 reject ASI Report and others say that it should be accepted. These are about twelve witnesses.

533. PW 29, Dr. Jaya Menon, aged about 43 years (on 28th September, 2005 at the time of swearing the affidavit), resident of S-5, Azim Estate, Sir Saiyyed Nagar, Aligarh, is working as Reader in the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and was an observer nominated by the plaintiffs (Suit-4) of the excavation conducted by ASI. Her cross examination followed as under :

Part-I :(a) 29/30-09-2005- by Madan Mohan Gupta, defendnat no. 20 through Sri Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 27-46)
(b) 03/04/05/06/07/24/25/26-10-2005-by plaintiff (Suit-5) through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate and Tarunjeet Verma, Advocate (p. 47-139) Part-II :(a) 27/28-10-2005-by Ramesh Chandra Tripathi defendant no. 17 (Suit-4) through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi (p. 140-166)
(b) 09/10/12-01-2006- by Mahant Suresh Das, plaintiff (Suit-4) through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 167-211)
(c) 13/16-01-2006- by Mahant Dharam Das, defendant no. 13/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 212-233)
(d) 17/18/19-01-2006- by plaintiff (Suit-5) through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 234-266)
(e)19-01-2006-plaintiff (Suit-1) through Sri D.P.Gupta, Advocate adopted the cross examination done by Shri Ved Prakash, Advocate, Shri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate and Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 266-267) 806

534. She claims to be an expert witness (Ancient History and Archaeology). She did M.A. from the Department of Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune and Ph.D. from the Centre for Historial Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, stated to have worked as Lecturer at M.S. University of Baroda (Varodara) in February, 1996, in the Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, and remained thereat till January, 2006 as Senior Lecturer whereafter joined at Aligarh. Prior to 1996 she claims to have excavated at several Archaeological sites, pertaining to different period, like Daulatabad (Medieval), Kuntasi (Harappan), Nagwada (Harappan) and Samnapur (Pre- historic-Middle Palaeolithic). After 1996 she claims to have excavated at Bagasra, a site excavated by the Department. She observed the excavation work at the disputed site for 32 days from April to July 2003 as under:

"April 26, 2003 to 2nd May 2003 May 20th 2003 to 31st May 2003 June 22nd to 27th June 2003 July 19th 2003 to 26th July 2003."

535. She has given a detailed statement assailing correctness of ASI report on different aspects and we propose to deal with the same in detail later while dealing with the objections of the parties against ASI report.

536. PW 30, Dr. R.C. Thakran, a Professor in Department of History, University of Delhi, has deposed as an expert witness (Archaeology) and has opposed the report and findings of ASI vide his affidavit dated 07.11.2005 followed by his cross examination as under :

Part-I:(a) 07/08/09/10/16/17/18-11-2005, 13/14-02-2006- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate 807 and Sri Tarunjeet Verma, Advocate (p. 21-133 )
(b) 27/28-02-2006, 01/02-03-2006, 27/28-06-2006-by Umesh Chandra Pandey, defendant no. 22 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 134- 199) Part-II: Cross examination :
(a) 03/04/05/06/07/17/18/19/20/21-07-2006, 07-08-2006
-by defendant no. 13/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 200-339)
(b) 07/08-08-2006- by Mahant Suresh Das defendant no. 2/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 339-364)
(c) 10/11-08-2006-by defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Sushri Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 365-386)
(d) 11-08-2006- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri A.K. Pandey, Advocate (p. 386-393)
(e) 11-08-2006- Plaintiffs (Suit-1) through Sri D.P. Gupta adopted the cross examination already done by other defendants (p. 393)

537. He was 53 years of age in 2005 while deposing the above statement. He is resident of Probyn Road, Delhi University, Delhi. He passed M.A. in Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology from Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra in 1975, M.Phil (Archaeology) from the Centre of Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in 1981, and, Ph.D (Archaeology) from Department of History, University of Delhi in 1993. He is teaching Ancient History and Archaeology since 1977 in Delhi University, attended excavation at the site of Mirzapur and Raja Karan Ka Qila, Kurukshetra for two academic sessions in 1974-75 during Master's degree course. Also claim to be involved in Archaeological Research since 808 1976. He observed excavation at the disputed site of Archaeology during March to August, 2003 and in respect to the report of ASI, he says:

"3. That the report of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) submitted to this Hon'ble Court on 22nd August, 2003, is an unprofeesional document, full of gross omissions, one-sided presentation of evidence, clear falsifications and motivated inferences. It is full of internal contradictions and discrepancies as will be pointed out below. The ASI's only aim seems to be to so ignore and twist the evidence as to make it suit its "conclusions" tailored to support the fictions of interested parties about the previous existence of an alleged temple on the disputed site."

"4. That the first and crucial gross omission in the ASI's Report is the total absence of any list in which the numbered layers in each trench are assigned to the specific period as distinguished and numbered by ASI itself. The only list available is for some trenches only in the Charts placed between pages 37-38. A list or Concordance or trench-layers in all trenches with Periods was essential to test whether the ASI has correctly assigned artefacts from certain trench layers to particular periods in its main Report. Where, as we shall see below, in connections with bones, Glazed wares and terracotta pieces the finds can be traced to trench-layers that are expressly identified with certain Periods by the ASI in its above-mentioned charts, it can be shown that the ASI's assignment of layers to particular periods is often demonstrably wrong and made only with the object of tracing structural remains or 809 artefacts there to an earlier time in order to bolster the wrong theory on a pre-mosque alleged Hindu temple." "5. The one decisive piece of evidence, which entirely negates large and medium size animals ( cattle, sheep and goats) are a sure sign of animals being eaten or thrown away dead at the site, and, therefore, rule out a temple existing at the site at that time. In this respect directions were given by the Hon'ble High Court to the ASI to record "the number and size of bones and glazed wares". The Report in its "Summary of Results" admits that "animal bones have been recovered from various levels of different periods" (Report, p.270). But this is the sole reference the Report makes to them. Any serious archaeological report would have tabulated the bones, by periods, levels and trenches, and identified the species of the animals (which in bulk seem to be sheep and goats). There should, indeed, have been a chapter devoted to animal remains. But despite the statement in its "Summary", there is no word about the animal bones in the main text of the Report. This astonishing omission is patently due to the ASI's fear of the fatal implications held out by the animal bone evidence for its preconceived temple theory."

Now if we turn to the ASI's record of the Finds in the Day-to-Day Register and Antiquities Register we find that in Trenches Nos. E-6 (Layer 4), E-7 (Layer 4), F-4/F-5 (Layer 4) animal bones have been found well below Period VII-layers, i.e. to Period VI (Early Medieval - Pre- Sultanate) or still earlier, and in Trenches Nos. F-8, G-2, J-2/J-3, they are found in Layers assigned by ASI to period VI itself. Thus bones have been found in what are allegedly 810 central precincts or the alleged Rama temple allegedly built in 'Period VI'. The ASI says that a massive temple was built again in Period VII, but in Trenhes Nos.E6, F8, G-2 and J-E/J-4 bones have been found in layers assigned to this very Period also in the same central precincts. The above data may be found in the Tabes produced in Sunni Central Board of Waqfs (UP)'s 'Additional Objection' dated on 3-2-04.

The ASI perhaps knows that sacrificial animals' bones (if we are dealing here with a temple where animals were sacrificed, which incidentally, has not been claimed for any Rama temple) cannot be represented by bone fragments, but need to be found at particular spots, practically whole and entire, which is not here at all the case in even a single instance."

"6. That the glazed ware, often called "Muslim" glazed ware, constitutes an equally definite piece of evidence, which militates against the presence or construction of a temple. Since such glazed ware was not at all used in temples. The ware is all-pervasive till much below the level of "Floor No.4", which floor is falsely ascribed in the Report to the "huge" structure of a temple allegedly built in the 11th-12th centuries. The Report tells us that the glazed ware sherds only "make their appearance" " in the last phase of the period VII" (p.220). Here we directly encounter the play with the names of periods. On page 270, Period VII is called "Medieval Sultanate", dated to 12th-16th century A.D. But on p.40 "Medieval-Sultanate" is the name used for period VI, dated to 10th and 11th centuries. The summary concedes (on 811 page 270) that the glazed ware appears only in "the last phase of Period VII". In the Chapter V, however, no mention is made of this "last phase" of Period VII; it is just stated that "the pottery of Medieval-Sultanate, Mughal and Late-and-Post Mughal period (Periods VII to IX)... indicated that there is not much difference in pottery wares and shapes" and that "the distinctive pottery of the periods is glazed ware" (p.108). The placing of the appearance of Glazed Ware in the "last phase" only of Period VII appears to be a last-minute invention in the Report (contrary to the findings in the main text) to keep its thesis of alleged "massive" temple, allegedly built in period VII, clear of the "Muslims" Glazed-Ware by a sleight of hand, because otherwise it would militate against a temple being built in that period. All this gross manipulation has been possible because not a single item of glazed pottery is attributed to its trenches and stratum in the select list of 21 items of glazed ware (out of hundreds of items actually obtained) on pages 109-111. Seeing the importance of glazed ware as a factor for elementary dating (pre- or post- Mslim habitation at the site), (and in view also of the Hon'ble High Court's orders about the need for recording of glazed ware, a tabulation of all recorded glazed-ware sherds according trench and stratum was essential.) That this has been entirely disregarded shows that, owing to the glazed-ware evidence being totally incompatible with any temple construction activity in periods VI and VII, the ASI has resorted to the most unprofessional act of ignoring and manipulating evidence."

"7. That going by the Poetry Section of the Report 812 (p.108), not by its "Summary", the presence of Glazed Ware throughout Period VII (Medieval, 12th-16th centuries) rules out what is asserted on page 41, that a "column-based structure" - the alleged 50-pillar - was built in this period. How could Muslim have been using glazed ware inside a temple? Incidentally, the claim of a Delhi University archaeologist (Dr Nainjot Lahiri) defending the Report, that glazed ware was found at Muslim, and Tulamba (near Multan) before the 13th century, hardly germane to the issue, since these were towns under Arab rule with Muslim settlements since 714 AD onwards, and so the use of glazed ware there is to be expected. The whole point is that glazed ware is an indicator of 'Muslim habitation, and is not found in medieval Hindu temples."

"8. That the story of Glazed Tiles is very similar. These too are an index of Muslim habitation. Yet 2 glazed Tiles are found in layers of Period VI means that the layers are wrongly assigned and must be dated to Period VII (Sultanate period). There could be no remains of any alleged "huge temple" in these layers, then." "9. That when the ASI submitted its Day -to-Day and Antiquities Register for inspection it turned out that the ASI had concealed the fact in its Report that the layer of certain trenches it had been attributing to pre-Sultanate Period V cannot simply belong to it, because glazed tiles have been found in it; and the layers assigned to Period VI could not have belonged to a temple, as alleged, because both glazed ware and glazed tiles have been found in it. In this respect attention may be invited to the Tabes submitted as 813 Annexure I to the Additional Objection of the Sunni Waqf Board, dated 3-2-04."

"10. That the ASI's Report is so lacking in integrity that it tries to achieve its object by manipulation nomenclature. In Chapter III, "Stratigraphy and Chronology" it has names for periods VI and VII that are coolly altered in the other Chapters in order simply to transfer inconvenient material of Period VI to Period VII and thus make Period VI levels purely "Hindu". On pages 38-41, the nomenclature for Periods V, VI and VII is given as follows:

Period V: Post-Gupta-Rajputa, 7th to 10th Century Period VI: Medieval -Sultanate, 11th -12th Century Period VII: Medieval, 12th - 16th Century Now let us turn to "Summary of Results" (pp.268-9). Here the nomenclature is altered as follows:- Period V: Post-Gupta-Rajputa, 7th - 10th Century Period VI: Early medieval , 11th -12th Century Period VII: Medieval-Sultanate, 12th - 16th Century "11. That this transference of "Medieval-Sultanate period" from Period VI to Period VII has the advantage of ignoring Islamic-period materials like Glazed ware or lime-mortar bonding by removing them arbitrarily from Period VI levels to those of Period VII so that their actual presence in those levels need not embarrass the ASI in this placing of the construction of an alleged "massive" or "huge" temple in Period VI. The device is nothing but manipulation and the so-called single "correction" of nomenclature of Period VI, after the Report had been prepared, does not remove the confusion."


"12. That this brings us to the way in which the entire stratigraphy has been fixed, and certain layers obviously of Islamic provenance pressed into pre-Muslim periods (Period VI and earlier) as shown in Annexure No.1, Table 2, attached to the objection of Mr. Hashim dated 8.10.2003. This kind of false stratigraphy has led to situations that are impossible in correctly stratified layers, namely, the presence of later materials in earlier strata. The presence of earlier materials in later or upper layers is possible, but not the reverese (Obviously the entire stratigraphy has been falsified to invent a temple in "Post- Guppta-Rajputa" times.) "13. That while digging up the Babri Masjid site, the excavators found four floors, numbered, upper to lower, as Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, Floor No.4 being the lowest and so the oldest. Floor No. 3 is linked to the foundation walls of the Babri Masjid - what the ASI calls the "demolished" or "disputed structure" - built in 1528. Floor No. 4 is described by the Report as "a floor of lime mixed with fine clay and brick crush", i.e. a typically Muslim style surkhi and lime floor. It is obviously the floor of an earlier Mosque/Eidgah and mihrab and taq were also found in the associated foundation wall (not, of course, identified as such in the ASI's report). Such a floor, totally Muslim on "stylistic grounds" is turned by the ASI into an alleged temple floor, "over which a column-based structure was built". (as asserted by A.S.I.). No single example is offered by the ASI of any temple of pre-Mughal times having such a lime-surakhi floor, though one would think that this is an essential requirement when a purely Muslim structure is 815 sought by the ASI as Hindu one. Once this arbitrary appropriation has occurred (page 41), we are then asked by the ASI's report to imagine a "Massive Structure Below the Disputed Structure", the massive structure being an alleged temple. It is supposed to have stood upon alleged 50 pillars, and by fanciful drawings (Figure 23, 23A and 23B) in the ASI's Report, it has been "reconstructed". [Though one may still feel that it was hardly "massive" when one compares Figure 23 (showing Babri Masjid before demolition ) and Figure 23B (showing the reconstructed temple with 50 imaginary pillars!)] Now, according to the ASI's Report, this massive structure with "bases" of 46 if its alleged 50 pillars now allegedly exposed, was built in Period VII, the period of the Delhi Sultans, Sharqi rulers and Lodi Sultans (1206-1526) : This attribution of the Grand temple, to the "Muslim" period is not by choice, but because of the presence of "Muslim" style materials and techniques all through. This, given their jaundiced view of medieval Indian history, must has been all the more reason for them to imagine a still earlier structure assignable to an earlier time. Of this structure, however, only four alleged "pillar bases" , with "foundation" attached to Floor 4, have been found; and it is astonishing that this should be sufficient to ascribe them to 10th -11th century and to assume that they all belong to one structure. That structure is proclaimed as "huge", extending nearly 50 metres that separate the alleged "pillar-bases" at the extremes. Four "pillar bases"can hardly have held such a long roof; and if any one tried it on them it is not surprising that the result was, 816 as the ASI Report admits, "short-lived" (Report, p. 269). (All of this seems a regular part of a propagandist archaeology rather than a report from a body called the Archaeological Survey of India.)"

"14. That further the four alleged pillar bases dated to 11th -12th centuries are said " to belong to this level with a brick crush floor". This amounts to a totally unsubstantiated that surkhi was used in the region in Gahadavala times (11th - 12th centuries). No examples of such use in Gahadavala times are offered. One would have thought that Sravasti (District Bahraich), from which the ASI team has produced a linga-centred Shavaite "circular shrine" of the Gahadavala period for comparison with the so-called "circular shrine" at the Babri Masjid site, would be able to produce at least one example of either surkhi or lime mortar from the Gahadavala period structures at Sravasti. But such has not at all been the case. One can see now why it had been necessary to call this period (period V) "Medieval- Sultanate" (p.40) (by a later "correction" submitted to the Hon'ble Court, this has been changed to " Post-Gupta, Rajput"), though it is actually claimed to be pre-Sultanate, being dated 11th -12th century. By clubbing together the Gahadavala with the Sultanate, the surkhi is sought to be explained away; but if so, the alleged "huge" structure too must come to a time after 1206, for the Delhi Sultanate was only established in that year. And so, to go by ASI's reasoning, the earlier allegedly "huge" temple too must have been built when the Sultans ruled!" "15. That the way the ASI has distorted evidence to suit its 817 "temple theory" is shown by its treatment of the mihrab (arched recess) and taq (niche) found in the western wall, which it turns into features of its imagined temple. On p. 68 of the ASI's Report are described two niches in the inner side of Wall 16 at an interval of 4.60 metres in trenches E6 and E7. These were 0.20 metre deep and I metre wide. A similar niche was found in Trench ZE2 in the northern area and these have been attributed to the first phase of construction of the so-called 'massive structure' associated with wall 16. Such niches, along the inner face of a western wall, are again characteristic of Mosque / Eidgah construction. Moreover, the inner walls of the niche are also plastered (as in Plate 49) which indicated that the plaster was meant to be visible. A temple niche, if found, it would in any case have to be on the outer wall. In the first phase of construction, the supposed massive structure was confined to the thin wall found in Trenches ZE1-ZH1 in the north and E6-H5/H6 in the south (p. 41). How then does one explain the location of niches outside the floor area of the massive structure? This is typical of a mosque/ eidgah, which has a long, wide north-south wall, with niches at intervals on its inner face and there may be a small covered area in the centre. Which would have narrow demarcating walls. And the ASI is able to produce no example of similar recess and niche from any temple." "16. That since the entire basis of the supposed "huge" and "massive" temple-structures preceding the demolished mosque lies in the ASI's reliance upon its alleged "pillar bases" I beg now to consider what these really are and what they imply. In this respect one must first remember 818 that what are said by the ASI to be pillar bases are in many cases are only one or more calcrete stones resting on brick-bats, just heaped up, though ASI claims that mud- mortar was sometimes used. In many claimed "pillar bases" the calcrete stones are not found at all. As one can see from the descriptive table on pages 56-67 of the report not a single one of these supposed "pillar bases" has been found in association with any pillar or even a fragment of it; and it has not been claimed that there are any marks are indentations or hollows on any of the calcrete stone to show that any pillar had rested on them. The ASI Report nowhere attempts to answer the questions (1) why brick bats and not bricks were used at the base, and (2) how mud-bonded brick-bats could have possibly with stood the weight of roof-supporting pillars without themselves falling apart. It also offers not a single example of any medieval temple where pillars stood on such brick-bat bases." "17. That despite the claim of these pillar bases being in alignment and their being so shown in fancy drawings (figures 23, 23A and 23B), the Reports claim that these bases are in alignment is not borne out by the actual measurements and distances; and there is indeed much doubt whether the plan provided by ASI is drawn accurately at all, there are enormous discrepancies between Fig. 3A (the main plan) and the Table in Chapter 4 on the one hand, and the Report's Appendix IV, on the other. Trench F7 has 4 alleged "pillar bases" in the former, for example; but only one in the latter!" "18. That in fact the entire matter of the way the ASI has identified or created "pillar bases" is a matter of serious 819 concern. Complaints were also made to the Observers appointed by the High Court that the ASI was ignoring calcrete-topped brick-bat heaps where these were not found in appropriate positions and selected only such brick-bat heaps as were not two for of from its imaginary grids, and there creating the alleged "bases" by clearing the rest of the floor of brick-bats."

"19. That the most astonishing thing that the ASI so casually brushes aside relates to the varying levels at which the so-called "pillar bases" stand. Even if we go by the ASI's own descriptive table (page 56-57), as many as seven of these alleged 50 "bases" are definitely above Floor 2, and one is in level with it. At least six rest on Floor 3, and one rests partly on Floor 3 and 4. since at least come that so many pillars were erected after the Mosque had been built in order to sustain an alleged earlier temple structure ! More, as many as nine alleged "pillar bases" are shown as cutting through Floor No. 3. So, are we to understand that when the Mosque floor was laid out, the "pillar bases"at all, but some kind of loosely- bonded brickbat deposits, which continued to be laid right from the time of Floor 4 to Floor1."

"20. That it may be added that even the table on pages 56- 67 of the ASI's Report may not correctly represent the layers of the pillar bases, since its information of floors does not match that of the Report's Appendix IV which in several trenches does not attest to Floor NO. 4 at all, which the "pillar bases" in many cases are supposed to have sealed by, or to have cut through or stand on ! For example, "pillar base 22" on pp.60-61 is indicated as the 820 resting on floor 4, but there is no Floor 4 shown as existing in Appendix IV of the Report in Trench F2 where this base supposedly stands. Similar other discrepancies are listed below:

Information in text of ASI's Information in Appendix Report 4 of Report PB No.3:ZG2-F1. 2(p.56) Only F1.1 mentioned (p.8) PB No.6:ZJ2-F1. 2(p.57) F1.1 mentioned (p.12) PB No.8:ZG1-F1. 2(p.58) Only F1.1 mentioned (p.8) PB No.18:H1-F1.4(p.60) No.F1.4 (p.11) PB No.22:F2-F1.4(p.60-61) No. F1.4(p.6) PB No.27:H5-F1. 4(p.62) 3 successive floors No. F1.4(p.11) PB No.28:F6-F1.4(p.62) No. F1.4 (p.7) PB No.31:F6-F7-F1. 4(p.63) 3 floors mention for F6 (p.7); Floors 1 and 1A for F7 (p.7) PB No.32:F6/F7-F1. 4(p.63) 3 floors mention for F6 (p.7); Floors 1 and 1A for F7 (p.7) PB No.34,35:F7-F1. 4(p.64) Only F1.1 and 1A (p.7) PB No.36:G7-F1. 4(p.64) No.F1.4 (p.10) PB No.37:F8-F1. 3(p.65); -

no.F1.3 beyond 6 series (p.63) PB No.39:G8-F1. 4(p.65) 3 successive floors (p.10) PB No.45:G9-F1. 4(p.66) 3 successive floors (p.10) PB No.44:F9-F1. 4(p.66) 2 floors mentioned (p.8) PB No.46:H9-F1. 4(p.66) 3 floors (p.12) PB No.47:F10/F10-F1 4(p.66) E10:F1.1 mentioned (p.5);

F10: 2 floors mentioned (p.8) PB No.48:F10-F1. 4(p.67) 2 floors mentioned (p.8) PB No.49:G10-F1. 4(p.67) 2 floors mentioned (p.10) PBNo.49:G10/H10-F1.4 2 floors each in G10 and (p.67) H10 (pp.10,12) PB No.50:H10-F1. 4(p.67) Floors mentioned (p.12) 821 "21. That the ASI should have surely looked about for other explanations of the heaps of brickbats before jumping to its "pillar bases" theory. There is at least one clear and elegant explanation. When the surkhi-lime mortar bonded Floor No.4 was being laid out over the mound sometimes during the Sultanate period, its builders must have had to level the mound properly, the stones (the latter often joined with lime mortar) to fill them and enable the floor to filled up in order to lay out Floor 4 went our of repair, its holes had similar deposits of brickbats had to be made to fill the holes in order to lay out Floor 2 (or, indeed, just to have a level surface). This explains why the so called "pillar bases" appear to "cut through" both Floors 3 and 4, at some places, while at other they "cut through Floo3 or Floor 4 only. They are mere deposits to fill up holes in the floors. Since such repairs were in time needed at various spots all over the floors, these brickbat deposits are widely dispersed. Had not he ASI been so struck by the necessity of finding pillars and "pillar bases" to please its masters, which had to be in some alignment, it could have found scattered over the ground not just fifty but perhaps over a hundred or more such deposits of brickbats. A real embarrassment of riches of "pillar bases", that is! Only they are, of course, not pillar bases at all." "22. That it may here be pointed out that when Mr.B.R.Mani the first leader of the ASI team at Ayodhya, excavated at Lal Kot, District of South New Delhi, he describes "pillar bases" of "Rajput style", about which he says:

"These pillar bases rest on stone pedestals and are 2.90m. Apart from each other. They might have supported some wooden canopy.
(Indian Archaeology, 1992-93 - A Review, official publication of ASI, New Delhi, 1997, p.9)."

A true copy of the relevant extract of the said report of Mr. Mani is enclosed herewith as ANNEXURE No.1 to this affidavit.

Mr. Mani illustrates these four pillar bases in Plates VI and VII of the same publication. Each comprises a number of squarish stone slabs resting on each other with a larger stone slab at the bottom. Yet these were not thought by him to be strong enough to support anything more that "a wooden canopy." And yet at Ayodhya, single calcrete slabs resting on nothing more than brickbats are held by the same Mr. Mani and his team to have supported stone pillars bearing massive stone structures!" "23. That having thus shown that there is no basis for the ASI's illusionary 50-pillared structure, it is still pertinent to ask why the ASI regards a pillared hall to have necessarily been a temple. In this aspect the ASI should have noticed such pillared structures of the Beghumpuri Mosque, the Kali Masjid and the Khirki Masjid, all built at Delhi by Khan Jahan Firozshahi in the 180's AD the original photograph of which are printed in Tatsuro Yamamoto, Matsuo Ara and Tokifusa Tsokinowa, Delhi: Architectural Remains of the Delhi Sultanate Period, Tokyo, 1967, Vol.I, Plates 14b, 18c and 20c. It is astonishing that the ASI should have closed its eyes to such structures; but this is just another proof that its Report is a simple product of 823 bias and partisanship."

"24. That much is made in the ASI Report of the "Circular Shrine"(Report, pages 70-71), again with fanciful figured interpretations of the existing debris (Figs. 24 and 24A in the Report). Comparisons with circular Shaivite and Vaishnavite Shrines (Fig. 18) are made. The ASI had no thought, of course, of comparing it circular walls and buildings of Muslim construction - a very suggestive omission. The surviving wall, even in ASI's own drawing makes only a quarter of circle, and such shapes are fairly popular in walls of Muslim construction. And then there are Muslim built domed circular buildings, such as the the 13th century tomb of Sultan Ghari at Delhi, where the inner tomb chamber is circular (See Ancient India, official publicaiton of ASI, 1947, volume, Pl.VIII). A true copy of the said Plate VIII is enclosed herewith as Annexure No. 2 to this affidavit."

"25. That even if we forget the curiously one-eyed nature of ASI's investigations, let us first consider the size of the alleged "shrine". Though there is no reason to complete the circle in the elliptical way as the ASI does, the circular shrine, given the scale of the Plan (Figure 17 in the Report), would have an internal diameter of just 160 cms. or barely 5 ½ feet! Such a small structure can hardly be a shrine. But it is, in fact, much smaller. The Plan in Fig. 17 of the report shows not a circle (as one would have if the wall shown in plates 59 and 60 or continued) but an ellipse, which it has to be in order to enclose the masonry floor. No "elliptic (Hindu) shrine" is, however, produced by ASI for comparison: the few that are shown are all 824 circular. As Plate 59 makes clear the drawing in Fig. 17 ignore a course of bricks which juts out to suggest a true circle, much shorter than the elliptic one: this would reduce the internal diameter to less than 130 cms. Or 4.3 feet ! Finally, as admitted by the ASI itself, nothing has been found in the structure in the way of image or sacred piece that can justify it being called a "shrine". "26. That, indeed, if the ASI insists on it being a shrine, it is strange that it did not consider the relevance of a Buddhist Stupa here. Attention is drawn to Plate XLV-A showing "exposed votive stupas" Sravasti, in the ASI's own Indian Archaeology, 1988-89- A Review, a true copy of which is enclosed herewith as Annexure No.3 to this affidavit. It is indicative of the ASI's bias that while it provided an example of an alleged circular Shaivite shrine from Sravasti, along with a photograph (Report's Plate 61), it totally overlooks the stupas found there. As shown above the small size of the so called "circular shrine" at the Babri masjid site precludes it from being a temple, and the stupas (which is not entered!) is the only possible candidate for it, if the structure has to be a pre-Muslim sacred structure. But the stupa is not a temple, let alone a Hindu temple."

"27. That the short report on Inscriptions on pages 204- 06, one of which is in Nagari, and two are in Arabic show how casual and preconceived in its notions the ASI was. There is no argument given for dating it to the 11th century: its time range could be 7th - 12th centuries; and if so it could be a Pala record of a Buddhist provenance - a piece of evidence negating the presence of a Hindu temple. There is 825 also no argument offered by the Arabic inscriptions can be dated to the 13th century with as much reason as to the 16th century."

"28. That the ASI makes much use of teracotta figures. Yet its stratigraphy is found to be totally wrong. No later figurine or artefact can be found in an earlier layer, while the converse can, of course, be the case. Yet there are a number of cases where layers in different trenches assigned to early Periods by ASI in its table of terracotta objects (pages 219-243) contain items of later periods (as identified by ASI itself) in these early layers. These are evident from the chart given below showing, again how the propensity to date certain layers early so as to support the ancient temple thesis has landed the ASI into impossible discrepancies. These discrepancies show that (a) the dating of the individual layers is wrong, and (b) the terracotta evidence this does not support the presence of an alleged temple here built before the construction of the Babri Masjid:-

DESCREPENCIES IN STRATIGRAPHY IN RELATION TO TERRACOTTA FIGURINES (Periods as defined by ASI's Report) Artefact details Discrepancies S.No. 50, R. No. 1027. Part of Layer 2 below Floor 2 human figurine. Mughal level. belongs to Medieval G5, layer 2, below Floor2 period. It is impossible for a medieval period layer to have material from Mughal period which is later S.No. 52, R.No. 393. Animal Layer 5 in E8 is Post figurine. Late Medieval period. Gupta (7th - 10th centuries E8, layer 5 AD). It is impossible for late Medieval (Mughal) 826 period material to be found in an earlier period.
S.No. 67, R.No. 549, Animal F9 layer 5 is post Gupta.
figurine. Early Medieval. F9,     It is impossible for Early
layer 5                           Medieval period material
                                  to be found in post Gupta
                                  period which is earlier
S.No. 69, R.No. 594, Animal       E8 layer 5 is post Gupta.

figurine. Medieval. E8, layer 5 It is impossible for Medieval period material to be found in post Gupta period which is earlier S.No. 71, R.No.607, Animal E8 layer 5 is post Gupta. figurine. Mughal. E8, layer 5 It is impossible for Mughal period material to be found in post Gupta period which is earlier S.No. 73, R.No.628, Animal E8 layer 6 is post Gupta. figurine. Mughal. E8, layer 6 It is impossible for Mughal period material to be found in post Gupta period which is earlier S.No. 76, R.No. 689, Animal F8 layer 5 is post Gupta-

figurine. Early Medieval. F8,     Rajput. It is impossible
layer 5                           for       Early Medieval
                                  period material to be
                                  found in post Gupta
                                  period which is earlier
S.No. 84, R.No.739, Animal        E8 layer 8A is Gupta

figurine. Post-Gupta. E8, layer Level. It is impossible for 8A post-Gupta period material to be found in post Gupta period which is earlier S.No. 85, R.No.762, Animal E8 layer 9 is figurine. Post-Gupta. E8, layer Gupta/Kushan Level. It is 9 impossible for post-Gupta period material to be found in Gupta/Kushan period which is earlier S.No. 86, R.No.767, Animal F8 layer 7 is Gupta Level.


figurine. Post-Gupta. F8, layer It is impossible for post-

7                               Gupta period material to
                                be found in Gupta period
                                which is earlier

S.No. 90, R.No. 793. Animal H4/H5 layer 4 is Early figurine. Medieval. H4/H5, Medieval. It is impossible layer 4 for Medieval period material to be found in Early Medieval period which is earlier S.No. 114, R.No.1087, Animal G7 layer 10 is Kushan. It figurine. Gupta. G7, layer 10 is impossible for Gupta period material to be found in Kushan period which is earlier S.No. 115, R.No.1088, Animal G7 layer 10 is Kushan. It figurine. Gupta. G7, layer 10 is impossible for Gupta period material to be found in Kushan period which is earlier S.No. 119, R.No.1152, Animal G7 layer 13 is Sunga. It is figurine. Kushan. G7, layer 13 impossible for Kushan period material to be found in Sunga period which is earlier S.No. 122, R.No.1177, Bird G8 layer 5 is post Gupta- figurine. Early Medieval. G8, Rajput. It is impossible layer 5 for Early Medieval period material to be found in post Gupta period which is earlier "29. That it may be mentioned that in the purely Muslim phase at Lalkot, South New Delhi District, excavated by Mr. B.R. Mani, the first team leader of the ASI at Ayodhya and joint author of its Report on Ayodhya, Mr. Mani found "a large number of crude handmade terracotta human and animal figurines"(Indian Archaeology, 1991-92 - A Review, page 15). Thus it cannot be argued that the 828 presence of such human and animal figurines suggests a non-Muslim or pre-Muslim association, let alone any affiliation with a temple."

"30. That no Vaishnavite images have been found. All finds are stray ones or, as with the black schist pillar, visible within it when the Masjid had stood but not yet broken up by the Karsevaks and buried in the Masjid debris in 1992. Whatever little in stone has come out (as one decorated stone or inscribed slab -used in a wall ), like stones with "foliage pattern, amalaka, kapotapadi door jamb with semi-circular pilaster, lotus motif" (Report, p.271), are in total very few, and all easily explicable as belonging to ruins elsewhere and brought for re-use during the construction of the Babri Masjid or the earlier Mosque/Eidgah. Moreover, the lozenge design (Report, Plate 90) is probably Islamic (compare Plate 92, with Arabic inscription). The extremely short list that the ASI is able to compile of such doubtful temple-relics shows that they did not come from any alleged "massive" temple at the site, but brought randomly from different earlier ruins."

"31. That it is most interesting that while these few stray finds are sought to justify the thesis of the presence of an alleged temple at this site, but when Dr. B.R. Mani, the joint author of the ASI Report, found many more similar items in his excavations at Lalkot, South New Delhi district, his conclusions were quite different. He found, in his own words, "a stone Varaha figure, two stone amalakas, decorated pillar bases, and a number of other decorated architectural fragments reused in later 829 structures or scattered on the mound or in the tank area of Anang Tal along with a huge part of another amalaka and pillar bases found in the eastern part of the tank" (Indian Archaeology, 1991-92 - A Review, official publication of ASI, New Delhi, 1996, p.12), Mr Mani nevertheless says that this sire was away from "the temple-mosque complex" and contained the palace of Anang Pal (ibid, p.9). Clearly, in taking the much smaller and slimmer list of doubtful artefact at the Babri Masjid site as indicative of a temple, Mr. Mani and his colleagues have now simply pursued a given brief. A true copy of the relevant extracts of this report of Dr. B.R. Mani is enclosed herewith as ANNEXURE No. 4 to this affidavit."

"32. That the bias and partisanship of the ASI's Report takes one's breath away. In almost everything the lack of elementary archaeological controls is manifest. The one- page carbon-date report, without any description of material, strata and comments by the laboratory, is meaningless, and open to much misuse. There has been no thermoluminescence (TL) dating of the pottery; nor any carbon-dating of the animal or human bones, although these are necessary for dating the remains themselves and the strata in which they are found, in order to test the ASI's own manipulated chronology. Indeed, no care has been exercised in its references to chronology, and Period 1 "Northern Black Polished Ware" has been pushed back to 1000 BC in the "Summary of Results" (page 268). when even in Chapter II of "Stratigraphy and Chronology", the earlier limit of the period is rightly placed at 6th century B.C. (page 38). The urge is obviously to provide the 830 maximum antiquity to habitation at Ayodhya, however absurd the claim."

"33. That quite obviously such claims as made by ASI in its Report and the demands of professional integrity cannot go together. What all well-wishers of Indian Archaeology have to consider is how, with a Report of the calibre we have examined, there can be any credibility left in the Archaeological Survey of India, an organization that has had such a distinguished past. But now the good repute of the Archaeological Survey of India has also suffered an irremediable blow. (It has been shown up as partisan and subservient to its master's wishes. Its so called "Conclusions" must be rejected in toto.)"

538. PW 31, Dr. Ashok Datta, aged about 58 years (vide his affidavit dated 20.01.2006), resident of K.P. Mukherjee Road, Post Barisa, Kolkatta (West Bengal), is working as Senior Lecturer, Department of Archaeology, University of Calcutta and deposed his statement as an expert witness (Archaeology). His cross examination is as under:

Part-I :(a) 20/23/24/25/27/30/31-01-2006, 01-02-2006 - by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate and Sri Tarunjeet Verma, Advocate (p. 12-112)
(b)01/20/21-02-2006-by Shri Madan Mohan Gupta, defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Km. Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 113-148) Part-II :(a) 22/23/24-02-2006, 01/02/03-05-2006-by Shri Madan Mohan Gupta, defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Km. Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 149-214)
(b) 03/04/05-05-2006- by Ramesh Chandra Tripathi defendant no. 17 (Suit-4) through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, 831 Advocate (p. 214-243)
(c) 08/09-05-2006-by Mahant Suresh Das defendant no. 2/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 244-272)
(d) 10-05-2006-by defendant no. 13/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 273-281)
(e) 12-05-2006- by plaintiff (Suit-5) through Sri Ajay Pandey, Advocate (p. 282-295)
(f) 12-05-2006-Plaintiff (Suit-1) through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done on behalf of other defendants ( p. 295)

539. He did M.A. (Archaeology) in 1972 and Ph.D. in Pre- History (Anthropology) in 1981 from University of Calcutta. Worked thereafter in Archaeology in West Germany in 1982 and about the experience and excavation work, has given the following details:

"3. That the deponent has been associated with the following excavations:
(i) Excavation at KOLN in Germany in 1982.
(ii) Excavation at Mathura in 1977 with ASI Team.
(iii) Excavation at KARNASUVARNA, West Bengal in 1971.
(iv) Excavation at MANGALKOT, BURDWAN, West Bengal from 1986 to 1991.
(v) Excavation at DIHAR, BANKURA, West Bengal from 1991 to 1996.
(vi) Excavation at PAKHANNA, BANKURA, West Bengal from 1997 to 2000 and also in 2002- 2003.
(vii) Excavation at DANTANA, MIDNAPUR, West 832 Bengal in 2003 to 2004."
540. PW 31 claims to have observed excavation at the disputed site for several days during March to August, 2003, has deposed statement objecting the correctness of the ASI report and said in paras 6 to 21 as under:
"6. That the final report of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) dated 22-8-2003 submitted in this Hon'ble court is a one sided presentation with clear distortion of the material recovered during excavation and motivated inferences have been drawn from the evidence." "7. That the ASI has committed gross omissions in preparing the said report and one such omission is the total absence of any list in which the number of layers in each trench were assigned to the specific period as distinguished and numbered by the ASI itself. The chart placed between pages 37-38 of the report is given for some of the trenches only no other list or concordance of the layers of all the trenches has been given although the same was also essential to test whether the artefacts etc. have been assigned correct period."
"8. That the ASI appears to have proceeded with preconceived notion to trace and identify the structural remains or artefacts in order to establish and give strength to the theory of an alleged Hindu temple said to be existing there before the Babri Mosque."
"9. That glazed tiles are also indications of Muslims habitation. A Scatter Diagram of Islamic Ceramics and so called pillar bases is enclosed herewith as Annexure No.
"10. That the ASI has, in a casual manner, brushed aside 833 the varying levels at which the so-called 'pillar-bases" are said to have been found. The ASI's own descriptive table (pages 56-67), shows that as many as seven of these alleged 50 "bases" are definitely above Floor 2, and one is in level with it. At least six of them rest on Floor 3, and one rests partly on Floor 3 and 4. Nine alleged "pillar bases"

are also shown as cutting through Floor No. 3. Thus it is clear that these are simply not 'pillar bases" at all, but some kind of brickbat deposits, which continued to be laid right from the time of Floor 4 to Floor 1." "11. That in the light of my own field experience and observation (during the course of excavation at Ayodhya), the report submitted by ASI appears to be malafide and full of misinterpretation of archaeological data and far from the ground reality. The report is full of contradictions from the very beginning to the end. Any person having basic knowledge in archaeology may reject the report straightway."

"12. That the report contains that "As stated earlier ................ 50 exposed pillar bases to its east attached with floor 2 ..................." (page no. 54). It further states that "Subsequently during the early medieval period (eleventh-twelfth century A.D.) ................ only four of the fifty pillar bases exposed during the excavation belong to this level with a brick crush floor. On the remains ............ a massive structure with these structural phases and three successive floors attached with it ....." (page no. 269).

That above statement of ASI reveals few interesting points:-

a) It contradicts its own statement.


b) It appears from the above statement as well the chart that shows the locus of different alleged pillars that at least four so called pillar bases were attached with the brick crush or brick jelly floor found at a depth of 2.20 B.S. According to its chronological estimation this phases belongs to 11th - 12th century A.D.

c) It also appears from the Iso-Matric projections of excavated site (Fig Nos. 23, 23A and 23B) and the chart showing the locus of different pillars that these so called pillar bases are found in different elevations and attached to four different floor levels.

d) It, therefore, implies that there existed four Phases of constructions being characterized by pillared halls long before the construction of the disputed structure.

e) According to the conclusion drawn by ASI as shown in fig no. 23, 23A and 23B, it appears that these so called pillar bases represent the remains of a huge pillared hall.

f) If it is so then we have to subscribe to the Theory that there existed three more earlier Pillared halls.

g) Again if we accept the theory that the last Pillared hall was destroyed and demolished before the construction of the present disputed structure, the question which immediately crops up in one's mind is that then who demolished the earlier pillared halls particularly the lowest one which should belong to 11th -12th century A.D. according to their own estimation."


"13. That this is a bogus and utopian idea that a massive pillared hall existed immediately below the disputed structure. In fact, these so called pillar bases, comprising two/three courses of broken bricks or brick-bats forming circular/square/rectangular or oblong with uneven calcrete stone block on its top, were used for resting the lime/surkhi floors."

"14. That to impress upon the general people as well the honorable judges of the high court, the ASI has taken the help of isometric projection of the excavated site with superimposition of these pillars. This has been done deliberately to give an impression of the uniform distribution and alignment of these so called pillared bases. But the ground reality is different. They occur, according to their own statement and the chart providing the locus, in at least four different levels ranging from . 50m to 2.20m covering four different floor levels. To avoid this difference in elevation they have taken the help of this iso-metric projection of pillars."

"15. That the Ground plans showing different floor levels are drawn by ASI without showing minimum courtesy to the ethics of archaeological recording." "16. That the best example showing how the archaeological data has been manipulated to achieve a particular goal is represented in Fig. No. 22. The figure shows the section of J3 trench where the total deposit (approx. 10.50 m) has been divided into 14 layers. This is an incorrect statement showing the deposit of J3 as stratified which are largely filled with filling materials.

In this contest we can refer the guideline of Wheeler 836 where he has suggested that layer marking can be made within a pit provided the materials are found sealed by subsequent layer. But it is always desirable not to use the pit materials unless they are supported by other evidences. Moreover the pit materials should always be kept separately and marked as pit no. 1, pit no. 2 and so on so forth. But what the ASI has done in the present case is a gross violation of archaeological norms. In the final report, they described the deposit of J3 as pit materials and represent the trench as stratified by putting layer marking, although admitted in the report that these layer markings are superficial. These is no place of superficiality in archaeology. All the materials of this trench have been registered under a specific layer marking. The basic question which arises in one's mind is that why they did it? They did it because any person having archaeological background knows that dump/pit always yield best quality antiquities. But if the objects are labeled with dump/pit slip, it does not carry any weight or significance in terms of chronology."

"17. That the mound is characterized by extensive structural activities in the form of floors and walls including foundation wall. As a result the whole stratigraphical sequence particularly in the upper level is disturbed by the filling materials (debris). But no attempt has been made by the ASI to co-relate different structures with stratigraphy which can be made by meaningful planning of excavation. The time and age of any structure can be determined only when it is related to layer. There lies the significance of stratigraphy."


"18. That in the report the ASI has concluded "Now viewing in totality and taking into account the archaeological evidence of a massive structure just below the disputed . . . . . . . . are indicative of remain which are distinctive features found associated with the temples of north India . . . ."

This final conclusion drawn by ASI on the basis of materials as stated in their report does not rest on ground reality. The materials unearthed from dumps and pits do not support the theory of north Indian temple structure below the disputed mosque. How far it is reliable to believe that those who used fine decorative black basalt pillar, decorative stone lotus petal motif and other decorative stone patterns in their alleged temple would use brickbats and broken uneven calcrete blocks in their sacred temple which attaches too much of sentiment to the people." "19. That in the summary of results (chapter X) the ASI concluded on glazed ware, glazed tile, celadon and porcelain herds in the following manner "In the last phase of period vii glazed ware sherds make their appearance and continue in the succeeding levels of next period where they are accompanied by glazed tiles which were probably used in the original construction of the disputed structure. Similarly is the case of Celadon and porcelain sherds recovered in a very less quantity they come from secondary context . . . . ." (page 270).

One can obviously ask the excavator in view of this above statement what does he mean by the word "secondary context" ? According to his own statement "the brick and stone structures that were raised in 838 Kushana and the succeeding periods of Gupta and post- Gupta times have added heights to the mounds. To build further structure upon the earlier debris the later people added deposit of earth excavated from the periphery of the mound which belonged to much earlier cultural periods. This is true for the rest of the structural phases also . . . . . ."

It means that from sultanate period onwards the mound was filled up from time to time with architectural debris and earth excavated from periphery region of the mound. This means that all the deposit from this level upwards is debris and, therefore, not stratified. Naturally any antiquity collected from this level onwards is coming from secondary context. This is also applicable to the objects shown by the excavator in pushing back the theory of so-called north Indian temple. But the learned excavator has forgotten that any object coming from below any floor level may be considered as stratified in the sense that the objects are at least not later in age than the age of the overlying floor. In the present case many glazed ware sherds including glazed tiles have been reported from below different Surbhi-lime floors. (see table on glazed ware and tiles etc, as provided in the report by ASI). This would further indicate that the debris between three different lime-surbhi floors immediately below the disputed structure and which contain glazed ware, glazed tile, celadon and porcelain were excavated from the periphery of the mound to raise the area in different structural phases. This means that the periphery region of the present mound was inhabited by Islamic culture people 839 immediately before the construction of the disputed structure who used these ceramics otherwise we can not explain the reason."

"20. That it appears, therefore, on the basis of material evidences that the site was continuously occupied by the Islamic culture people right from the time of Sultanate period and the structures associated with this level belong to Islamic culture and in reality there did not exist any temple as suggested by ASI in their report." "21. That the good repute of the ASI has suffered an irreparable loss and the credibility of such a reputed organization has also suffered immensely on account of such a faulty report which does not stand the test of professional integrity."

541. PW 32, Dr. Supriya Verma, aged about 46 years, (on 27.03.2006) resident of Unit II, Teachers Flatlets, University of Hyderabad Campus, Gachi Hbowli, Hyderabad (A.P.), was working at Hyderabad University since 2005 as per her affidavit dated 27.3.2006 filed under Order 18 Rule 4 C.P.C. followed by her cross examination as under :

(a) 27/28-03-2006- Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17, through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Adovcate (p. 20-40)
(b) 28/29/30/31-03-2006, 17-04-2006-By Akhil Bhartiya Ram Janam Bhoomi Punruddhar Samiti, defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Ms. Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 40-
(c) 17/18/-04-2006-by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 98-116 )
(d) 19/20/21-04-2004-By Mahant Suresh Das, defendant 840 no. 2/1 through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 117-157)
(e) 15/17-05-2006- by Mahant Dharm Das, defendant no. 13/1 (Suit-4) through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 158-172)
(f) 17/18/19-05-2006, 24-07-2006- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Shri Ajay Pandey, Advocate and Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 172-218)
(g) 24-07-2006-Plaintiff (Suit-5) through Sri D.P. Gupta, Advocated adopted the cross examination already done on behalf of other defendants)

542. She has sought to discredit ASI report on various grounds claiming expertise in Archaeology i.e. an expert witness (Archaeology). She did M.A. in 1982 from Punjab University, Chandigarh, M.Phil in 1985 and Ph.D. in 1997 from Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi. Worked as Lecturer in Archaeology in Punjab University (Chandigarh) in the Department of History from October 1999 to February 2005, as Post Doctorate Fellow (Archaeology) at the Centre for Historical Studies, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi from October 1997 till July 1998 and as temporary Lecturer (Archaeology) at M.S. University, Baroda, in the Department of History from August 1998 to June 1999. Her subject of research in Ph.D. was "Changing Settlement Patterns in Kathiawar from the Chalcolithic to the Early Historic Period", and participated in excavation at several sites like, Nageshwar, Samnapur, Nagwada and Bagasara and in 2006 was involved in Archaeological Project at Indore Khera in Anupshahr, District Bulandshahr (U.P.). She has authored following books:

(1) Chapter on Archaeology in the book entitled as 841 "Some Themes in World History"prepared for Class XI as a text book by the National Council of Education and Research Training, New Delhi in April 2006.
(2) Co-edited with Prof. Satish Saberwal the book entitled "Tradition in Motion: Religion and Society in History" published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi in 2005.
(3) All the chapters on Archaeology in "Bharat Ka Itihas Part I, prepared by the State Council of Education Research and Training, New Delhi prescribed by the Delhi State Government since 2004.

543. About research papers, PW 32 has given details as under:

(a) "Changing Settlement Patterns in Kathiawar", published in the book "Iron and Social Change in Early India" edited by Prof. B.P. Shahu from Oxford University Press, New Delhi (2006) (Originally published in the Journal known as "Studies in History, Vol. VI, No. 2, 1990)
(b) "Ethnography as Ethnoarchaeology: a review of studies in ethnoarchaeology of South Asia", published in the Book 'Past and Present': "Ethnoarchaeology in India", published by Center for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India and Pragati, Kolkata and New Delhi, 2006.
(c) "Introduction of the book "Traditions in Motion: Religion and Society in History", edited by the deponent and Prof. Saberwal and published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi in 2005.
(d) "Defining Tradition: An Archaeological Perspective", written jointly with Dr. J. Menon and published in S. Saberwal and S.Verma's book 'Traditions in Motion: Religion and Society in History', Oxford University, Press, New Delhi, 2005.
(e) "In the absence of mounds: shifting villages, pastoralism and depopulation", published in the book edited by R. Heredia and S. Ratnagar, ' Mobile and Marginalized peoples: Perspectives from the Past' Manohar publishers, New Delhi, 2003.
(f) "Is Archaeology an Immature Discipline?" Published in The Indian Historical Review, Vol. XXVIII (2001).
(g) "The Development of "Harappan Culture" as an Archaeological Label: a case study of Kathiawar" published in The Indian Historical review, Vol. XXVI (1999).
(h) 'Owning a Civilization', jointly written with Dr. J. Menon published in the Summerhill Review, Vol. IV, no. 2, (1998) by the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla.
(I) "Villages Abandoned: the case for mobile pastoralism in Post Harappan Gujarat' published in Journal "Studies in History", Vol. VII, No.2, (1991) by SAGE (London and New Delhi).

544. PW 32 witnessed the excavation by ASI for about 47 days as under:

5th April 2003 -12th April 2003 11th May 2003 - 31st May 2003 843 22nd June 2003 - 27th June 2003 8th July 2003 - 19th July 2003

545. From Para 6 to 30 of her affidavit PW 32 has discussed and pointed out irregularities/discrepancies/shortcomings in the excavation report of the ASI which we propose to refer and discuss while discussing ASI report later on.

546. OPW 17, Dr. R. Nagaswamy, aged about 76 years (on 17th August, 2006), resident of 22nd Cross Street Besent Nagar, Chennai (Madras), deposed his statement as an expert witness (Archaeologist) to support ASI report. His cross examination followed as under :

Part-I:(a) 17/18/19/21/22/23/24-08-2006- by Mohd. Hashim, defendant no. 5 (Suit-5) by Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 30-116) Part-II : Cross examination: (b) 25-08-2006, 04/05/06/07/08-09-2006- by Mohd. Hashim, defendant no. 5 (Suit-5) by Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 117-184)
(c) 11/12/13/14/15/18/19/20/21/22-09-2006- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 (Suit-4) through Sri Z. Jilani, Advocate (p. 185-317)

547. He did Post Graduation in Sanskrit and Literature from Madras University in 1958 and Ph.D. from Pune University in 1974. He worked as Curator for Art and Archaeology, Government Museum, Madras in 1959-63; as Assistant Special Officer (Archaeology), Government of Tamilnadu in 1963-65; Director of Archaeology, Government of Tamilnadu from 1966- 88 and retired from the post of Director on 31st August, 1988, appointed as Vice-Chancellor, Kanchipuram University Madras in February 1995 and served as such up to 1996, was working as Director, International Institute of Shaiv Siddhant Research, 844 Dharmpuram, Madras. He claims specialization in the field of Temple Arts and Culture, Archaeology, Art History, Tamil Literature from Sangam age to Modern period, Sanskrit Literature, Indian Epigraphy and Archaeology, Ancient Indian Law and Society, South Asian Art and Religion, Agamic and Vastu Literature, South Indian Music and Dance, South Indian Numismatics, Religion and Philosophy, and Village studies. He has given details of his literary and other achievements from paras 9 to 22 of the affidavit which we skip for the moment and may deal with at the appropriate stage whenever necessary. He claims to have studied ASI report, deposed in support of the finds and findings of the said excavation, and from paras 24 to 42 said as under:

"24. That Archaeological Survey of India which is more than one hundred years old and has produced the most outstanding stalwarts in the field of Archaeology is known throughout the world for its excellence in all spheres of Archaeological work especially in the field of excavation its work has been extremely accurate and scientifically praiseworthy. Archaeology provides scientific factual data for reconstructing ancient history and culture, and is an important tool of human understanding and ASI has been doing this exercise admirably."
"25. That no excavator can create or manufacture a structure consisting a number of courses inside a trench. In some places long walls may cut through several trenches but these are easily seen through the layers, the baulk and retain them."

"26. That Chronologically early antiquities can be found in later periods which is perfectly normal but later 845 antiquities are not found in earlier layers." "27. That the ASI in the opinion of the deponent has followed all the required archaeological principles and has undertaken precautions to safeguard the site and has completed the excavation works in compliance of court's order. The report submitted by the Archaeological Survey of India, reveals that their performance within a limited period of time is a work of highest scientific nature and is an important piece in the history of Archaeology." "28. That before excavation of the disputed site a GPR survey was conducted under the orders of the court which is a non destructive scientific surveying method on the spot. The GPR survey is considered to be the most scientific method for conducting survey before actual digging. The anomalies pointed out in GPR survey may be confirmed by actual digging and that is what the ASI has done." "29. That the GPR survey conducted before actual digging under the orders of the court indicated about anomaly alignment across the main platform north and south of the sanctum sanctorum extending to Ramchabutra. The anomaly alignment corresponded to a wall foundation belonging to successive construction period associated with ancient and Contemporaneous structures like pillars, foundation walls, slabs etc."

"30. That the Archaeological Survey of India has arranged Archaeological documentation including drawing, and Photography, of the Structural remains, pottery, and antiquities, and collections of samples of plaster, floors bones, charcoal, palaeo-botanical remains for scientific studies and analysis."


"31. That in the year 1929 excavation were conducted at Mahasthan a great Hindu pilgrim centre in modern Bangladesh which was originally a portion of north India, about 8 miles from Bogra town. This place contains both Vaishnava and Saiva temples. The excavations were conducted by Dr. Nazeemuddin Ahmad and was published by the Archaeological Survey of India Bangladesh. In the said excavations archaeologists found an inscribed stone with Brahmi inscriptions of the Asokan period and the excavation proved the site to be ancient Mahasthan. In the excavation a number of carved stone pillars and pieces were found on the mound which proved the site to be an important Hindu temple, in almost every aspect. There were pillar bases. There were carved stone used. The habitation of the site goes back to Kushan period. In some instances the Temples have been built in successive phases over the existing structures. There were massive walls pointing to porches. There seems to be a central opening. Some of the carved stones of the Hindu temples are found used in Islamic structure. There were also large Islamic pottery and antiquities strewn over an area but no Islamic structure was found there. The number of Hindu carvings laying in the region are indicative of an important Hindu temple beneath the mound etc. Though it is an Islamic country, and though the excavator is an Mussalman they do not deny the existence of a Hindu temple laying buried but on the other that it is a Hindu temple. They being excellent Archaeologists have no hesitation in stating the truth. Photocopy of relevant pages prepared and annexed with this affidavit as Annexure No. 3."


"32. That the archaeological excavation at Ayodhya has shown indisputably that there existed a structure immediately beneath the disputed structure. It shows that the structure also had pillar bases. Pillar bases have been found in Mahasthan excavation in the Hindu temple area and that the Bangladesh Archaeologists have shown those pillar bases were meant to support a porch of a Hindu temple."

"33. That from the perusal of the report it is clear that the layers are well stratified and the periodization has been done as per settled norms and the finds have also been recorded and interpreted properly."

"34. That the carbon dating is a scientific mode of periodization which is considered to be reliable dating method in archaeology."

"35. That Pillar bases are made up of some sources of brick bats and are either square or circular in formation' Calcreate stone blocks are kept on sand stone block-one decorated stone block was found here. The idea that they are not pillar bases but heaps of stone for holding floor level is not correct. The stones in the middle of the brick formation undoubtedly were intended for supporting pillars and this tradition seems to have been followed through the centuries in this areas where even indisputable pillar bases are found. Below this brick wall, was found another brick wall-decorated stone blocks were used on top of this wall. Beneath pillar bases, earlier pillar bases were found. Some more brick structures were found beneath these walls. Most of the pillar bases were found connected with 2nd floor." "36. That existence of circular shrine with pranal towards 848 north proves existence of Hindu temple." "37. That the brick circular shrine is circular outside and square on the inner side, with a rectangular projection in the east with entrance, it has a water chute on the northern side which is obviously in level with the floor level of the inner sanctum clearly intended for the abhisheka to be drained, As this seems to be secondary shrine dedicated to Siva in his linga from the shrine is built to smaller dimension. Smaller dimension of subsidiary shrines with just minimum entrance space are seen in some of temples, eg. Manasor, Rajasthan- Kumbharia Shantinath Temple relevant pages are photostat copies prepared from those books, are annexed with this affidavit as Annexure no. 4, 5 (Temples of India by Krishna deva, published by Aryan Books, New Delhi) The smaller dimension does not preclude the structure being a shrine. The absence of any significant artefacts belonging to other sister faiths like Buddhism or Jainism, precludes this structure being identified with any of those faith."

"38. That in the opinion of the deponent the excavation report, its finds, proves beyond doubt the existence of a Hindu temple under the surface of the disputed structure." "39. That the presence of different bones in Hindu temple area is nothing unusual, nor does it minimize the sanctity of the temple premises, Bones in archaeological excavation are quite common."

"40. That all classical Hindu temples are laid according to a prescribed grid know as Vast pada vinayasa, Sacred diagram. Within the diagram and immediately outside the diagram several natural, benign or wild forces are present 849 that are propitiated. Among such forces are bhuta, pretas, Pisachas, etc which are offered worship when the temple is first erected and subsequently annually during the great festivals. During their worship different kinds of food offerings are made which include for Bhuta, Pretas, Pisachas etc. blood and meat of flesh of animals etc. suited to the nature of the evil forces (Mayamata, vol I, reference for meal offering and also for use of Lime and "Vastu Sastra" by D.N. Shukla, P. 114) photocopy of relevant pages prepared and annexed with this affidavit as Annexure No. 6 and 7. It is invariably part of Hindu worship. The offering is made generally during the mid of the night in all the directions. So the presence of Bones of animals or birds etc. does not preclude the place being a Hindu temple. There is a temple at Gudimallam now in Andhrapradesh near the famour Thiruppati Balaji Kshetra. The temple is well known to Indologists and carries in it sanctum a Siva linga which is in the form of human phallus and is dated to second century BC to the time of famous Bharhut sculptures of the Sunga Period. In order to asses the antiquity of this famour sculpture and its antiquity of the temple, the ASI conducted an excavation in side the sanctum of the temple. The excavated space between the linga and the sanctum wall was found to have been filled up in 12th - 13th century when the aforesaid temple was built. This filling contained bone pieces right in the garbhagraha area of a Hindu temple: the excavation shows that finds of bone does not mean the structure could not be a Hindu temple."

"41. That the Marici Samhita an early Vaishnava text, 850 (Pub Thiruppati Ed. 1926, p. 140) mentions parivara devas that include Nagas, Bhuta, Yaksha, Durga, Chota mukhi, Dhatri, Grahakshata, Rakshasa, Gandharva etc. At the beginning of festival all deities are offered Bali to propitiate them. Marichi p. 351. The following are the divinites to be propitiated with bali in addition to the well known ones. Deva Bhuta, Yaksha, Rakshara, Pisacha, Naga, Gandharvas and 18 ganas. (Bhrigu : Samhita Khiladhikara, also called Bhrgu Samhita Ed. Partha sarathi Bhattacharya, 1961 - Thiruppati, P. 434, Mahotsavavidhi.) Kamikagama :Saiva - Pt. 1, 1975, 75 Ref. Vastidevabali It gives what bali should be offered to whom. Rudra - mamsam annam (cooked rice with meat) Rudrajaya phenam (Moss) Apa - fish Apavatsa - Mamsa (meat) Caraki - ghee, (Mamsam meat) Grahas - Mamsannam (cooked rice with meat) These are called Utkrshta bali (highly respected) bali." "42. That the sarvasiddhanta viveka, a Sanskrit text states a branch of the saivas offered Madhu, Matsya, and Mamsa. (Art and Religion of the Bhairavas, R. Nagaswamy, Tamil Arts Academy, Chennai, 2006 P.S. - 6 and Page 49, photocopy of relevant pages prepared and annexed with this affidavit as Annexure No. 8."

548. OPW 18, Arun Kumar Sharma, a retired Superintending Archaeologist from ASI, aged about 73 years (vide his affidavit dated 28.08.2006), is resident of Sector 3, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra). His cross 851 examination followed as under:

Part-I : is his affidavit Part-II : Cross examination: (a) 28/29/30/31-08-2006-by Mohd. Hashim, defendant no. 5 (Suit-5) through Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 29-74)
(b) 31-08-2006, 01/25/26/27-09-2006, 01/02-11-2006- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 (Suit-5) through Sri Z. Jilani, Advocate (p. 74-152) Part-III :(c) 03/06/07/08/09/10/13/14/15-11-2006- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 (Suit-5) through Sri Z. Jilani, Advocate (p. 152-272)
(d) 15-11-2006 defendant no. 26 through Sri Sayad Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4 and 5 (p.273)

549. The witness has appeared as an expert (Archaeology) to support the findings of ASI. He did M.Sc. (Physical Anthropology) in 1958 from University of Sagar (Madhya Pradesh) and Post Graduate Diploma in Archaeology in 1968 from Institute of Archaeology, Government of India. In the Diploma examination he was awarded -

(a) Maulana Azad Memorial Medal for topping in the batch;

(b) Maulana Azad Memorial Prize;
(c) Sir Mortimer Wheeler Prize for excavation;
(d) Dr. K.M. Puri Prize for publication.

550. OPW 18 served ASI from 1959 to 1992 and had the opportunity to explore and excavate archaeological sites ranging from pre-historic time to modern time throughout the country.


The sites he excavated under the licence issued by Director General, ASI, as Team Director of the excavations and the reports of the said excavation were submitted to ASI within one year of the completion of the excavation, published in book form, are:

(i) Excavations at Gufkral (J&K) in the year 1981-82
(ii) Excavations at Karkabhat (Chhattisgarh)-1990
(iii) Excavations at Sekta (Manipur)-1991
(iv) Excavations at Anangpur (Haryana)- 1991-92
(v) Excavations at Bhaithbari (Meghalaya) - 1991-92
(vi) Excavations at Ladyura (presently in Uttranchal)-
(vii) Excavations at Darekasa (Maharashtra)-1992

551. OPW 18 is author of the books containing reports of excavation and explorations and has also edited certain work as under:

       A.     Excavations
       (i)    Emergence of Early Culture in North east India
              (New Delhi, 1993)

(ii) Pre-historic Delhi and its Neighbourhood (New Delhi, 1993)

(iii) Manipur - Its Glorious Past (New Delhi, 1994)

(iv) Megaliths in India - in context of Sought-East Asia (New Delhi, 1994)

(v) Early Man in Eastern Himalayas including Nepal (New Delhi, 1996)

(vi) Pre-historic Burials of Kashmir (New Delhi, 1998)

(vii) The Departed Harappans of Kalibangan (New Delhi, 1999)

(viii) Archaeo-Anthropology of Chhattisgarh (New Delhi, 853 2000)

(ix) Early Man in Jammu and Laddakh Kashmir (New Delhi, 2000)

(x) Heritage of Tansa Valley (New Delhi, 2004)

(xi) Excavating in a Cave, Cist and Church (New Delhi, 2005)

(xii) Excavating Painted Rock Shelters (New Delhi, 2006) B. Explorations

(i) Pura-ratna - volumes - Shri Jagat Pati Joshi Facilitation volume, New Delhi, 2002.

(ii) Puraprakasa - 2 volumes - Dr. Zia-ud-din Ahmed Desai commemoration volume, New Delhi, 2003.

552. OPW 18 participated as a team member in certain excavations and wrote reports on specific topics assigned to him in the following excavations:

       (i)     Kali Bangal (Rajasthan)
       (ii)    Burzahom (J&K)
       (iii) Lothal (Gujarat)
       (iv) Surkotada (Gujarat)
       (v)     Malvan (Gujarat)

553. After retirement OPW 18 claims to have worked as under:

(i) was appointed as Officer on Special Duty in 1993 in Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi and excavated the Rock Shelter site at Jhiri (M.P.) in 1993-94 in collaboration with the French Team. He was the leader of the Indian Team.
(ii) On request from Gurudev Siddha Peeth, Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, explored the entire Tansa Valley to 854 locate and document archaeological remains.
(iii) From 1997, he was appointed as Director (Projects) in Bodhisatwa Nagarjun Smarak Sanstha Va Anusandhan Kendra, Nagpur to conduct explorations and excavations and, as Director, conducted excavations at Sirpur (Chhattisgarh) from 2000 to 2004. He is conducting excavations and simultaneous conservation at Mansar (Maharashtra) since 1997-98 till this date under license from Archaeological Survey of India.
(iv) He has been appointed as Archaeological Adviser to the Government of Chhattisgarh since 2004 and is conducting excavations and simultaneous conservation at Sirpur (Chhattisgarh) since 2004 under license from Archaeological Survey of India.

554. OPW 18 also claims to have studied animal bones in excavation at Mirzapur and Karan Ka Teela (both in Haryana) and submitted report which has been published at the instance of Vice-Chancellor, Kurukshetra University; examined bones excavated from Sarai Nagar Rai, gave report which was published in book "Beginning of Agriculture"-Allahabad-1980 at the instance of Prof. G.R. Sharma (Late), Allahabad University. He is author of several research articles on various topics of archaeology published in international and national journals and is one of the expert of Indian Council of Historical Research, New Delhi to evaluate various projects for grant of fellowships to scholars; delivered lectures and imparted field training on exploration and excavation techniques to the students of Institute of Archaeology, Government of India. He visited excavation site on 6th - 7th August 2003, examined the 855 excavated structures, layers and deposits, and also examined the report of ASI as well as the photographs and other connected record. He deposed that the ASI has conducted its work strictly in accordance with well known principles and in para 15 of the affidavit said:

"15. That the report submitted by Archaeological Survey of India is in conformity with the archaeological principles and norms and is a most scientific report of the excavation of the disputed site at Ayodhya and is based on well- established and internationally accepted norms of archaeological excavations. From the perusal of the report, it is clear that the layers are well stratified and the periodisation has been done in a proper way and the finds have also been recorded and interpreted strictly in accordance with the settled archaeological norms."

555. The rest of the averments contained in his affidavit in examination-in-chief, we find appropriate to refer at the stage while dealing with ASI report later on alongwith statement in cross-examination.

556. OPW 19, Sri Rakesh Datta Trivedi, aged about 71 years (as per his affidavit dated 03.10.2006), resident of Sector 8, Rohini, Delhi, retired Director, ASI, New Delhi, has deposed as an expert witness (Archaeology) to support ASI report. His cross examination followed as under :

(a)03/04/06/09/10/11/12/13/16-10-2006- by Mohd. Hashim, defendant no. 5 (Suit-5) through Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 9-106)
(b) 17/18/19-10-2006, 15/16/18/20/21/22/23/24/-11-2006, 04/05-12-2006-by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 106-241) 856
(c) 05-12-2006- defendant no. 26 through Sri Syed Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Syed Irfan and Sri Fazle Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4 and 5. (341-342)

557. He did M.A. (Ancient Indian History and Archaeology) in 1958 from Lucknow University, Lucknow, joined National Museum, New Delhi as Museum Lecturer and worked in the said museum between 1962 to 1974. During this period he got specialised training in Museology in France under the French Government Scholarship scheme in 1967-1969, also visited museums at United Kingdom, Czechoslovakia and West Germany for specialised studies. He joined ASI, New Delhi, in 1974 and retired as Director, ASI New Delhi in June 1993. During this period he visited archaeological sites, museums and monuments in Japan under the cultural exchange programme of Government of India; worked as Head of the Temple Survey Project of North India from 1977-1984 and was engaged in research, interpretation of Indian Art, Temple Architecture and its Sculptures connected with Ancient Temples; and is author of "Temples of the Pratihara Period in Central India" published by ASI in series of Architectural Survey of Temples and another book titled as "Iconography of Parvati" published by Agam Kala Prakashan, New Delhi which deals with Parvati as the consort Siva; wrote several articles and research papers of Indian art and culture and therefore his services were connected with the study and research of temple archaeology and iconography. He said to have studied both the volumes of the report submitted by the ASI and in this regard stated as under from paras 9 to 17 of the affidavit:


"9. That the deponent during his service was connected with the study and research of temple architecture and Iconography."

"10. That the structural and architectural remains found in excavation at the disputed site proves the existence of remains of massive structure underneath. The existence of massive walls coupled with other structures and pillar bases further indicate the existence of an extensive pillared Mandapa-like structure which is found in temples of northern India."

"11. That the existence of 50 pillar bases exposed (some of them fully, other partially and a few of them traced in section) also indicate the existence of the Mandapa. The pillared structure which was below the surface of the disputed structure was standing on the much bigger area on lateral sides and front side facing east, further proves the existence of a big Mandapa."

"12. That in the Southern side of the disputed structure, the remains of a circular shrine, which dates back earlier to the pillared structure facing east, has a Vari-marga (Pranala) on the northern side to serve as an outlet for water which is usually found in the temples. To the east of it are situated the remains of water tank (Pushkarini) encountered under the Rama Chabutara. It may be mentioned here that Pushkarini is associated with Hindu temples."

"13. That the Architectural and Sculptural remains like Makar pranala (Crocodile faced Chute) terminating in foliage pattern, architectural pieces carved with Patra- Lata or kalpa-valli motif, pillar bases encased by 858 orthostats and bhadraka-type pillar base, lower part of an octagonal pillar carved with foliage pattern, architectural piece carved with alternating padma and ratna (lotus and diamond) motifs reused in the lower portion of brick wall definitely belong to some earlier temple structure." "14. That the architectural pieces carved with diamond (ratna) pattern and ceiling slab carved with lotus relief, pieces of broken amalaka, ghatapallava pillars, fragmentary foliage and floral carvings, Shrivatsa mark carved on stone in low relief, carved bricks with Ardha ratna and rope design; all these are indicative of a temple repertoire."

"15. That the book written by Percy Brown titled as "Indian Architecture" (Buddhist and Hindu ) published by D.B. Taraporewalla Sons and Company Private Limited, Bombay, deals with architectural and pillar remains of Hindu temples reused in mosques. Annexure No.1 of this affidavit is true photocopy of the original book plate number XCVI showing re-erected pillars of Qutub Mosque which establishes that temple remains were adapted in mosque."

"16. That Annexure No. 2 of this affidavit is true photocopy of the original book plate number VI figure 1 and 2 of the same book relating to Islamic period also establishes reuse of temple remains and pillars in Islamic structure."

"17. That Annexure No. 3 of this affidavit is true photocopy of the original book "Indian Archaeology 1998- 99 a Review" plate number 91 and Annexure No. 4 of this affidavit is true photocopy of the original book Hindu 859 Iconography (Based on Anthological Verses, Literature, Art and Epigraphs) by S.P. Tewari published by Agam Kala Prakashan, New Delhi, plate 10 and 12 which show the photo of Uma Mahesvara which indicate similarity to the badly damaged sculpture of Divine Couple."

558. DW 6/1-1, Hazi Mahboob Ahmad, aged about 67 years (vide his affidavit dated 29.08.2005). His cross examination followed as under :

Part-I:(a) 29/30/31.08.2005, 01.09.2005- by plaintiffs (Suit-3) through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate and Sri Tarunjeet Verma, Advcoate (p. 10-48)
(b) 01/02.09.2005- by Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 48-64)
(c) 02/05/06.09.2005- by defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Km. Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 64-90)
(d) 06.09.2005- by Mahant Suresh Das, defendnat no. 2/1 (Suit-4), through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 90-101) Part-II :(e) 07/08/09/12.09.2005- by defendant no. 13/1 through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 102-154)
(f) 12.09.2005, 19/20/21.10.2005, 24/25.11.2005- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 155-207)

559. He has given his statement criticizing ASI report, and making allegations against certain authorities of the then Government of India also. He himself is defendant no. 6/1 in Suit-3 and had already submitted his objection dated 08.10.2003 and supplementary objection dated 03.11.2003, and, in support thereof filed affidavit dated 29.08.2005, criticizing ASI report as 860 a whole. We propose to refer the same later while dealing with the objections against ASI report.

560. DW6/1-2, Mohd. Abid, aged about 49 years, (in 2005) working as Senior Technical Assistant in the Archaeology Section of the Department of History, A.M.U., Aligarh, resident of Shivli Road, A.M.U., Aligarh, filed affidavit dated 12.09.2005 claiming himself to be an expert (Archaeology) and has deposed against ASI report. His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 12/13.09.2005- by plaintiffs (Suit-3) through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (10-26)
(b) 14.09.2005- by Mahant Suresh Das, defendant no. 2/1 (Suit-4), through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 27-42)
(c) 15.09.2005- by Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17 (Suit-4) through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 43-53)
(d) 15/16.09.2005- by defendant no. 20 (Suit-4), Akhil Bhartiya Sri Ramjanam Bhumi Punruddhar Samiti, through Km. Ranjana Agnihotri (p. 53-66)
(e) 19/22/23/24/26/28.09.2005-by defendant no. 13/1 through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate (p. 67-144)
(f) 28/29.09.2005- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri Ajay Pandey, Advocate (p. 144-159)
(g) 29.09.2005- Rajendra Singh, plaintiff (Suit-1) through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendant no. 13/1 Dharm Das through Sri Rakesh Pandey, Advocate and plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri Ajay Kumar Pandey, Advocate (p. 159-160)

561. He did M.A. in Ancient Indian History from Agra 861 University, Agra and Diploma in Civil Engineering from A.M.U. He joined as Technical Assistant (Draftsman) in 1979 in the Archaeological Section of History Department of A.M.U. whereat the said post was later on upgraded as Senior Technical Assistant. He claims to have worked in several excavations, detailed by him in para 3 of the affidavit, as under:

^^;g fd 'kiFkh us vyhx<+ eqfLye fo'ofo|ky; ds bfrgkl foHkkx ds vUrxZr iqjkrRo vuqHkkx ds vius dk;Zdky esa iqjkrkfRod mR[kuu dh dqN egRoiw.kZ ifj;kstukvksa dh mR[kuu izfdz;k esa lfdz; Hkkxhnkjh dh gSA 'kiFkh us izks0 vkj0lh0xkSM+ ds v/khu ^vrjath [ksM+k* ¼ftyk ,Vk½] ^^Qrsgiqj lhdjh us'kuy izkstsDV vkQ ,Dldsos'ku*] vkxjk] yky fdyk] fl)iqj rFkk nksyriqj ¼ftyk cqyUn'kgj½ esa ,oe izks0 ,e0Mh0,u0 lkgh ds v/khu ^t[ksM+k* ¼ftyk cqyUn'kgj½ esa ,oe~ Mk0 ek[ku yky ds v/khu ^jk/ku* ¼ftyk dkuiqj½ esa Hkh mR[kuu dk;Z esa lfdz; Hkkxhnkjh dh gSA bu iqjkrkfRod mR[kuuksa esa eSaus Lo;a [kqnkbZ djus ds lkFk&lkFk bu LFkyksa ij mR[kuu dh lHkh voLFkkvksa ¼Stages½ dh lsD'ku Mªkbax cukus ls ysdj mR[kuu esa izkIr gksus okyh egRoiw.kZ iqjkoLrqvksa dks fudkyuk] mUgsa fpfUgr dj lwphc) djuk] muds izkfIr LFkku ¼Locus½ dks fuf'pr djuk] ,oe iqjkLFky ij [kqnkbZ ls izkIr iqjkrkfRod ijrksa ¼Layers½ds fofHkUu dkyksa ds Lrjhdj.k ¼Stratification½ djuk ,oe mudk dky fu/kkZj.k vkfn mR[kuu dh fofHkUu izfdz;kvksa ls iwjh rjg tqM+s jgdj dk;Z fd;k gS A bl dkj.k og iqjkrkfRod mR[kuu ds ekud] rduhd rFkk mldh oSKkfud o O;ogkfjd i)fr o izfdz;k ls vPNh rjg ls ifjfpr gSA mijksDr [kqnkb;ksa ls lEcfU/kr mYys[k Indian Archaeology-

A Review dh 1979&80 ¼ iz"B 71] 75½ 1980&81 ¼ i`"B 66½] 1981&82 ¼ iz"B 65½] 1982&83 ¼ iz"B 89½] 1983&84 ¼ iz"B 81½] 1984&85 ¼ iz"B 80] 86½] 1985&86 ¼ iz"B 74] 78½ rFkk 1986&87 ¼ iz"B 73½ vkfn dh fjiksVZa esa feyrk gSA bu [kqnkb;ksa ds vfrfjDr 'kiFkh us Prof. R.C.Gaur rFkk Sri Makkhan Lal vkfn ds lkFk iqjkrkfRod LFkyksa ds Exploration rFkk losZ dk dk;Z Hkh fd;k gSA esjs bl izdkj ds 862 dk;ksZ ds mYys[k Indian Archaeology 1978-79 -A Review ds iz"B 21 rFkk Indian Archaeology 1986-87--A Review ds iz"B 80 ij feyrs gSaA** "That I, the deponent, have made an active participation in the excavation proceedings of some important projects of archaeological excavation during my stint in the archaeological section under the history department of Aligarh Muslim University. I, the deponent, have made an active participation in the excavations at 'Atranji Kheda' (District Etah), 'Fatehpur Sikri National Project of Excavation', Agra, the Red Fort, Siddhpur and Dolatpur (District Bulandshahar) under Professor R. C. Gaur and at Jakheda (District Bulandshahar) under Prof. M.D.N.Shahi and at Radhan (District Kanpur) under Dr. Makhana Lal. Besides personally doing the digging, I have worked at these archaeological excavations by completely associating myself with various excavation proceedings ranging from making section drawing of all stages of excavation at these places to taking out important archaeological antiquities, marking and listing them, determining their locus of discovery, making period-wise stratification of archaeological layers discovered through excavation at the archaeological sites and carrying out their periodization, etc. For this reason, I am well acquainted with the norms and method of archaeological excavation and with its scientific and practical method and process. The aforesaid excavations find mention in Indian Archaeology - A Review on pages 71 and 75 of its 1979-80 issue, on page 66 of its 1980-81 issue, on page 65 of the 1981-82 issue, on page 89 of the 1982-83 issue, on page 863 81of the 1983-84 issue, on pages 80 and 86 of the 1984-85 issue, on pages 74 and 78 of the 1985-86 issue and on page 73 of 1986-87 issue. Besides these excavations, I, the deponent, have also carried out exploration and survey of archaeological sites with Prof R. C. Gaur, Sri Makhan Lal and others. This type of works of mine find mention on page 21 of Indian Archaeology- A Review, 1978-79 issue and on page 80 of on its 1986-87 issue." (E.T.C.)

562. DW 6/1-2 remained present during the course of excavation conducted by ASI at the disputed site for 83 days, i.e., from 12.03.2003 to 22.03.2003, 26.03.2003 to 15.04.2003, 05.05.2003 to 06.06.2003 and 16.06. 2003 to 03.07.2003 under the instructions of Muslim parties as their nominee, and witnessed various proceedings of excavation at different level. Regarding his observations during the course of excavation etc. he has given his statement in paras 5 and 6 which we propose to refer in detail while dealing with ASI report later.

563. DW20/5, Jayanti Prasad Srivastava, aged about 74 years, (vide his affidavit dated 15.01.2007), is resident of Bharat Apartment Shalimar Garden Ex-2, Sahibabad, District Ghaziabad. His cross examination followed as under :

(a/1)15/16/17/18/19/31.01.2007,01/02//05/06/07/08/09/12/ 13/ 14.02.2007 - by Mohd Hashim plaintiff no. 7 (Suit-4) through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 9-189) Part-II :(a/2) 15/19.02.2007- by Mohd Hashim plaintiff no. 7 (Suit-4) through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 190-209)
(b)19/20/21/22/23.02.2007, 12/13/14/15/16/19/20/21/22/23.03.2007- by plaintiffs no.
1, 6/1 and 6/2 Sunni Central Board of Waqf, Jiyauddin and Maulana Mahafujurrhman through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 209-376)
(c) 23.03.2007- Sri Syed Irfan Ahmad, Advocate for defendant no. 26 (Suit-5) adopted the cross examination of already made on behalf of plaintiffs (Suit-4) through Sri M.A. Siddiqui and Z. Jilani Advocates (p. 376)
(d) 23.03.2007- Sri Irfan Ahmad and Sri Fazle Alam, Advocates for defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) adopted the cross examination already done on behalf of plaintiffs (Suit-4) through Sri M.A. Siddiqui and Z Jilani, Advocates. (p. 376)

564. DW 20/5 is a retired Superintending Archaeologist, ASI, New Delhi. He deposed his statement to support findings of ASI report. He claims to be an Expert witness (Archaeology). He did M.A.(History) with specialization in Ancient Indian History and Culture from Lucknow University, Lucknow in 1955, passed Vidya Vachaspati Examination with a Combined Degree Course in Comparative Religion and Vedic Philosophy, Hindi and Ancient Indian Social Studies during the year 1960-61 from Arya Sahitya Mandal Ltd., Ajmer, Rajasthan; worked as a temporary Lecturer (History) in Sri Gandhi Vidyalaya, Sidhauli, District Sitapur; Technical Assistant in ASI, Excavation Branch, Nagpur (Maharashtra) from 15.05.1964 to December, 1971 for excavations in different parts of the country and in 1972 for excavation at Purana Qila, New Delhi; between 1964 to 1968 he was a Research Scholar at Vikram University, Ujjain (MP) under the guidance of Prof. M.N. Kaul, Former Head of History Department, Victoria College, Gwalior; worked on the History of Gwalior Region during the early medieval period from Circa 865 800 A.D. to 1300 A.D; joined ASI as an Exploration Assistant in the Central Circle, Bhopal in 1957 and explored an ancient mound at Ashta in the District Sehore (MP); attended excavation site at Ujjain in 1957-58 conducted by ASI; attended excavation site in District Sagar (MP) in 1960-61 and 1961-62 which work was undertaken by the Department of Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, Sagar University. He explored sites in district Hoshangabad (MP) in 1960-61 in Tawa Narmada River Valley; a site in Daddakadatur near Mysore in District Kolar in Karnataka in 1966-67; another site in District Karnoor (Andhra Pradesh) in 1967-68. Earlier while he was working as temporary lecturer at Sidhauli, he explored an ancient mound known as Maniva Kot in District Sitapur (UP) which was subsequently excavated by the Department of Archaeology and Museum, Government of U.P., Lucknow to establish its antiquity going up to sixth century BC. He also explored mounds and brick temples of Garhwal period in Village Nasirabad, Tehsil Misrikh, District Sitapur (U.P.) and visited a site at Village Unchgaon, Tehsil Sadhuli, District Sitapur in the year 1956-57 which was excavated by the Directorate of Archaeology & Museum, U.P. Government, Lucknow exposing the basement of massive Shiv Temple of Pratihara period of early Medieval Indian History. He joined as Deputy Superintending, Archaeologist (Sea Customs) ASI, Government of India, New Custom House Bombay, as an Art and Antiquity Expert for assisting the Customs Authorities in identifying the objects and antiquities which are prohibited for export purposes; posted as Deputy Superintending (Archaeologist), Northern Circle, Agra to assist and to carry out the administration and conservation of National Protected Monuments from July 1976 866 to May 1978; promoted as Superintending Archaeologist (Publication) in the office of Director General, ASI and was also posted as Superintending Archaeological (Special) for Delhi Group of Circles from July 1984 to May 1987 for demarcation of area around the National Protective Monuments. From 20th November, 1987 to 31st July 1991 he remain posted as Superintending Archaeologist, Excavation Branch to conduct excavation and exploration in the State of Punjab, Haryana, U.P. and M.P. and retired on 31.07.1991. In brief he claims to have excavated the following sites:

1. Adamgarh (Hoshangabad) MP 1960-61 (A Palaeolithic and Microlithic site)
2. Basenagar Vidisha (M.P.) 1963-64 (A Chalcolithic and early historic site)
3. Kalibangan (Sri Ganganagar) Rajasthan 1964-65 (A Pre Harappan and Harappan site)
4. Kalibangan (Sri Ganganagar) Rajasthan 1965-66 (A Pre Harappan and Harappan site)
5. Paiyampali (North Arcot) Tamil Nadu 1966-67 (A Neolithic and Megalithic site)
6. Singanpalli (Karnool) Andhra Pradesh 1967-68 (A Neolithic and Chalcolithic site)
7. Kalibangan (Sri Ganganagar) Rajasthan 1968-69 (A Pre Harappan and Harappan site)
8. Pauni (Bhandara Maharashtra) 1969 (An Early Buddhist Stupa site)
9. Pauni (Bhandara) Maharashtra 1969-70 (An Early Buddhist Stupa site)
10. Malwa (Surat) Gujarath 1970 (A Post Harappan and Chalcolithic Port Site) 867
11. Surkotada Bhuj (Kutch) Gujrat 1970-71 (A Harappan site)
12. Purana Qila (New Delhi) 1971-72 (A Proto Historic site)
13. Mathura (U.P.) 1973-74 (A Proto Historic Site)
14. Fatehpur Seekri (Agra, U.P.) 1976-77 (A National Project of Mediaeval Archaeology)
15. Fatehpur Seekri (Agra, U.P.) 1981-82 (A National Project of Mediaeval Archaeology)
16. Thaneshwar (Kurukshetra, Haryana) 1987-88 (An early historic site)
17. Sanghol (Ludhiana, Punjab) 1987-88 (A Late Harappan site)
18. Sanghol (Ludhiana, Punjab), 1988-89 (A Late Harappan site)
19. Sanghol (Ludhiana, Punjab) 1989-90 (A Late Harappan Site)
20. Directed explorations in districts Ludhiana, Ropar and Patiala during 1988-89.

565. DW 20/5's reports in regard to the independent exploration results published in the "Indian Archaeology-A Review" from 1957 to 1964, are:

1. Indian Archaeology-a-Review-1957-58; page:67 and Item: 20
2. I.A.R.-1958-59; Page-26, Item : 22
3. I.A.R.-1959-60; Page-69, Item : 15 and 16
4. I.A.R.-1960-61; Page-59, Item : 26
5. I.A.R.-1961-62; Page-98, Item : 21 and 22
6. I.A.R.-1962-63; Page-68, Item : 20 and 30
7. I.A.R.-1963-64; Page-87, Item : 13 and 14 868

566. Regarding exploration in District Hoshangabad (M.P.) the publication is in I.A.R. 1960-61, Item 31, and regarding Kolar, District Mysore and Karnool, the reference is I.A.R. 1967-68, page 3 Item 6.

567. DW 20/5 claim to remain present at the site of excavation for a period of five months i.e. from March 2003 to August, 2003 and in this regard from para 22 to 28 states as under:

"22. That the excavation at disputed site was carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India from 12th March 2003 to 7th August 2003."
"23. That the deponent spent five months i.e. March 2003 to August 2003 at the excavation site at Ayodhya and observed the entire excavation."
"24. That the excavation at disputed site at Ayodhya was carried out with limited but defined objects." "25. That during excavation, the Archaeological Survey of India adopted the latest techniques of layout of trenches where limited space was available."
"26. That the excavation work was planned in phased manner in particular areas as per significant signals pointed out by the Ground Penetrating Radar Survey." "27. That the Archaeological documentation including drawing and photography of the structural remains, pottery and antiquities were done in very organized manner as per the norms of Archaeology."
"28. That in order to maintain transparency all the excavated materials including antiquities, object of interest, glazed pottery, tiles and bones which were recovered from the trenches, were sealed in the presence of 869 Advocates, Parties or their nominees and kept on the same day of their recovery in the Strong Room provided by the authorized person."

568. Regarding individual aspects of the matter referred to in the ASI report, his statement is in paras 29 to 33 and we propose to deal with it later alongwith ASI report but his assertion contained in para 34 of the affidavit may be reproduced as under:

"34. That there was a Temple Structure beneath the disputed Structure."
E. Characteristics of Mosque
569. PW 10, Mohd. Idris, claims to be an expert in Muslim religious matters. His deposition is as under :
28.02.1997-Examination-in-chief (p. 1-5) Cross examination: (a) 28.02.1997, 03/04.03.1997- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 5-
(b) 04/05.03.1997-by Dharamdas through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 41-58)
(c) 05/06.03.1997, 09/29.04.1997-by Sri Umesh Chandra Pandey through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 58-
95), adopted by Hindu Mahasabha and Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi through Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Advocate (p. 99) and Sri Rajendra Singh, son of Sri Gopal Singh Visharad through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate (p. 99)
(d) 29.04.1997-by Sri Paramhans Ramchandra Das through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 95-99)
(e) 29/30.04.1997-by Sri Deoki Nandan Agarwal, plaintiff (Suit-5) (p. 100-115)
570. He is aged about 52 years (in February, 1997 when his 870 statement-in-chief commenced on 28.02.1997) is resident of Qusba Mehrawal, District Basti. By profession he is a Teacher at Madarsa Darul Uloom Ahle Sunnat Faizul Islam which is at Mehrawal, District Basti. About his qualification and other expertise in the religious matters he said:
^^eSa Qkftys njls futkfe;ka vkSj Qkftys njls vkfy;k gwWaA eSaus dbZ enjlksa ls rkyhe gkfly dh gSA eq>s Qkftysnjls futkfe;k dh lun tkfe;ka gehfn;k fjtfo;k enuiqjk cukjl ls feyh Fkh vkSj Qkftys njls vkfy;k dh lun vjch ,.M if'kZ;u cksMZ] bykgkckn ls feyh gSA Qkfty ls igys vkfye gksrk gSA vkfye dh lun Hkh eq>s bu nksuksa txg ls feyh gSA esjh rkyhe 1962 esa eqdEey gks x;h FkhA mlds ckn eSa i<+kus yxkA eSa esgjkoy esa gh i<+krk gwWaA esjs enjls dk uke nk:ymywe vgyslqUur Qstqy bLyke gSA eSa ogka ij 1963 ls i<+k jgk gwWaA eSa tks ekSts i<+krk gwW og gSa fQdgk] gnhl] rQ~lhj] oxSjg gSa vktdy eSa lnj ennfjl@fizafliy@gwWaA eSaus dqjku 'kjhQ vkSj mlds rQ~lhj dks i<+k gSa vkSj i<+k;k Hkh gSa gnhl dks Hkh eSaus i<+k gS vkSj i<+k;k Hkh gSA dqjku 'kjhQ dh tks [kkl&[kkl rQ~lhjs eSaus i<+h gSa og gSa& rQ~lhj tykySu] enkjsdqRruthy] rQ~lhj oStkoh] rQ~lhjkrs vgefn;k] rQ~lhjsdchj] rQ~lhjs d''kkQ oxSjgA gnhl ds [kkl&[kkl etq,a Hkh eSaus i<+s gSaA tSls fd cq[kklh 'kjhQ] eqlfye 'kjhQ] frjfeth 'kjhQ] vcwnkmn] bCusektk oxSjgA fQd~g dh vge fdrkcksa esa&fgnk;k] 'kjSodk;k] eqfu;rqyeqlYyh] QrkokfgUfn;k] Qrgqydnhj] nqjsZeq[rkj] jn~nqyeqgrkj] oxSjgA QrkokfgfUn;k vkSj Qrkokvkyefxjk ,d gh fdrkc ds vyx&vyx uke gSaA** "I am 'Fazil-e-darse Nizamian' and 'Fazil-e-darse Aalia'. I have got education from many schools. I obtained my 'Fazil-e-darse Nizamian' certificate from Jamian Hamidia Rizvia, Madanpura, Benares and 'Fazil-e-darse Aalia' certificate from Arabic and Persian Board, Allahabad. Aalim precedes Fazile. I have got the Aalim 871 certificate, too, from these two places. I completed my schooling in 1962. After that I began to teach. I teach at Mehrawal itself. The name of my school is Darul-uloom Ahlesunnat Fezul Islam. I have been teaching there since 1963. Subjects which I teach include fiqah, Hadis(tradition/narrative about sayings of Prophet Muhammad), Tafsir(explanation of the Quran), etc. Now a days I am head/principal of the school. I have read the holy Quran and its explanation and also taught them. I have read Hadis and also taught it.
Particular explanations which I have read on the holy Quran , are; Tafsir Jalalain, Madar-e-quttanzeel, Tafsir Vaizavi, Tafsira-raate Ahmadiya, Tafsir-e-kabir, Tafsir-e-kashshaaf, etc. On Hadis I have also read particular mazus, such as Bukhaasi Sharif, Muslim Sharif, Tirmizi Sharif, Abu Dawood, Ibn-e-maaza, etc. Important books on fiqah include Hidaya, Sharaivakay, Muniyatulmusalli, Fatawahindiya, Fathulkadir, Durremukhtaar, Raddulmuhtaar,etc.. Fatawahindiya and Fatawa-aalamgira are different names of the same book." (E.T.C.)
571. PW 10 deposed further about the characteristic of a mosque etc. and said:
^^dqjku 'kjhQ esa rtsZ rkehj efLtn dh ckcr dksbZ gqDe ugha gSA ;kuh fd efLtn cukus okyk vktkn gS og mls fdlh Hkh rjg ls cuk ldrk gSA efLtn esa fdlh xqEcn ;k ehukj dk gksuk t:jh ugha gSa gnh'k es a ,d gq D e ;g gS fd efLtnk s a es a ehukj u cukbZ tk;sA efLtn esa dq,a dk gksuk ;k otw dk bUrtke gksuk Hkh t:jh ugha gSA gnh'k 'kjhQ esa ?kj ls otw djds efLtn tkus dh rjthg nh x;h gSA ,sls 'k[l dks ?kj ls pyus ij gj dne ij nl nl usfd;ka feyrh 872 gSaA lc [krk;sa ekQ gks tkrh gSaA rkehj djus okyk pkgs f'k;k gks pkgs nwljh tekr ls rkYyqd j[krk gks mlls og efLtn flQZ ,d gh tekr rd lhfer ugha jg tk;sxh cfYd og ,d vke efLtn dgyk;sxhA ftl efLtn esa beke lqUuh gks vkSj uekft;ksa dh T;knk rknkn Hkh lqfUu;ksa dh gks mldk eqroYyh f'k;k eqlyeku Hkh gks ldrk gSA vxj efLtn fdlh ,sl h txg cu tk;s ftlds pkjk s rjQ dfcz L rku gk s rk s Hkh og utk;t ugh a dgyk;sx hA vxj efLtn esa tkus ds jkLrs esa fgUnqvksa ds eafnj vkrs gksa rks efLtn igqWapus dh dksbZ eukgh ;k cqjkbZ ugha gSA ,slh efLtn esa uekt i<+h tk ldrh gS ,slh txg ij efLtn cukuk Hkh tk;t gSa vxj efLtn ,sl h txg rkehj gk s tk;s tk s xS j eq f Lye etgc okyk s a dk viuk eq d n~ n l eq d ke jgk gk s rk s efLtn ds vius :rck vkS j idhtxh es a dk sb Z QdZ ugh a vk;sx kA vxj efLtn ,sl h txg cu tk;s tgkW a igy s eaf nj Fkk vkS j ckn esa flQZ tehu Fkh rk s ml tehu ij cuh gq b Z efLtn tk;t jg sx hA vxj efLtn dh bekjr f'kdLrk gks tk;s] fxj tk;s ;k 'kghn gks tk;s rks Hkh efLtn dh tehu dh vgfe;r vkSj :rcs esa QdZ ugha vk;sxk D;ksafd og [kqn ,d efLtn gSA ml tehu ij uekt i<+h tk ldrh gSa ml tehu dk bLrseky fdlh vkSj edln ds fy, gks ldrkA vxj efLtn dh nhokjk sa ij ;k [kEHkk sa ij fdlh tkunkj pht dh rLohjs a ;k ewf rZ;kW a cuh gq b Z gk sa rk s ogkW a pUn lwj rk s a es a dh x;h uekt ed:g gk s tk;sx hA ;kuh mlds lckc esa dq N deh gk s tk;sx h ysf du uekt tk;t jgsx h vkS j pUn lwj rk s a es a dq N deh gk s tk;sx h ysf du uekt jgsx h vkS j pUn lwj rk s a esa og ed:g Hkh ugh a gk sr h mldk lckc iwj k jgrk gS A vxj rLohj lkeus gk s] ltnsd h txg ij gk s rk s uekt ed:g gk s tk;sx hA vxj rLohj lkeus Hkh gk s vkS j uekt i<+u s okys dk s mldk ,sg lkl u gk s ;k bye u gk s rk s uekt es a dk sb Z deh ugh a vk;sx hA vxj rLohj bruh NksVh gks fd ml ij xkSj u fd;k tk lds rks uekt esa dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+sxkA vxj efLtn ds fdlh fgLls esa ewfrZ;kWa j[kh gqbZ gks rks Hkh uekt tk;t jgsxh ysfdu ml ewfrZ dks fudkyus dh Hkjiwj dksf'k'k djuk t:jh gSa 873 fQj Hkh efLtn oks cdjkj jgsxh ml ij dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+sxkA ml ewfrZ ds ogkWa j[ks jgus ij Hkh og reke txg efLtn gh dgyk;sxh fdlh pht ds vkus tkus ij efLtn dh uoS;~;r ij QdZ ugha iM+sxkA vxj efLtn ds fdlh fgLls es a nwl j s fdlh etgc ds yk sx k s a us vius xS j eq f Lye ;dhns ds eq r kfcd iwt k ikB 'kq : dj nh gk s ;k ogkW a ok s n'kZ u ds fy, vkrs gk s a rk s Hkh efLtn dh viuh idhtxh es a QdZ ugh a vk;sx k ok s efLtn gh jgsx hA dfczLrku bLykfed etgc ds eqrkfcd ,d txg ls nwljh txg eqUrfdy ugha gks ldrhA ,d dcz tgkWa cu x;h mldks ml ml txg ls dgha eqarfdy ugha fd;k tk ldrkA efLtn dks Hkh viuh txg ls dgha eqarfdy ugha fd;k tk ldrkA dfczLrku ls vxj dczksa ds fu'kkukr Hkh feV tk;sa rks Hkh og dfczLrku cdjkj jgsxkA vxj dczks ds fu'kkukr feVk fn;s tk;sa vkSj dczksa dks [kksn fn;k tk;s rks Hkh og dfczLrku jgsxkA fgUnqLrku ds eqxy lYrur dh rkjh[k Hkh eSus i<+h gSA rkjh[k es a eq > s ,sl k dk sb Z ftdz ugh a feyk fd ckcj us v;k s/ ;k es a dk sb Z eaf nj rk sM +d j efLtn cuk;h gk s a ckcj ds nkS j esa fgUnq L rku esa fdlh vkS j txg Hkh dk sb Z eaf nj rk sM +d j efLtn ugh a cuk;h x;hA vkS j ax t sc ds tekus es a Hkh ,sl k fdlh okD;s dk ftdz eS au s rkjh[k esa ugh a i<+k A Qrkosg vkyefxjh dh cgqr ls mysekvksa us ,dBBk gksdj rjchc nh FkhA** "The holy Quran gives no command as to construction of a mosque. That is to say, the builder of a mosque is free to build it any way he likes. It is not necessary for a mosque to have any dome or minaret.
Hadis contains a command that mosques should not have minarets. It is also not necessary for a mosque to have a well or an arrangement for vaju (cleaning of hands and feet). Hadis Sharif lays emphasis on going to mosque after doing 'vaju' at home. Such a person gets blessings at every ten paces after leaving home. All his sins get 874 pardoned. The builder may be a Shia or of any other community; that will not limit the mosque to only one community. Rather, it will be called a public mosque. A mosque having Sunni as Imam and with Sunnis forming the majority of namazists, may have even a Shia Muslim as Mutvalli. If a mosque is constructed at a place surrounded by graveyard even then it will not be called unholy. If there are Hindu temples on the way to a mosque, there is no restriction or evil in reaching the mosque.

Namaz can be offered at such a mosque. It is also legitimate to build a mosque. If a mosque is built at a place which has been a holy place for non-Muslims, it will not affect the standing and sanctity of the mosque. If a mosque is built at a place which earlier had a temple and was subsequently just a piece of land, the mosque built on such a place will be legitimate. If the building of the mosque gets damaged, demolished or martyred even then the land of the mosque will not lose its importance and standing because it is in itself a mosque. Namaz can be offered at this place. It can be used for any other purpose. If the walls or pillars of a mosque have pictures or idols of animate things carved on them, the namaz offered there will be 'maqruh' in some situations. That is to say, it will be somewhat deficient in its rewards but it will be legitimate, and in certain situations it will have somewhat less force but it will be a namaz. In some situations, it is not 'maqruh' but it is fully rewarding. If the picture is right in front and at a holy place and namazist has no impression or idea about it even then the namaz will have no deficiency.If the picture is so 875 small that it cannot be seen, it will have no impact on namaz. If 'murtis' (idols) are kept in any portion of the mosque even then namaz will be legitimate. But all out efforts are necessary to be made for taking them out. However, the mosque will continue to be such and it will not have any impact on its character. Even if idols remain to be placed there, such place in its major portion will be called mosque only. The character of the mosque will not be affected by to and fro movement of things. If people of any other faith have started performing pooja-paath (worship and prayer) as per non-Muslim rites in any portion of the mosque, or they go to have darshan there, it will not affect the sanctity of the mosque and it will remain a mosque.

As per Islamic faith, a grave yard cannot be shifted from one place to another. Once a graveyard is erected, it cannot be moved elsewhere. A mosque cannot be shifted from its locus to anywhere else. Even if traces of graves are obliterated from the graveyard, it will remain to be a graveyard. If signs of graves are wiped out and the graves are dug up even then it will remain to be a graveyard.

I have also read the history of Mughal Sultanate of Hindustan. In the history I have found no mention of Babur having demolished any temple to build a mosque. During the reign of Babur, mosque was not built by demolishing any temple at any other place also.

In the history, I have not read about any such incident even in reference to the reign of Aurangzeb. Many Ulemas of Fataweh Aalamgiri had assembled and given 'tarbeeb'." (E.T.C.) 876

572. PW 11, Mohd. Burhanuddin, is aged about 60 years (on 16th September, 1997) and resident of Sambhal, District Moradabad. His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 16/17.09.1997- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate(p. 3-23)
(b) 18.09.1997-by Dharamdas through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 24-30)
(c) 18/19/30.09.1997, 11.10.1997- by Sri Umesh Chandra Pandey through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 31-
(d) 11.10.1997- by Sri Paramhans Ramchandra Das through Sri Madan Mohan Pandey, Advocate (p. 64-69)
(e) 12.11.1997-by Hindu Mahasabha and Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi through Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Advocate (p. 70-73)
(f) 12.11.1997-Cross examination made so far adopted by Sri Rajendra Singh, son of Sri Gopal Singh Visharad through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate (p. 73)
(g) 12/13/21.11.1997-by Sri Deoki Nandan Agarwal, plaintiff himself and next friend to other plaintiffs (Suit-5) (p. 73-93)

573. He is a teacher at Darul Uloom Nadvatul Ulema, Lucknow, a Madarsa also known as Nadva. About his educational qualification and expertise in religious matter pertaining to Islam he said:

^^esjh izkjfEHkd rkyhe laHky ds nks enjlksa esa gqbZA laHky ftyk eqjknkckn esa gSA mlds ckn eSaus viuh rkyhe nk:y mywe nsocan ls gkfly dhA ogkWa ls eSus Qkfty dh lun gkfly dhA ;g lun eq>s 1957&58 esa feyh FkhA mlds ckn nsgyh esa enjlk vkfy;k vjfc;k&Qrsgiqjh esa i<+k;kA vkfye dh lun ls Qkfty dh lun cM+h gksrh gSA ckt enjlksa esa vkfye dk dkslZ gksrk gS ysfdu mldh lun 877 ugha nh tkrhA nsgyh ds ckn eSa nk:y mywe unorqy mysek] y[kuÅ 1970 esa vk;kA ¼bl enjlk dks unok ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA½ eSa unok esa fnlEcj 1970 ls i<+k jgk gwWaA eSa [kkl rkSj ls gnhl] rQlhj vkSj fQds i<+krk gwWaA dqjku 'kjhQ ij [kkl&[kkl rQlhjs tks eSaus i<+h gSa og gS& [kkftu d'k'kkQ] bccs dlhj] etgjh] c;kuqydqjku] cStkch] evgkfjQ vy dqjkuA gnhl dh tks [kkl [kkl fdrkcsa i<+h gS oks gSa cq[kkjh 'kjhQ] eqfLye 'kjhQ] frjfeth vcwnkmn] ulkbZ] bCusektk] fe'kdkr'kjhQA tks fQdsg dh fdrkcsa i<+h gSa muds uke gSa& fgnk;k] 'kjgodk;k] dUtwnndk;d] dqnwjh] cnk;s] nnnqy eqgrkj] nq:y eq[rkjA** "I had my early schooling in two schools of Sambhal.

Sambhal is in Muradabad district. After that I got my schooling from Darool Uloom, Devband. I obtained the Fazil certificate from there. I obtained the certificate in 1957-58. After that I taught at a Delhi-situated school known as Aaliya Arabia-Fatehpuri. The Fazil certificate is superior to the Aalim certificate. Certain schools run the Aalim course but no certificate thereof is awarded. After teaching at Delhi I came to Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulema, Lucknow in 1970. (This school is known by the name of Nadwa). I have been teaching at Nadwa since December, 1970. I teach Hadis (collection of traditional sayings of Prophet Muhammad), Tafsir (explanation of the Quran) and fiqah in particular.

Particular explanations I have read on the holy Quran, are: Khazin Kashshaaf, Ibabe Kasir, Majhari, Bayanulquran, Baijabi and Ma-aharif Al Quran.

Particular books which I have read on Hadis, are: Bukhari Shari, Muslim Sharif, Tirmizi Abudawood, Nasai, Ibn-e-maza and Mishakat Sharif.


Names of the Fiqah books which I have read, are: Hidaya, Sharahwakaya, Kanjoodadkaayak, Kuduri, Badaye and Dadul Mahtar Durul Mukhtar. " (E.T.C.)

574. In the matter of characteristic of mosque and other Islamic matters PW 11 said:

^^dqjku 'kjhQ ;k gnhl esa efLtn ds rtsZ rkehj ds ckjs dksbZ [kkl fgnk;r ugha gSA 'kfj;r ds futke ls efLtn ds fy, fdlh [kkl rjg dh bekjr dh t:jr ugha gSA fdlh [kkl 'kDy dh t:jr ugha gSA flQZ mls fdCyk :[k gksuk pkfg,A fdlh xqEcn ;k ehukj dk gksuk efLtn ds fy, t:jh ugha gSA efLtn esa fdlh dq,a dk gksuk ;k otw dk bUrtke gksuk Hkh t:jh ugha gSA efLtn ds pkjksa rjQ Hkh dfczLrku gks ldrk gSa efLtn ds tkus ds jkLrs esa vxj fdlh nwljs etgc dh dksbZ bcknrxkg ¼/kkfeZd LFky½ gks] rks Hkh efLtn dh uobr ;k ikdhtxh ij QdZ ugha vk;sxkA vxj efLtn dh bekjr f'kdLrk gks tk;s rks mls fxjkdj nqckjk cuk;k tk ldrk gSA vxj dksbZ nwljs yksx efLtn dh bekjr dks fxjk nsa] rks Hkh og efLtn dk;e jgsxha vxj rkehj'kqnk efLtn dks fxjk fn;k tk;s] rks Hkh og tehu efLtn dk;e jgsxhA ftl txg ij ,d nQk efLtn cuk nh tk;s] og ges'kk efLtn jgsxhA ftl txg ij ,d nQk efLtn cuk nh tk;s] og ges'kk efLtn jgsxhA vxj fdlh efLtn dh nhokjksa ij ;k [kEcksa ij dksbZ i'kq&i{kh ;k vkneh ;k vkSjrksa ;k nsoh&nsorkvksa dh rlohjs cuh gqbZ gksa rks Hkh ogka ij uekt i<+h tk ldrh gS] ysfdu vxj ,slh vykekr fdcys dh rjQ okyh nhokj ij gksa] rks uekt gks tk;sxh] exj og ed:g gks tk;sxhA mlesa =qfV vk tk;sxhA ed: ls eryc gS fd mls lckc esa deh gks tk;sxhA vxj efLtn ds fdlh fgLlk esa fdlh nsoh&nsork dh ewfrZ j[k nh tk;s] rks Hkh efLtn dk;e jgsxhA vxj efLtn ds fdlh fgLls esa fdlh nwljs etgc okys viuh bcknr 'kq: dj nsa] rks Hkh og efLtn jgsxhA "The holy Quran or Hadis has no specific command about the style of mosque construction. As per the order of Shariyat, there is no requirement of a particular type of building for a mosque. There is no requirement of a 879 particular shape. It is only required that it should be facing Kibla. It is not necessary for a mosque to have a dome or a minaret. It is also not necessary for a mosque to have a well or arrangement for 'vaju'. There may be a graveyard all around a mosque. Even if there is a worship place of any other faith on the way to a mosque, it will not affect the sanctity of the mosque. If the building of mosque gets dilapidated, it can be demolished and built afresh. Even if a mosque is demolished by other persons, the mosque will continue to be such. If a constructed mosque is demolished even then the land will continue to be a mosque. Any place where a mosque is once constructed, will always be a mosque. If any mosque has pictures of animals or birds or men or women or male and female deities engraved on its walls even then namaz can be offered there. But if such signs/symbols are on the wall facing Kibla, namaz will get offered but it will be 'maqruh'. There will be error in it. By the word 'maqruh' it is meant that it will develop short fall in its efficacy. Even if any idol of male or female deity is placed in any part of the mosque, it will continue to be a mosque. If followers of any other religion begin to perform worship in any part of mosque even then it will be a mosque." (E.T.C.) **dcz dks t:jru eqUrfdy fd;k tk ldrk gS] ysfdu txg ds eqUrfdy gksus dk loky gh iSnk ugha gksrkA txg rks tehu gksrh gS] og dSls eqUrfdy gks ldrh gSA dcz ds eqUrfdy gksus ls esjk eryc e;br ¼e`rd 'kjhj½ ds eqUrfdy gksus ls gSA vxj fdlh dfczLrku esa dksbZ txg ckdh u jgh gks vkSj og dfczLrku bruk iqjkuk gks pqdk gks fd og mlesa e;br tehu esa tCr gks xbZ gks vkSj mldk dksbZ oDQ ,slk u gks ftlls ml tehu ds nwljs bLrseky ij ikcUnh gks rks og txg nwljs bLrseky esa vk ldrh gS] 880 ojuk ughaA ;kuh okfdQ dh ea'kk ds cxSj og txg nwljs bLrseky es ugha vk ldrhA viuh rkyhe ds nkSjku eSaus fgUnqLrku dh rkjh[k dk eqrk;yk Hkh fd;k gS] FkksM+k&cgqrA esj s bYe es a ,sl k ugh a gS fd ckcj us v;k s/ ;k esa fdlh efUnj dk s rk sM +d j efLtn cuokbZ gk sA esj s bYe ds eq r kfcd ckcjh efLtn dh rkehj fdlh efUnj dk s rk sM +d j ugh a dh xbZ A ** "A grave can be shifted if there be any such requirement, but there is no question of shifting the place.
The place is certainly a piece of land. How can it be shifted. 'By shifting of the grave' I mean the shifting of the body of a dead person. If any graveyard is left with no place and the graveyard has become so old that dead bodies have got mixed with soil and there is no waqf putting restriction on the use of the land in any other way, the land can be put to some other use. If such is not the case, it cannot be used otherwise. That is to say, without the consent of the waqf, the land cannot be put to any other use.
In course of my study I have gone through the history of Hindustan to some extent. I have no idea whether Babar had built a mosque in Ayodhya after breaking down any temple. To my knowledge, the Babri mosque was constructed not by demolishing any temple." (E.T.C.)

575. PW 19, Maulana Atiq Ahmad, aged about 47 years (on 21st May, 2001 when his examination commenced), resident of Village Murla Kalan, District Sant Kabir Nagar, is working as Teacher at Nadvat-ul-Ulema, Daliganj, Lucknow. His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 21/22-05-2001- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L.
Verma, Advocate(p. 3-38)
(b) 23-05-2001- by Dharamdas, defendant no. 13, through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 39-47 )
(c) 23.05.2001, 09/10.07.2001- by Sri Umesh Chandra Pandey, defendant no. 22 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 47-74), adopted by Hindu Mahasabha, defendnat no. 10 and Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17, through Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Advocate, plaintiffs (Suit-1) through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate and plaintiffs (Suit-5) (p. 84)
(d) 10-07-2001- Sri Paramhans Ramchandra Das, defendant no. 2. through Sri Madan Mohan Advocate (p. 74-84)

576. He stated about his qualifications, experience in religious matters (Islam) as under:

^^eSa unor&my&mysek esa bl le; dk;Zjr gwWaA eSa ogka ij mLrkn gwWaA eSa 20 lky ls ogka ij i<+k jgk gwWaA esjh 'kq: dh rkyhe esjs xkao dh gS] mlds ckn eSa enjlk uw:y&mywe] cgjkbZp esa i<+k FkkA ogka ij eSa pkj lky rd i<+kA eSaus cgjkbp ls ekSyoh dk bErsgku ikl fd;k FkkA mlds ckn eSa nk:y&mywe nsocUn esa pyk x;kA ogka ls eSaus Qkft+y dh fMxzh gkfly dha Qkfty dk dkslZ 6 o"kksZa dk gksrk gSA Qkfty dk dkslZ djus ds ckn eSaus nsocUn ls gh eqQ~rh dk dkslZ fd;kA Qkfty djus ds ckn eSaus bykgkckn cksMZ ls vkfye dh ijh{kk ikl dh Fkha ;g ijh{kk eSaus Qkfty dh fMxzh gkfly djus ds ckn nh FkhA unorqy myek y[kuÅ esa eSa bLykfed ykW ;kfu fQdg vkSj mlwys fQd i<+krk gwWA blds vykok gnhl ,oa rQ~lhj i<+krk gwWaA bLykfed ykW esa eqQ~rh ls lacaf/kr fo"k; Hkh vkrs gSaA bLykfed ykW esa fo'ks"k Kku j[kus okys dks gh eqQ~rh dgrs gSaA eSa bLykfed fQd ,dsMeh] fnYyh dk lsdzsVjh gwWaA bLykfed fQd ,dsMeh dk gj lky ,d lsehukj eqfLye elk;y ,oa bLykfed ykWa ij gksrk gSA ;g lsehukj fgUnqLrku ds eq[rfyQ eqdkeksa ij gksrk gSA pwafd eSa mldk lsdzsVjh gWwa blfy, mu 882 lHkh lsehukjksa esa 'kkfey gksrk gwWA eSa eqfLye ilZuy ykW cksMZ dk QkmaMj esacj Hkh gwWA bl ,dsMeh ds lsehukj fgUnqLrku ds vUnj gh gksrs gSa ij blesa nwljs eqekfyd ls Hkh yksx 'kkfey gksrs gSaA 1999 esa eSa 'kjh;k LdkyjlZ vkQ ukFkZ vesfjdk dh nkor ij vesfjdk mudh dkaQzsal ;kfu nks dkaQzsUl vVs.M djus x;k FkkA blds vykok dkfgjk esa vkSdkQ dh dkaQzsal esa f'kjdr djus x;k FkkA dkfgjk felz dh jkt/kkuh gSA vesfjdk esa aigyh dkaQzsal Qjojh 99 esa gq;h Fkh vkSj nwljh dkaQzsal ftlesa eSa 'kkfey gqvk Fkk og uoEcj 99 esa gq;h FkhA bu nksuksa dkaQzsal esa eSus viuk isij i<+kA mijksDr igyh dkaQzsal esa esjk fo"k; mQZ vFkkZr~ dLVEl ls fjysVsM FkkA nwljs dkaQzsal esa elysgr dh 'kjh;r ykWa esa D;k vgfe;r gS] ml flyflys esa eSaus viuk isij i<+kA unorqy myek tgka eSa i<+k jgk gwWa ogka vkSj Hkh cgqr ls mLrkn gSaA ekSykuk cqjgkuqn~nhu lEHkyh unorqy mysek ds ,d lhuh;j mLrkn gSaA og bLykfed fQd ,oa rQ~lhj vkSj gnhl i<+krs gSaA gnhl ls lacaf/kr eSaus tks vge fdrkcsa i<+h gSa mudk uke bl izdkj gS%& cq[kkjh 'kjhQ] eqfLye 'kjhQ] vcwnkmn 'kjhQ] frneth 'kjhQ] bCusektk 'kjhQ] rgkoh 'kjhQ] eqvRrk beke ekfydA fQd ij eSaus tks vge fdrkcsa i<+h gSa muesa fgnk;k] 'kj, cdk;k] c<+k, mLluk] Qrgqy Qnh oxSjg gSaA** "I am at present working with Nadwat-ul-Ulema. I am a teacher there. I have been teaching there for 20 years. I had my early education at my village. After that I got schooling at a school known as Nurool-Uloom situated in Bahraich. I got education there for four years. I passed the Maulvi examination from Bahraich. After that I migrated to Darool-Uloom, Deoband. From there I obtained my Fazil degree. Fazil is a 6-year course. After completion of a course in Fazil I did a course in Mufti from Deoband itself. After doing my Fazil I passed my Aalim examination from the Allahabad Board. I had appeared at this examination after obtaining my Fazil degree. I teach Islamic law, that is, Fiqah and Usule Fiq. Besides, I also 883 teach Hadis and Tafsir. The Islamic also covers topics related to Mufti. Only those having special knowledge in the Islamic law are called Mufti. I am secretary of the Islamic Fiq Academy, Delhi. The Islamic Fiq Academy organises a seminar on Muslim-related issues and the Islamic law every year. This seminar is held at different places of Hindustan. As I am its secretary, I participate in all those seminars. I am also a founder member of the Muslim Personal Law Board. Seminars of this Academy are held only within Hindustan but they are attended by people of other countries also. In 1999, on the invitation of Shariyat scholars of North America I went there to attend conferences two times. Besides, I went to participate in the Auqaf conference held in Cairo. Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The first conference was held in February, 1999 in America and the second conference, which I attended, was held in November, 1999. I read out my papers in both of these conferences. In the aforesaid first conference, my topic was custom-related. In the second conference, I read out my paper on what importance maxims hold in the Shariyat Law. There are many other teachers at Nadwat-

ul-Ulema, where I am teaching. Maulana Surhan-ud-Din Sambhali is a senior teacher at Nadwat-ul-Ulema. He teaches Islamic Fiq, Tafsir and Hadis. The names of important books which I have read in relation to Hadis, are: Bukhari Sharif, Muslim Sharif, Abudawood Sharif, Tidmazi Sharif, Ibn-e-Maza Sharif, Tahawi Sharif, Muatta Imam Maalik. The important books which I have read on Fiq, include Hidaya, Sharye Bakaya, Badhaye Ussana, Fathul Fadi etc.." (E.T.C.) 884

577. Regarding characteristic of mosque etc. PW 19 said:

^^bLyke esa efLtn dk rtsZ & ,& rkehj dgha eqvbu ugha gSA efLtn ml tehu dks dgrs gSa ftls tekvr ds lkFk uekt i<+us ds fy, oDQ dj fn;k tk,A vxj fdlh tehu ij flQZ bekjr gS vkSj ml ij xqEcn ;k ehukj ugha gS rks Hkh og efLtn dgh tk;sxhA efLtn es a otw [kkuk gk su k ;k ugkus dh txg dk gk su k t:jh ugh a gS A vklkuh ds fy, ,slk bUrtke dj fn;k tkrk gSA efLtn ds bnZ & fxnZ dfcz L rku gk s ldrk gS A efLtn ds vkl&ikl ;fn dfczLrku gks rks Hkh efLtn dk Lo:i ugha cnyrkA vxj efLtn ds pkjksa rjQ nwljs etgc dh bcknrxkgsa gksa rc Hkh efLtn dk;e jgsxhA vxj efLtn esa mlds [k aH kk s a ;k nhokjk s a ij rLohj vkneh ;k vkS j rk s a] i{kh ;k tkuojk sa dh rLohj gk sa rk s Hkh mlls efLtn dk Lo:i ugh a cnysx k A vFkkZr~ efLtn jgsxh ij fp=ksa dks <d nsuk gksxk rkfd uekt ds le; lkeus u gksa vFkkZr lkeus u iM+sA vxj efLtn ds vUnj fdlh nwl j s etgc ds nso h nso rkvk s a dh rLohj gk sr h gS rc Hkh efLtn dk Lo:i ugh a cnysx kA efLtn tc ,d ckj cu x;h og ges'kk efLtn jgrh gSA vxj efLtn dh bekjr fxjk nh tk, ;k fxj tk, rc Hkh og txg efLtn jgrh gSA vxj fdlh efLtn es a nwl j s etgc okys vius nso h&n so rkvk s a dh iwt k djus yx sa rc Hkh og txg efLtn jg sx hA ** "In Islam, the style of mosque construction nowhere finds specific mention. The name of mosque is given to a piece of land which is gifted for offering namaz in group. If there is just a building on any land and such building has no domes or minarets even then it will be called a mosque. It is not necessary for there to be a place for doing vaju or for having a bath in the mosque. Such an arrangement is made to provide facility. There may be a graveyard in the vicinity of the mosque. If there is a graveyard in and around a mosque even then the character of the mosque 885 does not change. If there are worship places of other faiths around a mosque even then the mosque will continue to exist. If a mosque has pictures of men or women or birds or animals even then the character of the mosque will not change. That is to say, the mosque will continue to be such and the pictures will have to be covered so that they may not be in front while offering namaz. If there are pictures of male and female deities of any other faith inside a mosque even then the character of the mosque will not change. A mosque once constructed will always be a mosque. A place continues to be a mosque even if the building of the mosque is demolished or it falls down. If the followers of any other faith begin to worship their respective gods-goddesses in any mosque even then its place will remain to be a mosque." (E.T.C.)

578. PW 22, Mohd. Khalid Nadvi: Other details have already been dealt under the category "Witness of facts" in para 319.

579. His basic education is from Nadve wherefrom he obtained degree in Alim and Fazil in 1975 and 1977 respectively, taught at Zamia Islamiya, Bhatkal, Karnataka from 1978 to 1985, taught at Zamia Hidaya, Jaipur from 1985 to 1992, and taught for one year at Nadve. In his education, Tafshir of Quran-i- Karim, Hadis, Fiqah and Arabi Adab was included. The Tafshir of Quran-i-Karim included Ibne Kasir, Kashshaf, Madarikul, Tanjil, Khajin, Tafsire Kurtuvi, Mariful, Quran, Tadabbure Quran etc. The prominent books of Hadis include Bukhari Sharif, Muslim Sharif, Tirmiji Sharif, Muatta Imam Malik, Abudaud Sharif etc. which had all been read by him. In Fiqah he has read Hidaya, Sharhe Wakaya, Kuduri etc. With respect to characteristics of mosque etc. he said:


"dqjku 'kjhQ vkSj gnhl 'kjhQ esa efLtn dh rtZ ;k 'kDy dk dksbZ rtdhjk ekStwn ugha gSA 'kjh;r dh vkSj fdrkcksa esa Hkh efLtn dh rtZ ;k mlds vkdkj dk dksbZ ftdz ugha feyrk gSA flQZ fdcyk:[k gksus dh ckr feyrh gSA fdlh efLtn es a xq E cn ;k ehukj dk gk su k t:jh ugh a gS A efLtn esa dq, ;k ikuh dk bartke otw ds fy, gksuk t:jh ugha gSA gwtwj eksgEen lkgc ds tekus esa ftu rhu efLtnksa dh rkehj dk ftdz feyrk gSA og efLtns dqck] efLtns ucoh vkSj efLtnsa tqvklk gSA buesa xqEcn ;k ehukj gksus dk dksbZ ftdz ugha feyrkA gqtwj lkgc ds tekus esa vtku ÅWph txg ls vtku nh tkrh Fkh ftlls vkokt nwj rd tk ldsA vtku nsus dk eqdke efLtn ds vUnj ;k ckgj nksuksa txg gks ldrk gSA efLtnsa ucch esa tqes dh igyh vtku efLtn ds ckgj tkSjk uked LFkku ls nh tkrh FkhA ;fn fdlh txg ij fLFkr bekjr dks fxjk fn;k tk; ;k og fxj tk; rks og txg efLtn gh jgsxhA ;fn efLtn ds fdlh fgLls esa fdlh nso h ;k nso rk dh iz f rek j[k nh tk; rk s Hkh efLtn dh gS f l;r ugh a cnyrh cfYd efLtn gh jgsx hA ;fn efLtn esa nwl j s /keZ ds yk sx viuh bcknr 'kq : dj ns rk s Hkh efLtn dh gS f l;r ugh a cnyrh cfYd efltn gh jg sx hA - - - - - ekSykuk cqjgkuqn~nhu lkgc unos esa mLrkn gSaA og 'kkso, rQlhj ds gsM gSaA og vktdy myek dh QsgfjLr esa lQs vOoy ij gSaA"

"There is no mention about the form or shape of mosque in holy Quran and holy Hadis. In other books of Shariyat as well, no reference is found about the form or shape of mosque. Reference is found only about (they) facing Kibla. The presence of dome or minaret is not essential in any mosque. It is not essential to have a well or arrangement of water in a mosque for 'Vazu'. The three mosques said to have been built in the period of Prophet Mohammad, are Quba mosque, Nabavi mosque and Juasa mosque. No reference is found about presence of dome or 887 minaret therein. During the period of Prophet, the Ajaan call was given from an elevated place so that it may reach far off places. The place for giving the Ajaan call could be both inside and outside the mosque. The first Ajaan call of Juma was given at Nabavi mosque from an outside place called Jaura.

If the building at any place is demolished or it collapses, the said place would remain a mosque. If the idol of any God or Goddess is placed in any part of a mosque, then also the status of the mosque does not change and it remains a mosque. If the followers of other religion start practicing their religious faith in a mosque, then also the status of the mosque does not change and it remains a mosque. . . . . . . . Maulana Burhanuddin is master at 'Nadva'. He is head of Shov-e- tafsir. Presently he is on top of the list of Ulemas." (E.T.C.)

580. PW 25, Sibte Mohammad Naqvi: His details has already been dealt with under the category "Witnesses of facts" in para 324 With respect to the characteristics of mosque, his statement is very brief and as under:

"bLyke esa efLtn dk LokfeRo vYykg esa fufgr gksrk gSA efLtn esa fdlh elyd dk vFkkZr f'k;k vkSj lqUuh eqlyeku uekt i<+ ldrk gSA"
"In Islam the ownership of mosque is vested in Allah. Muslim of any sect i.e. Shia or Sunni can offer Namaz in mosque."(E.T.C.)

581. PW 26, Kalbe Jawwad, aged about 38 years (on 2/3rd April 2002 when his examination-in-chief commenced), is resident of Mohalla Johari, Lucknow. His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 03/04-04-2002- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 6-33)
(b) 04/05/15-04-2002 - by Dharamdas, defendant no. 13, through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 33- 40)
(c) 15.04.2002- by Paramhans Ramchandra Das, defendant no. 2, through Sri M.M. Pandey, Advocate, (p. 40-52)
(d)15/16-04-2002- by Hindu Mahasabha, defendnat no. 10 and Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17, through Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Advocate (p. 52-62)
(e) 16/17-04-2002- by Umesh Chandra Pandey, defendant no. 22 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 62-
(f)17-04-2002- Sri Rajendra Singh, son of Sri Gopal Singh Visharad plaintiff (Suit-1) through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate adopted the cross examination by other defendants (p. 89)
(g) 17-05-2002- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 90-98)

582. PW-26 claims to have acted as Imam of Friday Namaz at Asfi Masjid, Lucknow. About his family background, he said:

^esjs okfyn lkgc y[kuÅ esa f'k;ksa ds bekes tqek jgs gSaA blh rjg ls eqfLye ilZuy yk cksMZ ds uk;c lnj Hkh jgs gSa vkSj vyhx<+ eqfLye ;wfuoflZVh esa f'k;k fFk;ksykth foHkkx ds gsM jgs gSa vkSj fFk;ksyksth QsdYVh ds Mhu Hkh jgs gSaA esjs nknk ekSykuk dYcs gqlSu lkgc Hkh cM+s vkfyesa nhu o eqtrgn jgs gSaA esjs ijnknk ekSykuk dYcs lkfnd mQZ vkdk glu lkgc vky bafM;k f'k;k dkaQzsal ds QkmaMj o blh rjg ls f'k;k dkyst ds QkmaMj vkSj f'k;k vukFkky; ds QkmaMj vkSj cgqr ls vkxZukbys'kal ds QkmaMj jgs gSaA y[kuÅ esa lkjs f'k;ksa dh tqes dh uekt vklQh efLtn esa gksrh gSA ml vklQh efLtn ds tqes dh uekt dh beker tc eSa y[kuÅ esa jgrk gwWa rc eSa gh djrk gwWaA 889 vklQh efLtn uokc vkflQ mn~nkSyk lkgc us cuok;h Fkh vkSj mUgha ds uke ls vkflQh efLtn gSA y[kuÅ esa f'k;k gtjkr dh ,d vkSj efLtn gS tks tqek efLtn dgykrh gSA ;g Bkdqjxat esa gSA og Hkh 'kkgh t+ekus dh cuh gqbZ gSA vkflQh efLtn dk bartke gqlSukckn VªLV djrh gSaA esjs okfyn lkgc Hkh blh vkflQh efLtn esa beke , tqek jgs gSaA esjs ijnknk ekSykuk vkdk glu lkgc Hkh eqtrfgn jgs gSaA** "My father was the Jumma Imam of the Shias at Lucknow. He was also the deputy head of Muslim Personal Law Board as well as the Head of Shia Theology Department of Aligarh Muslim University and the Dean of Theology faculty. My grandfather Maulana Kalbe Hussain was a known religious scholar and Mujathad. My great grandfather Maulana Kalbe Sadiq @ Aka Hassun was the founder of All India Shia Conference, the Shia college, Shia Orphanage and many other organisations. All the Shias of Lucknow offer the Jumma Namaz at the Asifi mosque. The Amamat (acting as Imam) of Jumma Namaz at said Asifi mosque is done by me whenever I am present in Lucknow.
"The Asifi mosque was built by Nawab Asif-ud-daula and the Asifi mosque has been named after him. The Shias have another mosque in Lucknow, which is known as Jumma mosque. It is at Thakurganj and it was also built during the royal times. The Asifi mosque is maintained by Hussainabad trust. My father was also the Imam-e-Jumma of this Asifi mosque.
My great grandfather Maulana Aka Hasan was also a Mujathid." (E.T.C.)

583. About his own qualification experience in religious matters etc., PW 26 said:


^^esjh bCusnkbZ rkyhe ;gha y[kuÅ esa gqbZA eSaus y[kuÅ esa 'kkgh tekus ls dk;e lqyrkuqy enkfjl ls vk[kjh fMxzh ln:y vQkft+y gkfly dh gSaA ln:y vQkfty ls igys mlh enjls ls lunqy vQkfty dh fMxzh Hkh eSaus gkfly dhA ln:y vQkfty eSaus rdjhcu 1982 ds vklikl fd;kA;gka ls rkyhe gkfly djus ds ckn eSa vyhx<+ eqfLye ;wfuoflZVh ls ch0,0 vkSj ,e0,0 fd;kA ,e0,0 eSaus Qkjlh esa fd;k mlds ckn eSaus ih0,p0Mh0 esa ,Mfe'ku fy;k vkSj ,e0fQy ikl fd;kA mlh tekus esa ;kfu 86 ds var esa esjs okfyn lkgc dk bardky gks tkus ds dkj.k eSa okil vk x;k vkSj ih0,p0Mh0 eqDdey ugha dj ik;kA vkyk nhuh rkyhe ds flfyflys esa lu~ 87 ds vkf[kj esa eSa bZjku pyk x;k FkkA ogka ds etgch 'kgj dqe esa gkStk&,&bfYe;k esa nkf[kyk fy;kA eSa lu~ 2001 rd ogka jgkA eSa rdjhcu ,d lky ls eqLrfdy y[kuÅ esa jg jgk gwaWA ftl nkSjku eSa dqe esa tsjs rkyhe Fkk ml nkSjku eksgjeZ ds nkSjku 3 eghus vkSj jetku ds nkSjku 2 ekg y[kuÅ vk tkrk FkkA** "My initial education was at Lucknow. I obtained my last degree of Darul Afazil from the Sultanul Madaris established at Lucknow during the royal times. Prior to Sadrul Afazil, I had also obtained the degree of Sandul Afazil from that very Madarsa. I did my Sadrul Afazil around the year 1982. After my education here, I did my B.A. and M.A. from Aligarh Muslim University. I did my M.A. in Persian. Thereafter, I took admission in Ph.D. and also did M.Phil. In that very period i.e. around the end of 86, I had to return as my father expired and I could not complete my Ph.D. At the end of the year 87, I went to Iran in connection with highest religious education. There I took admission in Hauza-e-ilmia in the religious city Kum. I remained there till the year 2001, in which period I remained involved in education at Kum. For the last one year I have been permanently residing at Lucknow. In that 891 period, I used to come to Lucknow for three months during Moharram and two months during Ramzan." (E.T.C.)

584. With respect to certain other matters PW 26 said:

^^gkStk&, bfYe;k esa djhc 400 enjls gSa buesa dqy Nk=ksa dh la[;k yxHkx rhl gtkj gksxhA ogka ds cM+s+ mysek bls pykrs gSaA bl le; f'k;k elyr dk nqfu;k esa lcls cM+k nhuh ejdt dqe 'kgj gSA dqe ds 7&8 cM+s mysek ,sls gSa ftudh rdyhn fgUnqLrku ds f'k;k eqlyeku djrs gSaA bZjku ds vykok bZjkd ds 'kgj utQ+ v'kjQ ds rhu cM+s vkfyeksa dh rdyhn Hkh fgUnqLrku ds f'k;k eqlyeku djrs gSa bZjku vkSj bZjkd ds vykok nqfu;k esa vkSj dksbZ eqYd ,slk ugha gS ftlds fdlh vkfye dh rdyhn fgUnqLrku ds f'k;k eqlyeku djrs gksaA fiNys 20 lky esa ikfdLrku esa ,slk dksbZ vkfye ugha jgk gS ftldh rdyhn fgUnqLrku ds f'k;k eqlyeku djrs gksaA ;fn ikfdLrku dk dksbZ vkfye dksbZ Qrok tkjh djs rks fgUnqLrku ds f'k;k eqlyeku mls ugha ekusxsa D;ksafd bruk cM+k dksbZ vkfye ogka ugha gSA f'k;k elyd dh fQDg dks vkerkSj ls yksx fQDg tkQfj;k ds uke ls tkurs gSa ojuk njvly og fQDg bLykeh gSA ;g fQDg tkQfj;k gekjs NBs beke gtjr beke tkQ+j lkfnd ¼v0l0½ dh rjQ ealwc gSA** "There are about 400 Madarsa in Hauja-e-ilmia. There would be about thirty thousand students in all in them. The reputed Ulemas used to run them. Presently the largest religious preaching place of Shia faith in the world is the city of Kum. There are 7-8 such reputed Ulemas of Kum, who are followed by the Shia Muslims of India. The Shia Muslims of India also follow three big scholars of Nazaf Asharaf city of Iraq besides Iran. Besides Iran and Iraq, there is no other country in the world, the scholars of which are followed by the Shia Muslims of India. If any scholar of Pakistan issues any fatwa (religious direction), the Shia Muslims of India would not follow the same because there is no such reputed scholar over there. The 892 fiquh of Shia faith are usually known by people as Fiquh Zafaria, which actually is Islamic Fiquh. This fiquh Zafaria is owed to our sixth Imam Hazrat Imam Zafar Sadiq (A.S.)." (E.T.C.)

585. Regarding characteristic of mosque and the inter relationship of Shia and Sunni, PW 26 said:

^^efLtn dh 'kjbZ gSfl;r ds ckjs esa f'k;k vkSj lqUuh fQDg esa esjh utj esa dksbZ cqfu;knh QdZ ugha gSA efLtn dh 'kjbZ gSfl;r vkSj feyfd;r ds flyflys esa dqjku 'kjhQ esa lkQ ,yku gSA ^^bUuy elkftnk fyYykg** ftlds ek;us gSa fd efLtnsa flQZ vYykg ds fy, gSaA dqjku 'kjhQ esa ;k gnh'k 'kjhQ esa efLtn ds fdlh [kkl fdLe dh bekjr gksus dk dksbZ rtfdjk ugha gSa efLtnksa dh 'kDy lwjr ds rkYyqd ls bekeksa ds ogka Hkh dksbZ rtfdjk ugha feyrk gS flok;s blds fd efLtnksa dks t;knk t+hur er nks T;knk ltkvks ughaA 'kjhvr ds eq r kfcd fdlh efLtn es a ehukj vkS j xq E cn dk gk su k t:jh ugh a gS vkS j euk Hkh ugh a gS A bLyke esa eksgEen lkgc ds vkus ds ckn dh igyh efLtn enhus ls FkksMk igys efLtn dqck ds uke ls e'kgwj gSA tc og enhus igqaps rks efLtnsa ucoh dh rkehj gqbZA eSaus bfrgkl esa i<+k gS fd bu nksuksa efLtnksa esa xqEcn vkSj ehukj ugha Fkh tc ;g dk;e gqbZ A [ktwj ds rus dks tehu esa xkM++ dj [kacs cuk;s x;s Fks vkSj [ktwj dh 'kk[kksa ls Nr Mkyh x;h FkhA bu nksuksa efLtnksa esa otw dk vyx bartke gksus dh dksbZ ckr fdlh bfrgkl esa ugha feyrh gSA efLtn ds vanj otw ds ikuh dk barstke gksuk t:jh ugha gSA eSaus cgqr lh ,slh efLtnsa ns[kh gS tgka efLtn ds ikl dqavk ekStwn gksA gekjs ;gka ;g gS fd ges'kk ck otw jguk pkfg,A bl esa dksbZ 'krZ ugha gS fd vkneh ?kj ls otw djds vk;s ;k efLtn esa otw djsA ;fn efLtn ds bnZ fxnZ dfczLrku okds gks rks blls efLtn dh uo;~;r ij dksbZ vlj ugha iM+rk gSA efLtn ds ,d ckj rkehj gks tkus ds ckn vkSj mlesa uekt i<+ ysus ds ckn dksbZ xSj eqlyeku ml ij dCtk dj ys rks mlls efLtn dh uo;~;r ugha cnyrh vkSj og efLtn gh cuh jgrh gSA efLtn gj gky es a efLtn gh jgsx h pkgs mles a nwl j s /keZ ds ekuus oky s mles a viuh bcknr 'kq : dj ns ;k 893 mles a ewf rZ;k a j[k ns aA efLtn dh bekjr ;fn fxjk nh tk;s vkSj ogka dsoy tehu cph gks rks og Hkh efLtn gh gksxh cfYd gekjs ;gka arks ;gka rd gS fd mlds uhps ,oa Åij fQtk esa tks ,fj;k gS og Hkh efLtn gh ekuh tk;sxhA ;fn fdlh efLtn ds fdlh tq t es a ;k Hkkx es a fdlh nwl j s etgc ds fp= vkfn gk s rk s Hkh efLtn dh uo;~ ; r ugh a cnyrhA efLtn dh 'kjbZ gSfl;r ds ckjs esa nhuh fdrkcksa esa ^^,gdkes efLtn** ds uke ls ,d vyx gh pSIVj feyrk gSA esjh tkudkjh esa f'k;k eqlyekuksa esa ls fdlh eqlyeku us vkt rd u esjs lkeus ;g ckr dgh vkSj u esjh tkudkjh esa ,slh dksbZ ckr vkbZ fd ckcjh efLtn ls f'k;k eqlyekuksa us viuk gd NksM+ fn;k gS ;k os gd NksM+uk pkgrs gSaA eSaus ckcjh efLtn dk uke lquk gS ogka tkus dk bfRrQkd dHkh ugha gqvkA ikfdLrku ds fdlh ekSyku lS;~;n eksgEen udh lkgc uke f'k;k vkfye ds uke ls eSa okfdQ ugha gwWaA esjs /;ku esa ugha gS fd vkt ls 14&15 lky igys bl uke ds dksbZ f'k;k vkfye xqtjs gksaA pkS/kjh flCrs eks0 udoh lkgc ds uke ls okfdQ gwaA ;g esjs okfyn lkgc ds vPNs nksLrksa esa jgs gSa og vPNs Ldkyj gS vkSj lqyrkuqy enkfjl ls rkyhe ;kQrk gSa fizal vatqe dnj dks eSa tkurk FkkA og f'k;k vkfye dh gSfl;r ugha j[krs gks cfYd lks'ky fjQkjej Fks mudk 'kqekj f'k;k jguqek esa ugha gksrk FkkA D;ksafd gekjs ;gka mysek gh jguqek gksrs gSaA y[kuÅ ;k m0iz0 ;k fgUnqLrku esa gekjs ;gka dsoy cM+s mysekvksa dh ckr f'k;k yksx ekurs gSaA eq>s ekyqe gS fd eSa ftl eqdnesa esa xokgh ns jgk gwa og ckcjh efLtn ls lEcfU/kr gSA esj h tkudkjh es a tk s v[kckjkr vkS j ,dfdrkc ls gkfly gq b Z ] ckcjh efLtn ckcj ds tekus es a cuh Fkh mls ckcj ds gq D e ls ehj ckdh us cuok;k FkkA tgk a rd esj h ekywe kr gS bles a 1949 rd uekt gk sr h jghA** "According to me, there is no fundamental difference regarding the Sharai status of mosque in Shia and Sunni fiqah. The holy Quran contains explicit directions regarding the Sharai status and ownership of mosque. The phrase 'Innal Masajida Lillah' means mosques are only for 894 Allah. The holy Quran Sharif or the Hadis Sharif do not contain any mention about the mosque being in any particular form. No reference is found with the Imams about the shape of mosques except for the fact that do not decorate the mosque excessively. According to the Shariyat, it is not essential to have minarets and domes in any mosque and neither is there any such restriction.

The first mosque in Islam after the advent of Prophet Muhammad, is famous as Masjid-Quba, which lies a bit ahead of the Masjid-Madine. When he reached Madine, the Nabvi mosque was built. I have studied in history that when both these mosques were built, they did not have minarets and domes. The stems of date-palm were fixed in the ground to serve as pillars and the branches of the date- palm were utilized as roof. Reference is not found in history about there being separate arrangement for Vajoo in both these mosque. It is not essential to have arrangement of Vajoo water inside the mosques. I have seen many such mosques where wells existed near the mosque. It is necessary amongst us that one should always perform Vajoo, and there is no such restriction that a person should perform Vajoo at home or at the mosque. If there is any graveyard around a mosque, it has no bearing on the status of the mosque. If after the construction of a mosque and offering of Namaz therein, any non-Muslim occupies it, then the status of the mosque does not change and it remains a mosque. A mosque will remain a mosque in all circumstances irrespective of the fact that followers of other religion may start practising their religious practises therein or may place their deities. If 895 the structure of a mosque is demolished and only land remains there, then also it would remain a mosque and in- fact it is believed amongst us that even the ground beneath it as well as the open air area above it is also considered as mosque. The status of the mosque does not change even if there is any picture of other religion inside the mosque or any part thereof. A separate chapter titled ' Ahkam-e-masjid' is found in the religious books regarding the Sharai status of the mosque. In my knowledge, the Shia Muslims have not stated till date before me nor has any such information come to my knowledge that the Shia Muslims have either relinquished their claim over the Babri mosque or that they want to do so. I have heard about Babri mosque but I never got the opportunity to visit the same. I am not conversant with the name of any Shia scholar named Maulana Syed Mohammed Naqi. I do not recollect whether there was any Shia scholar of the same name about 14-15 years ago. I am conversant with the name of Chaudhary Sibte Mohammed Naqvi. He was a good friend of my father. He is an excellent scholar and has received education at Sultanul Madaris. I knew Prince Anjum Kadar. He did not have the status of a Shia scholar and instead was a social reformer. He is not considered as a protector of Shia because amongst us, the Ulemas are the protectors. Whether in Lucknow or in U.P. or in India, the Shias adhere only to reputed Ulemas.

I know that the case in which I am giving evidence, is related to Babri mosque. According to my knowledge derived from newspapers and books, the Babri mosque was built during the reign of Babar by Mir Baqi under 896 the orders of Babar. To the best of my information, Namaz was offered here till 1949." (E.T.C.) F. Sanskrit Inscriptions said to be found in 1992:

586. OPW 8, Ashok Chandra Chaterjee, a Businessman and Journalist, has deposed to prove recovery of stone slab containing Sanskrit inscriptions on 06.12.1992 during the course of demolition of disputed structure. His examination-in-chief commenced on 03.10.2002 and followed as under :

(a) 03-10-2002 - by Nirmohi Akhara, defendant no. 2, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 9-19)
(b) 03/04/07-10-2002 - by defendant no. 6 through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 19-45)
(c) 07/08/09/10/11/22/23/24/25/26/28-10-2002- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4, through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 45-179)
(d) 29/30-10-2002 - by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 180- 212)
(e) 30-10-2002- defendant no. 26 through Sri T.A. Khan, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate, adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p. 212)

587. As per his affidavit dated 03.10.2002 he is aged about 52 years and is resident of Civil Lines, Faizabad. Since birth, he is residing at Faizabad, Graduate in Science and possess a Law Degree; Partner of a Firm M/s Majestic Automobiles, Faizabad and owner of a Cine Talkies, namely, Majestic Talkies. He claims to be a Free Lance Journalist for the last 16-17 years and reporter of a weekly newspaper "Panchjanya" at Faizabad Division. He got recognised journalist identity card in 1990 from U.P. Information Directorate and his name is mentioned in 897 the list of recognised journalist at Serial No. 28. Regarding the disputed structure and place, he deposed in paras 3 to 14 as under:

^^3- eSa v;ks/;k fLFkr Jhjke tUeHkwfe eafnj ftlds lEcU/k esa ;g fookn py jgk gS] dks HkyhHkkafr tkurk gwWaA eSa fgUnw /kekZuq;k;h gwWaA esjs ifjokj esa nsoh nsorkvksa dh iwtk&vpZuk gksrh jgh gSa cpiu ls gh eSa vius ekrk&firk] HkkbZ&cgu ds lkFk QStkckn esa cM+h nsodkyh] dkyhckM+h vkfn eafnjksa esa n'kZu djrk jgk gwWa vkSj v;ks/;k esa Jhjke tUeHkwfe] dud Hkou] guqekux<+h] ukxs'ojukFk vkfn eafnjksa dk n'kZu djrk jgk gwWaA** "3. I properly know Ayodhya-located Sri Ram Janam Bhumi Temple over which this dispute is going on. I am an adherent of Hinduism. My family has been performing worship and prayer of male and female deities. Right since my childhood I have been going along with my parents and siblings to have darshan at temples such as Badi Devkali, Kalibadi, etc. in Faizabad and also at temples like Sri Ram Janam Bhumi, Kanak Bhawan, Hanumangarhi, Nageshwarnath, etc. at Ayodhya. " (E.T.C.) **4- Qjojh 1986 esa tc Jhjke tUeHkwfe eafnj dk rkyk [kksyus dk vkns'k gqvk rc eSa QStkckn dpsgjh esa gh FkkA rkyk [kksyus ds vkns'k dh tkudkjh gksus ij eSa v;ks/;k esa Jhjke tUeHkwfe LFky ij igqap x;k tgka vU; dbZ i=dkj Hkh ekStwn FksA Hkxoku Jh jkeyyk ds n'kZukfFkZ;ksa dh Hkkjh HkhM+ ,df=r Fkha iqfyl&iz'kklu }kjk Jhjke tUeHkwfe dk rkyk [kksyrs gh n'kZukFkhZ vfr izlUurk esa mNy&dwn] u`R;kxk;u djus yxs ?k.Vk] ?kfM;ky] 'ka[k ctus yxs jke/kqu xkrs gq, yksx Hkxoku Jhjkeyyk dk n'kZu djus yxsA v;ks/;k dh xyh&xyh eksgYys&eksgYys n'kZukfFkZ;ksa &jkeHkDrksa ls Hkj x;sA cM+s gh mYykl ds lkFk yksx Hktu&dhrZu djrs gq, Hkxoku jkeyyk dk n'kZu&iwtu djus yxsA** "4. In February, 1986, when an order was issued for opening the lock of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple, I was at 898 the Faizabad Kutchery itself. On coming to know the order for opening the lock I reached Sri Ram Janam Bhumi site at Ayodhya. Many other journalists were present there. A large crowd of devotees of Lord Sri Ram Lala were assembled. Immediately after the lock of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi being opened by the police and the administration, the devotees out of ecstasy began to engage themselves in frolics, dancing and singing; bells, gongs and conchs began to ring and chanting Ram Dhun people began to have darshan of Lord Sri Ram Lala. Every street and locality of Ayodhya was flooded with devotees and Rama worshippers. Chanting hymns and devotional songs, people with great joy began to have darshan and perform poojan of Lord Sri Ram Lala." (E.T.C.) **5- Jh jke tUeHkwfe eafnj dk rkyk [kqyus rFkk mlds ckn Hkh Jhjke tUeHkwfe ls lEcfU/kr vkUnksyuksa vkSj ?kVukvksa dk lekpkj ladyu o fjiksZfVax lkIrkfgd lekpkj i= dks djrk jgk gwWaA lu~ 1989 ds uoEcj ekg esa Jh jke tUeHkwfe eafnj dk f'kykU;kl larksa dh bPNk ,oa lUr&egar & fo}kuksa dh mifLFkfr esa Jh dkes'oj pkSiky th ds }kjk fd;k x;k tks fd ,d vuqlwfpr tkfr ds O;fDr Fks bldk lekpkj Hkh eSaus izeq[krk ls lekpkj i= dks Hkstk FkkA** "5. At the time of unlocking Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple and even after that I have continued to do news compilation and reporting on the agitations and incidents connected with Sri Ram Janam Bhumi for the weekly newspaper. In November of 1989, keeping in view the desire of saints and in presence of saints, mahantas and scholars, the foundation stone of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi temple was laid by Sri Kameshwar Chaupal, who belonged to a scheduled caste. News regarding this was prominently sent to the newspaper." (E.T.C.) 899 **6- vDVqcj lu~ 1990 esa Jh jke tUeHkwfe vkUnksyu ds le; esa v;ks/;k esa fookfnr LFky ds vkl&ikl vkUnksyudkfj;ksa ds lehi jg dj lekpkj ladyu djrk jgkA 2 uoEcj lu~ 1990 dks v;ks/;k esa xksyhdk.M ds le; eSa v;ks/;k esa gh yky dksBh okyh xyh esa vkUnksyujr fugRFks fgUnqvksa ds ikl gh ekStwn FkkA bl vkUnksyu esa Hkkx ysus yk[kksa dh la[;k esa J)kyq jkeHkDr dkjlsod vk;s gq, FksA** "6. At the time of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi agitation in October, 1990, I continued to do news compilation by keeping myself close to agitationists in and around the disputed site in Ayodhya. At the time of firing in Ayodhya on 2nd November, 1990, I was present right near the agitating unarmed Hindus in the Lal Kothi street in Ayodhya itself. Lakhs of devotees, Rama-worshippers and karsevaks had come there to participate in this agitation."

(E.T.C.) **7- 6 fnlEcj 1992 dks ftl fnu fookfnr <kapk /oLr gqvk ml fnu eSa fookfnr LFky ij gh lekpkj ladyu gsrq fo|eku Fkk tgka dkjlsodksa ds vfrfjDr ns'k&fons'k ds cgqr ls i=dkj Hkh ekStwn FksA fookfnr Hkou ds /oLr fd;s tkrs le; rhu xqEcnksa okys Hkou ds ihNs vFkkZr~ if'pe dh rjQ eSa [kM+k FkkA esjs lkFk dbZ vU; i=dkj vkSj izsl QksVksxzkQj Hkh ogkWa [kM+s FksA** "7. On 6th December, 1992, when the disputed structure was demolished I was present for compilation of news at the disputed site itself where besides the karsevaks many journalists from inside and outside the country were also present. While the disputed building was being demolished, I was standing behind the three-domed building, that is, towards the west. Many other journalists and press photographers were also standing there along with me." (E.T.C.) **8- twu lu~ 1992 esa Jhjke tUeHkwfe ifjlj ds iwjc rjQ mRrj 900 izns'k ljdkj }kjk djk;s tk jgs leryhdj.k ds nkSjku tc dqN iRFkj ds VqdM+s feys tks eafnj ds iqjko'ks"k ekywe gksrs Fks vkSj dqN [kf.Mr ewfrZ;k] e`nk ewfrZ;ka] feV~Vh ds crZu vkfn feys rks nwljh tkudkjh feyrs gh eSa leryhdj.k LFky ij x;k ogkWa vU; dbZ i=dkj vkSj Hkh vk;s gq, Fks ge lHkh i=dkjksa us mu iqjko'ks"kksa] e`nk ewfrZ;ks] feV~Vh ds crZuksa vkfn dks ns[kk vkSj bldh fjiksVZ vius&vius lekpkj i=ksa esa HkstkA leryhdj.k ds nkSjku izkIr mijksDr lHkh oLrq,a vFkkZr~ eafnj ds iqjko'ks"k] dqN [kf.Mr ewfrZ;ka] e`nkewfrZ;ka vkSj feV~Vh ds crZu vkfn jkedFkk laxzgky;&jktlnu v;ks/;k esa iqjkrRo foHkkx mRrj izns'k ds laj{k.k esa j[kk x;kA** "8. In June,1992, in course of the levelling operation carried out by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in the eastern side of Sri Ram Janam Bhumi premises, some pieces of stones appearing to be the remains of the temple were discovered and some fractured idols, ceramic idols and earthen ware etc. were also found. On coming to know of it, I went to the site of the levelling operation. Many other journalists had also come there. All of us, the journalists, witnessed all those antiquities that included earthen idols, ware etc. and filed reports on it for their respective papers. All the afore-said objects discovered in course of the levelling operation - which included antiquities of the temple, some broken idols, ceramic idols, earthen ware etc. were preserved at the Ram Katha Museum - Raj Sadan, Ayodhya under the care of Archaeology Department, Uttar Pradesh." (E.T.C.) **9- 6 fnlEcj lu~ 1992 dks tc eSa fookfnr Hkou ds ihNs [kM+k Fkk rks eSaus ns[kk fd if'pe dh nhoky ds dqN Hkkx dk IykLVj m[kM+k gqvk gS vkSj nhoky esa csrjrhc <ax ls vleku vkd`fr ,oa vkdj ds iRFkj ,oa bZVsa yxh gqbZ gSa tSlk fd iqjkrRo foHkkx mRrj izns'k }kjk fufeZr 'osr';ke ,yce dkxt la[;k 201&lh&1 ds fp= la[;k 4]5]6]13]14 901 vkSj 18 esa nf'kZr gS vkSj jaxhu ,yce dkxt la[;k 200&lh&1 ds fp= la[;k 21]22]23]24]27]33 vkSj 34 esa nf'kZr gSA** "9. On 6th December, 1992, when I was standing behind the disputed building, I saw that plaster had come off some portion of the western wall and bricks and stones of uneven size and shape were used in the wall in a disorderly manner, as is shown in pictures 4,5,6,13,14 and 18 of the black-white album (paper no. 201-C-1) prepared by archaeology department and in pictures 21,22 23,24,27,33 and 34 of the coloured album (paper no. 200-C-1 )." (E.T.C.) **10- FkksM+h nsj ckn dkjlsodksa }kjk lfj;k&cYyh&yksgs ds ikbiksa ls rhu xqEcnksa okys Hkou ds nf{k.k vkSj chp okys xqEcn ds chp dh if'pe nhokj ij izgkj djus ij nhoky esa csrjrhc <ax ls vleku vkd`fr ,oa vkdkj ds bZaVsa] y[kkSjh bZaVs vkSj iRFkj fxjus yxsA esjs lkeus gh dbZ vyad`r f'kyk[k.Mksa ds lkFk ,d f'kyk[k.M yxHkx lk<+s rhu QqV yEck yxHkx nks QqV pkSM+k ,oa yxHkx 6 bap eksVk jgk gksxk] Hkh fxjkA ;s lHkh f'kyk[k.M fdlh eafnj ds vo'ks"k yxrs FksA mRlqdrko'k eSa rFkk esjs lkFk ogka [kM+s dqN i=dkj ml f'kyk[k.M dks ns[kus yxsA rHkh ogka mifLFkr ,d lk/kw us dgk fd ;g fdlh izkphu eafnj dk f'kykys[k yxrk gS bls laHkkydj ys pyks vkSj vU; vyad`r f'kyk[k.Mksa dks Hkh ys pydj jkedFkkdqat esa fLFkr Hkou ds ikl ,df=r djksA dqN dkjlsodksa us f'kykys[k tSlk izrhr gksus okys f'kykys[k dks mBkdj jkedFkk dqat fLFkr Hkou ds ikl ys tkdj fxjk fn;k ftlls og [kf.Mr gks x;kA if'peh nhoky ls fudys vU; f'kyk[k.Mksa dks Hkh dkjlsodksa us ml lk/kw ds funsZ'k ij jkedFkk dqat fLFkr Hkou ds ikl ys vkdj j[k fn;kA fookfnr Hkou ds nhokjksa ls fudyrs tk jgs vU; f'kyk[k.M tks eafnj ds vo'ks"k izrhr gksrs Fks mUgs mBk&mBkdj dkjlsod jke dFkk daqt Hkou ds ikl j[ksA mijksDr f'kykys[k tSlk izrhr gks jgs f'kyk[k.M ds vkl ikl bdV~Bk j[kus yxsA ml le; eSa vksj vU; cgqr ls i=dkj ogka ij ekStwn Fks rFkk mRlqdrko'k ns[k jgs Fks tks VwVs gq, eafnjksa ds vo'ks"k yx jgs FksA jkedFkk dqat ds ikl mijksDr f'kyk[k.M ,oa eafnj ds vU;


iqjko'ks"kksa ds j[krs le; mUgsa ns[kus ds fy, HkhM+ c<+us yxh rks iqfyl okyksa us mu lHkh f'kyk[k.Mksa dks vius laj{k.k esa ys fy;k vkSj yksxksa dks le>k cq>kdj ogka ls nwj gVk;kA** "10. After some time, when the western wall, lying between southern and central dome of the three-domed building, was struck by karsevaks with iron-rods, wooden poles and iron-pipes, the bricks, lakhauri bricks and stones of uneven size and shape used in the wall in an unsystematic manner began to fall. Right in my presence, a block of stone which may have been around 3½ feet in length, around two feet in width and around six inches in breadth, fell off besides many decorated stone blocks. All these stone-blocks appeared to be remains of some temple. I and some journalists standing there with me began to see that stone-block out of curiosity. At that very time a saint present there said: "It appears to be a stone -block of some ancient temple. Let us take it and the decorated stone- blocks carefully and assemble them near the building located at Ram Katha Kunj". Some karsevaks picked up a stone block looking like an inscription and dropped it near Ram Katha Kunj-situated building as a result of which it got broken. Under the direction of the saint, the karsevakas took away other stone blocks coming off the western wall and dropped it near Ram Katha Kunj-located building. Other stone blocks, which came off the walls of the disputed building and which appeared to be remains of the temple, were taken away by the karsevaks and were kept near the Ram Katha Kunj Bhawan. They began to put together the aforesaid stone-blocks looking like inscriptions. At that time I and many other journalists were present there and were out of curiosity witnessing what 903 appeared to be the remains of temples. While the aforesaid stone-blocks and other antiquities of temple were being kept, the crowd began to get larger and the policemen took all those stone blocks in their custody and got people away by persuading them." (E.T.C.) **11- 6 fnlEcj 1992 dks fookfnr Hkou ds nhokyksa ls fudys izkphu eafnj ds vo'ks"kksa ls lEcfU/kr fjiksVZ eSaus rFkk vU; i=dkjksa us vius&vius lekpkji=ksa dks HkstkA 7 tuojh 1993 dks iqfyl&iz'kklu }kjk fookfnr LFky dh oSjhdsfVax djk;s tkrs le; esjs lkeus gh ,d vkeyd fudyk mls eSaus ns[kk vkSj vU; yksxksa dks Hkh crk;kA** "11. On 6th December, 1992, I and other journalists sent reports on the remains of the ancient temple coming off the walls of the western building, to their respective newspapers. On 7th January,1993, while barricading was being done by the police administration at the disputed site, an 'amalak' came out right in front of me which I saw and about which I told other persons too." (E.T.C.) **12- 13 fnlEcj 1992 dks izkr% dky Mk- lq/kk eyS;k] ftuls esjk ifjp; 6 fnlEcj] 1992 dks gh jkedFkk daqt ds ikl f'kyk[k.M j[krs gq, gqvk Fkk] us eq>s VsyhQksu djds dgk fd og fookfnr Hkou ds nhokyksa ,oa eyoksa ls izkIr iqjko'ks"kksa rFkk f'kykys[k tSlk izrhr gksus okys f'kyk[k.M dks ns[kuk vkSj mudk v/;;u djuk pkgrh gwWa] mUgsa ogka rd igqapkus esa eSa mudh enn d:aA ** "12. On the morning of 13th December, 1992, Dr. Sudha Malaiya, with whom I had got acquainted while putting the stone block near Ram Katha Kunj on 6th December, 1992 itself, told me over telephone that she wanted to see and study the antiquities and inscription-like stone-blocks discovered from the walls and debris of the disputed building and requested me to help her reach there."


(E.T.C.) **13- eSaus viuh eksVjlkbZfdy ls Mk- lq/kk eyS;k dks jkedFkk dqat fLFkr Hkou] tgka fookfnr Hkou ls fudys iqjko'ks"k&f'kyk[k.M j[ks Fks] ogka ys x;kA ogka igqapus ds FkksMh nsj esa gh Mk-,l-ih-xqIrk Hkh ogka vk x;s ftudk ifjp; Mk- eyS;k us eq>ls djk;kA mu yksxksa us ogka j[ks f'kyk[k.M] iqjko'ks"k rFkk f'kykys[k dks ns[kk vkSj muesa ls dbZ ds QksVks [khpsa A f'kykys[k dk QksVks [khapus ds fy, eSa mldks lh/kk fd;s [kM+k jgkA Mk- ,l-ih-xqIrk] Mk- lq/kk eyS;k ml f'kykys[k dks ns[kus yxs] ogka mifLFkr nSfud vkt ds QksVksxzkQj us mldk QksVks ys fy;kA ftlesa eSa f'kykys[k dks idM+s gq, [kM+k gwWa vkSj Mk- lq/kk eyS;k rFkk Mk- ,l-ih- xqIrk mldks ns[k jgs gSaA ;g QksVks nSfud vkt ds y[kuÅ laLdj.k esa 15 fnlEcj 1992 dks izdkf'kr gqvk Fkk tks esjs ikl ekStwn gSA** "13. I took Dr. Sudha Malaiya on my motorcycle to Ram Katha Kunj- located building where the antiquities and stone blocks discovered from the disputed building were kept. Soon after our reaching there Dr. S.P. Gupta also reached there and Dr. Malaiya introduced him to me. They witnessed the stone-blocks, antiquities and inscriptions placed there and photographed many of them. To enable the inscription to be photographed, I kept standing, putting it straight. Dr. S.P.Gupta and Dr. Sudha Malaiya began to see the inscription and the photographer of the daily 'Aaj' took photograph of it, in which I am standing holding the inscription and Dr. Sudha Malaiya and Dr. S.P. Gupta are looking at it. This photograph was on 15th December, 1992 published in the Lucknow edition of the daily 'Aaj' and it is with me." (E.T.C.) **14- 6 fnlEcj 1992 dks lk;adky yxHkx 6 cts tSls gh ;g lekpkj vk;k fd mRrj izns'k ds eq[;ea=h Jh dY;k.k flag us R;kxi= ns fn;k gS vkSj mRrj izns'k esa jk"V~ifr 'kklu ykxw gks x;k gS oSls gh v;ks/;k&QStkckn esa dQZ~;w yxk fn;k x;kA iqfyl&vf/kdkfj;ksa ls 905 lEidZ djus ij mUgksaus crk;k fd v;ks/;k&QStkckn esa ckgj ls yksxksa dk vkuk cUn dj fn;k x;k gS vkSj tks dkjlsod ;gka ekStwn gSa mUgsa vfoyEc clks ,oa Vªsuksa }kjk ckgj Hkstus dh O;oLFkk dh tk jgh gSA** "14. On the evening of 6th December, 1992, at around 6 o'clock, as soon as there came the news that the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Sri Kalyan Singh had resigned and the President Rule had been promulgated in Uttar Pradesh, curfew was clamped in Ayodhya-Faizabad. On being contacted police officials told that the entry of outsiders in Ayodhya-Faizabad had been banned and arrangements were being made for immediately sending back the karsevaks, present there, by buses and trains." (E.T.C.)

588. OPW 10, Dr. Koluvyl Vyassrayasastri Ramesh, has appeared as expert (Epigraphist) to prove the report ( Paper No. 306C-1/1 to 306C-1/11) consisting of transcription of the estampage of the stone slab, prepared from the estampage (paper No. 203C-1/1). His examination-in-chief commenced on 11.11.2002 and followed as under :

11-11-2002- Examination-in-chief (p. 1-5) Cross examination :(a) 11-11-2002- by Nirmohi Akhara, Defendant no.3, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 6-
(b) 11-11-2002- by defendant no. 6 through Sri A. Mannan, Advocate (p. 1012)
(c) 11/12/13/14/-11-2002, 17-02-2003- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 through Sri Z. Jilani, Advocate (p. 12-57)
(d) 17/18-02-2003- by defendant 5, Mohd. Hashim, through Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 57-67)
(e) 18-02-2003- defendant no. 26 through Sri Syed Irfan 906 Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate, adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p.

589. He is aged about 67 years of age (as per his affidavit dated 11.11.2002) and is resident of J Block, Kuvempnagar, Mysore. He is a retired Joint Director General, ASI, New Delhi. He did M.A. in Sanskrit Language and Literature from Madras University in 1956; Ph.D. in History in 1965 from Karnataka University; joined the office of Government Epigraphist for ASI at Ootacamund in 1956; later selected by Union Public Service Commission for the post of "Deputy Superintending Epigraphist" for Sanskrit inscriptions in 1966, promoted as Superintending Epigraphist in 1976, Chief Epigraphist in 1981, Director of Epigraphy in 1984 and Joint Director General, ASI, New Delhi in 1992 wherefrom retired on 30.06.1993. Since October, 1998 he is serving as Honorary Director, Oriental Research Institute, University of Mysore. Authored 14 books, 10 in English and 4 in Kannada, wrote more than 200 articles published in research journals of epigraphical and allied subjects. The important publications which he claim in para 5 of the affidavit are as under:

"5. During the course of my service as an Epigraphist and after my retirement, I have authored 14 books, 10 in English and 4 in Kannada. I have published more than 200 Articles in research Journals, all on Epigraphical and allied Subjects. Among my important publications may be mentioned:-
(a) Corpus of Western Ganga Inscriptions (Published by Indian Council of Historical Research New 907 Delhi)
(b) Bagh Copper plate hoard of the Gupta period (Published by Archaeological Survey of India New Delhi)
(c) Recently Discovered Copper Plate Inscriptions in the collection of the Department of Archaeology government of Karnataka (Published by the Department of Archaeology Government of Karnataka)
(d) More Copper Plate inscriptions in the collection of the Department of Archaeology Government of Karnataka (Published by the Department if archaeology Government of Karnataka)
(e) Indian Epigraphy (Sandeep Prakashan New Delhi)
(f) Vatapi Chalukyas and their times (Agam Prakashan New Delhi)
(g) A History of South Kanara (Published by the Karnataka University)
(h) I have been an office bearer (President and Secretary and Executive Editor ) of the Epigraphical Society of India since its inception in 1974. I have attended a large number of seminars in India and abroad on topics relating to Epigraphy and History, the latest being International Seminar on Epics" at the University of Malaya Kualalumpur in which I presented a paper on "Epigraphical References to Great Indian Poems". (in October 2002)"

590. Regarding the document he sought to prove, paras 6 to 15 of the affidavit of OPW 10 are as under:

"6. Sri Deoki Nandan Agrawala along with his counsel approached me and requested for decipherment of the 20 908 line stone inscription on the basis of estampage made available to me which is the same as paper No. 203C-1/1 on record of this suit."

"7. I studied the said Estampage thoroughly and deciphered the same and translated it in English and prepared my report which I handed over to Sri Deoki Nandan Agrawala."

"8. My report consists of transcription of estampage in Nagari transliteration in Roman and translation in English."

"9. Although certain portions of the inscription are broken or damaged, the overall purport and the crux of its import are clear beyond doubt. The epigraph mentions Govindachandra who belonged to the Gahadarwala Dynasty and ruled over a fairly vast empire between 1114 and 1155 A.D. This shows that the inscription is of the 12th century A.D. The chaste Sanskrit and orthographical features as well as palaeography also confirm that the inscription belongs to 12th century A.D." "10. I state that in my report a mention of verse at page 2 line 8, is typographical error; which should be read as verse '6'. On the same page of my report, 'verse 7' has been inadvertently omitted which is in appreciation of Mame's valorous deeds in battle fields." "11. Verses 19 and 24 of the inscription mention Saketa Mandala of which Ayodhya was the headquarters." "12. Verses 21 to 24 mention the construction of a lofty stone temple for God Vishnuhari by Meghasuta. He was succeeded by Aayushya Chandra, the younger son of Alhana who, while residing at Ayodhya, which had 909 towering abodes, intellectuals and temples, endowed the entire Saketa Mandala with thousands of wells, reservoirs, alms-houses, tanks, etc."

"13. Verse 27 (damaged in part) alludes to the episodes of Vishnu's incarnation as Narasimha (who killed Hirnyakasipu), Krishna (who killed Banasura), Vamana (who destroyed Bali) and Rama (who killed ten-headed Ravana)."

"14. I state that according to the contents of the inscription, the temple of Vishnuhari constructed by Meghasuta must have been in existence in the temple town of Ayodhya from 12th century A.D."

"15. That the 'report' mentioned hereinbefore by me and filed in this case as paper No. 306C-1/1 to 306C-1/1 is the same report which I prepared and signed by me. I identify my signature thereon."

The translation of inscription of stone slab shall be dealt later while dealing with the relevant issue.

591. OPW 15, Dr. M. N. Katti, aged about 64 years (as per his affidavit dated 31.03.2003), resident of Vijaya Nagar III Stage, Mysore (State of Karnataka), is a retired Director (Epigraphy, ASI). His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 31-03-2003-by Nirmohi Akhara, defendant no. 3, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 7-17)
(b) 01/02-04-2003-by defendant no. 6 through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 18-37)
(c) 02/03/04/28-04-2003- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 37-77)
(d) 28-04-2003- by defendant no. 5, Mohd. Hashim 910 through Sri M.A. Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 77)
(e) 28-04-2003- defendant no. 26 through Sri Sayad Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p.

592. He deposed to prove paper No. 203-C1/1 and 203C1/2 i.e., the Estampages of the inscriptions on the stone slab said to have been recovered in 1992 which was kept in Ram Katha Kunj in the custody of the Commissioner, Faizabad. Having passed M.A. (Sanskrit) from Osmania University, Hyderabad in 1961, did Post-Graduate Diploma in Archaeology from School of Archaeology, ASI, New Delhi in 1963 and joined as Epigraphical Assistant, office of Government Epigraphist of India ASI at Ooctacomund in 1964. The said office was later on shifted to Mysore in 1966. He was selected by Union Public Service Commission for the post of Deputy Superintending Epigraphist for Dravidian inscriptions in 1970 and again as Deputy Superintending Archaeologist in 1974. He was promoted as Superintending Epigraphist in December, 1978, as Chief Epigraphist in 1984 and Director Epigraphy in 1992 wherefrom he retired in March, 1997. After retirement also he was engaged as consultant for epigraphy in ASI in June, 1997 till December, 1997 at Mysore. During the course of his service as well as after retirement he edited twelve volumes dealing with epigraphy published by ASI and two volumes of the Journal of Epigraphical Society of India and one Dictionary of 'Personal Names of Mysore District'. He is author of a book "Lipshashtra Pravesha" written in Kannada, published in 1972, and edited another book in Kannada, i.e., "Namma Maisuru"


published in 2001, has written more than 100 research articles. Regarding estampages on the stone slab, i.e., paper No. 203C- 1/1 and 203C-1/2 he said in para 10 and 11 as under:

"10. I was instructed by the Director General of Archaeological Survey of India to prepare the Estampages of the inscriptions on the stone slab and pillar which I had prepared at Ayodhya, District-Faizabad in February, 1994 where they were kept in Ram Katha Kunj in the custody of Commissioner Faizabad under tight Police Security. I have seen these Estampages which are paper no. 203C-1/1 and 203C-1/2. When I had prepared them at Ayodhya, then I made necessary note on the back of them under the my initial and also I had put line numbers on either side of the text portion of the inked Estampages of 20 lines which are same Estampages and which bear my initial, one set of these Estampages is also with the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi."
"11. In the month of August, 1996, I was instructed by the Director General, Archaeological Survey of India to carry the above Estampages to Lucknow, meet the Commissioner, Faizabad and file the same in the Hon'ble High Court Accordingly, I came to Lucknow where Commissioner, Faizabad met me and then the above Estampages marked as Paper No. 203C1/1 and 203C1/2 kept in sealed envelope, were submitted by us before the Joint Registrar, Hon'ble High Court, Lucknow Bench, Lucknow."
G. Artefacts in Debris:

593. OPW 14, Dr. Rakesh Tiwari, was working as Director, Rajya Puratatva Sangthan, U.P. Lucknow. His examination-in-


chief commenced on 07.02.2003 and followed as under :

07-02-2003- Examination-in- chief by affidavit (p. 1-4) Cross examination:(a) 07-02-2003-by Nirmohi Akhara, defendant no. 3, through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate (p. 5-
(b) 10/11-02-2003- by Mahmood Ahmad, defendant no. 6, through Sri Abdul Mannan, Advocate (p. 11-26)
(c) 11/13/14/19-02-2003, 05-03-2003-by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 4 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 26-81)
(d) 07/08-05-2003- by defendant no. 5 through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 81-94)
(e) 08-05-2003- defendant no. 26 through Sri Sayad Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendants no. 6/1 and 6/2 (Suit-3) through Sri Mohd. Azhar, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by defendants no. 4, 5 and 6 (p.

594. OPW-14 claims to have prepared two lists of certain artefacts and finds, kept at Ram Katha Kunj, Ayodhya and from paras 2 to 6 of the affidavit dated 07.02.2003 has said:

^^2- eSa viuh Vhe ds lkFk ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; y[kuÅ ihB y[kuÅ ds vkns'k ds vuqikyu esa lu~ 1990 esa v;ks/;k fLFkr fookfnr LFky ij tkdj okn ds i{kdkjksa ,oa muds vf/koDrkvksa dh mifLFkfr esa fookfnr Hkou ,oa ifjlj dk 'osr';ke o jaxhu QksVksxzkQh rFkk ohfM;ksaxzkQh vius funsZ'ku ,oa ns[kjs[k esa djok;k FkkA "2. In compliance with the order of the Hon'ble High Court, Lucknow Bench, Lucknow, I along with my team went to the disputed site situated in Ayodhya and ensured the black and white and the coloured photography and videography of the disputed building and premises under my direction and care and in presence of parties to the suit 913 and their counsels." (E.T.C.) **3- 'osr ';ke o jaxhu QksVks fookfnr Hkou ,oa ifjlj ds ftl&ftl Hkkx ds fy;s x;s Fks mudk fooj.k mfYyf[kr djrs gq, nks ,yce rS;kj fd;k x;kA ;g nksuksa ,yce rFkk chfM;ks dSlsV dks ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; y[kuÅ ihB y[kuÅ dks izsf"kr dj fn;k Fkk rFkk fuxsfVo vius foHkkx esa lqjf{kr j[kok fy;k Fkk tks vkt Hkh lqjf{kr j[ks gq, gSaA** "3. Detailing the portions of the disputed building and premises of which the black and white as well as colour photographs were taken, two albums were prepared. I sent these two albums and video cassettes to the Hon'ble High Court, Luchnow Bench, Lucknow and ensured the retention of the negatives with my department which are kept safe even today." (E.T.C.) **4- fnlEcj lu~ 1992 esa tc fookfnr Hkou /oLr gks x;k rks lfpo i;ZVu ,oa lkaLd`frd dk;Z foHkkx ds vkns'k ij eSa viuh Vhe ds lkFk fookfnr LFky ij x;k tgkWa fookfnr Hkou dk eyok fc[kjk gqvk Fkk muesa dgha&dgha izkphu iqjko'ks"k dh esa vkus okys izLrj[k.M Hkh /kwy /kwlfjr fc[kjs gq, FksA fookfnr LFky ds fudV gh fLFkr jkedFkk dqat esa Hkh mijksDr fookfnr Hkou ds iqjko'ks"k j[ks gq, Fks tgkWa iqfyl ekStwn FkhA** "4. In December, 1992, when the disputed building was demolished, I, under the orders of the Secretary, Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs, went along with my team to the disputed site, where the debris of the disputed building was strewn in which stone-blocks categorized as antiquities were also lying covered with dust. The antiquities of the aforesaid disputed building were kept also at Ram Katha Kunj, located near the disputed site itself, where the police was present." (E.T.C.) **5- ftykf/kdkjh QStkckn dh vis{kkuqlkj esjs funsZ'ku o ns[k&js[k 914 rFkk Jh fxjtk'kadj frokjh funs'kd jke dFkk laxzgky; jkt lnu] v;ks/;k o Jh bUnz nso flag vij uxj eftLV~sV QStkckn dh mifLFkr esa jke dFkk dqat esa j[ks gq, iqjko'ks"kksa ij la[;k vkj-ds-ds-&1 ls ysdj vkj-ds-ds-&265 rd vafdr dh x;h rFkk rnuqlkj mu iqjko'ks"kksa dh lwph cuk;h x;h ftl ij Jh fxjtk'kadj frokjh o Jh bUnznso flag us vius&vius gLrk{kj esjs le{k gh fd;sa ml lwph dh izfr;ka lEcfU/kr vf/kdkfj;ksa dks izsf"kr dj fn;k x;k FkkA mDr iqjko'ks"kksa dh ewy lwph vkB i`"Bksa esa o lfpo i;ZVd ,oa lkaLd`frd dk;Z foHkkx ds i= vius lkFk yk;k gwW ftldh Nk;kizfr crkSj layXud ,d o nks ds bl 'kiFki= ds lkFk layXu gSA dkykUrj esa iqu% fujh{k.k djus ij ;g ik;k x;k fd ,d okLrq[k.M ij xyrh ls nks uEcj vafdr gks x;s FksA** "5. As required by the District Magistrate, Faizabad, the antiquities kept at Ram Katha Kunj were marked with the numbers ranging from R.K.K.-1 to R.K.K.-265, under my direction and supervision and in presence of Sri Girja Shankar Tiwari, Director, Ram Katha Sangrahayalaya, Raj Sadan, Ayodhya and Sri Indra Dev Singh, Additional City Magistrate, Faizabad. Accordingly the list of those antiquities was prepared on which Sri Girja Shankar Tiwari and Sri Indra Dev Singh put their respective signatures right in front of me. Copies of those lists were sent to the concerned officers. Along with the letter of the Secretary, Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs, I have brought the 8-page original list of the said antiquities, photocopies of which are annexed to this affidavit as annexures 1 and 2. Subsequently, on re-inspection it was found that two numbers were by mistake marked on a stone-block ." (E.T.C.) **6- mi;qZDr iqjko'ks"kksa dh lwph eSaus Lo;a djds ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; y[kuÅ ihB y[kuÅ dks igys Hkh izsf"kr fd;k gSA** "6. After personally certifying the aforesaid list of 915 antiquities I have sent the same to the Hon'ble High Court, Lucknow Bench, Lucknow even earlier." (E.T.C.)

595. About the list of the documents etc. which he has annexed as Annexure-1 to his affidavit we shall deal with in detail later.

H. Commissioner/Survey Report:

596. PW 17, Zafar Ali Siddiqui, aged about 65 years (on the date of commencement of his statement-in-chief on 20.10.2000), is resident of Mohalla Dariyapur, District Sultanpur. His cross examination followed as under :

(a) 20.10.2000, 13/14.11.2000- by Nirmohi Akhara through Sri R.L. Verma, Advocate(p. 4-37)
(b)15-11-2000- by Dharamdas, defendant no. 13, through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 38-44 )
(c)15/16/17-11-2000, 08.01.2001- by Sri Umesh Chandra Pandey, defendant no. 22 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 44-80)
(d) 08.01.2001- Sri Paramhans Ramchandra Das, defendant no. 2. through Sri Madan Mohan Advocate adopted by cross examination on behalf of defendant no. 3 and defendant no. 22 (p. 80)
(e) 08.01.2001-Sri Rajendra Singh, son of Sri Gopal Singh Visharad through Sri P.L. Mishra, Advocate (p. 80-87)
(f) 08.01.2001- Hindu Mahasabha, defendnat no. 10 and Sri Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17, through Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by other defendants (p. 87)
(g) 08.01.2001- Plaintiffs no. 1 and 2 through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi advocate the cross examination already done by other plaintiffs (p. 87) 916

597. By profession he is an Advocate practising since 1961-

62. He claims to have surveyed the disputed site on private request of one of the plaintiffs (Suit-4) and had prepared a report and map (Paper No. 191C-2). He sought to prove the above survey report and map and said as under:

^^igys eq>ls bl eqdnesa ds oknh gkf'ke lkgc us bl >xM+s dh tehu dk losZ djus dks dgk Fkk blds ckn oknh ds odhy lkgc Jh eUuku lkgc] Jh ftykuh lkgc ,oa Jh eq'rkd vgen lkgc us bl losZ dke dks djus ds fy, baxst fd;k FkkA muds dgus ds ckn eSaus bl >xM+s okyh tehu dk losZ 19] 20] 21 tqykbZ] 1990 dks fd;k Fkk eq>s oknh us utwy dk uD'kk fn;k FkkA eq>s 23 IykV dk losZ djus ds fy, dgk x;k FkkA oknh us utwy dk [kljk 1931 dk Hkh eq>s fn;k FkkA mlesa fookfnr tehu ds lHkh 23 IykV fn[kyk;s x;s FksA ml fookfnr tehu ds ,d IykV ij ,d efLtn cuh Fkha og efLtn IykV la0 583 ij cuh FkhA efLtn ds iwjc rjQ IykV la0 586]581 o 584 fLFkr FksA efLtn ds mRrj rjQ IykV la0 582 fLFkr FkkA efLtn ds nf{k.k rjQ IykV la0 590 o 588 fLFkr FksA ;g uEcj eSa 1931 ds utwy ds uD'ks o [kljs ls crk jgk gwaA utwy ds 1931 okys uD'ks esa nf{k.k dh rjQ ,d flgn~nk cuk FkkA mlh ls eSaus dk;Z 'kq: fd;k A eSaus bl flgn~ns dks <Ww<us ds fy;s dqN IykVksa dh uki tks[k dh vkSj rc ;g ekywe fd;k fd;k fd ;g flgn~nk blh txg ij gksxk ml txg dh [kqnkbZ djus ij flgn~nk feyk Fkk A flgn~nk ds if'pe o mRrj ds IykVksa ls eSus uki tksi dh FkhA flgn~ns dh fLFkfr uD'ks ds fglkc ls eSus ekSds ij Bhd ik;h Fkh flgn~nksa ls lcls djhc ,d ckx feyk Fkk tks 632 ls 638 rd fLFkr FkkA vFkkZr og ckx brus uEcjksa dks ysdj cuh FkhA 1931 ds uD'ks ds fglkc ls eSus uki tks[k dh Fkh vkSj og ekSds ij fcYdqy lgh ik;h FkhA vFkkZr ekSds ij gwcgw feyrh FkhA eSa tc losZ dk;Z dj jgk Fkk ml le;

dksVZ ls losZ dfe'uj ,d x;s Fks vkSj eq>s ;g fgnk;r nh x;h Fkh fd eSa budks vlsl Hkh d:a vkSj viuh Hkh ,d fjiksVZ cukÅW A esjs bl losZ dk;Z esa v;ks/;k ds dbZ yM++ds esjh enn dj jgs FksA ftl le; eSaus losZ dk dk;Z fd;k ml le; oknh ds odhy Jh 917 eUuku Jh ftykuh] Jh eq'rkd vgen lkgc ,oa oknh ekStwn FksA QStkckn ds vkQrkc vgen fln~nhdh odhy lkgc Hkh ekStwn FksA eSaus ekSds ij tc uki tks[k dh Fkh rks uksV~l rS;kj fd;k FkkA losZ djus ds djhc ,d ,d ekg ds vUnj vFkkZr vius uksV~l cukus ds ,d ekg ds vUnj eSaus viuh ,d fjiksVZ rS;kj djds j[k yh FkhA ;g uksV~l eSaus ekSds ij cuk;s FksA eSaus bl uki tks[k ds le; ekSds ij ,d jQ Ldsp Hkh cuk;k FkkA mlh dh enn ls eSaus uD'kk rS;kj fd;k FkkA eSaus tks uD'kk cuk;k Fkk o fjiksVZ tks cuk;h Fkh og bl le; Hkh esjs ikl gSA eSas ;g fjiksVZ o uD'kk is'k dj ldrk gwWaA ¼fjiksVZ is'k djus ds fo"k; ij foi{khx.k ds vf/koDrkvksa us vkifRr dh vkSj mUgksaus ;g dgk fd ;g vkifRr;ka oks igys gh fyf[kr :i ls nkf[ky dj pqds gSaA mudk dguk gS fd ;g fjiksVZ xokg ds }kjk nkf[ky ugha gks ldrh gS ,oa bl laca/k esa losZ deh'ku dh fjiksVZ igys gh [kkfjt gks pqdh gSA pwafd xokgh py jgh gS blfy, ;g mfpr gksxk ;g fjiksVZ fQygky j[k yh tk;s ijUrq ,fMehflfofyVh ,oa xzkgrk ds laca/k esa vyx ls vkns'k xokg dk c;ku [kre gksus ij fn;k tk;sxkA ½ xokg }kjk fjiksVZ o uD'kk fy;k x;k ftl ij isij ua0 191 lh 2 Mkyk x;kA bl fjiksVZ ij esjs gj ist ij nLr[kr gSa vkSj uD'ks ij Hkh gSaA bl fjiksVZ ij dksbZ frfFk vafdr ugha gS A ;g fjiksVZ eSaus 13] 14 vDVqcj lu~ 2000 dks VkbZi djkdj rS;kj dh vkSj uD'kk Hkh mlh fnu iqjkus uD'ks ls Vªsl djds cuk;k gSA ;g fjiksVZ Hkh eSaus iqjkuh fjiksVZ ij rS;kj dh vFkkZr VkbZi djk;hA ;g uD'kk esjs gkFk }kjk Vªsl fd;k x;k A tks pht uD'ks esa fn[kk;h gS og fjiksVZ esa fy[kh gS og ekSdk vkSj uD'ks ds fglkc ls lgh gSA** "Initially the plaintiff of this suit, Mr. Hashim, had asked me to survey the disputed land. Subsequently, the counsel of this case viz. Mr. Mannan, Mr. Jilani and Mr. Mustaq Ahmad, engaged me to carry out this survey. On their instruction, I conducted survey of the disputed land on 19th 20th and 21st July 1990. The plaintiff had furnished Nazul map of 1931. I had been asked to survey 23 plots. The plaintiff had also given me the nazul khasra of 1931.


All the 23 plots of the disputed land were shown in it. A mosque was built over a plot of said disputed land. That mosque was built over plot no. 583. Plot Nos. 586, 581 and 584 were situated to the east of the mosque. The plot no. 582 was to the north of the mosque. The plot nos. 590 and 588 were situated in south of the mosque. I am giving these numbers on basis of the nazul map and khasra of 1931.

There existed a 'Sihadda' (tri-junction pillar or platform) in south of the Nazul map of 1931. In order to discover this 'Sihadda', I measured certain plots and then located the place/point of 'Sihadda'. After digging at that place, 'Sihadda' was found. I had measured the plots to west and north of the 'Sihadda'. I had found the location of the 'Sihadda' on the spot, to be in accordance with the map. Nearest to the 'Sihadda' was a grove over numbers 632 to 638 i.e. the grove existed over the said numbers. I had carried out the measurement as per the map of 1931 and it was found in order on the spot i.e. it was exactly the same on the spot. When I was carrying out the survey, the Survey Commissioner of the court also arrived over there and I was instructed to assist him, besides preparing my own report. Many local boys of Ayodhya also assisted me in this survey.

At the time of the survey, the plaintiff's counsel Sri Mannan, Sri Jilani, Sri Mushtaq Ahmad and the plaintiff were present over there. Sri Aftaab Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate, of Faizabad was also present. When I had carried out the measurement, I prepared notes. Within one month of conducting the survey or within one month of preparation of my notes, I had kept a report after its 919 preparation. I had carried out the measurement and prepared my notes on the spot. I prepared a report within one month. At time of measurement at the spot, I had also prepared a rough sketch, and I had prepared the map by its help. The map and report prepared by me, are with me at present. I can produce the said map and report (in the matter of production of the report, the counsel for the opposite parties raised objection and contended that they have already filed the written objections in this behalf. They contended that the witness cannot file the report and the report of Survey Commission in this behalf, has already been rejected. Since evidence is being led, it would be proper that the said report be taken for the time being but orders regarding the admissibility of the same would be passed after conclusion of evidence of the witness). The report and map were taken from the witness which were numbered as paper no. 191C-2. All the pages of this report and the map bear my signature. This report does not contain any date. I had got this report typed out on 13,14 October, 2000 and on the same day I had got the map traced out from the old map. This report was also prepared i.e. got typed out by me from the old report. This map has been traced by me in my own hands. The items appearing in the map and described in the report, are correct as per the location and map." (E.T.C.)

598. DW 3/10 Sri Pateshwari Dutt Pandey; is an Advocate aged about 74 years (vide his affidavit dated 23rd March 2004) and was cross examined as under :

(a) 23.03.2004- by Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, defendant no. 17 and Umesh Chandra Pandey, defendant no. 22 920 (Suit-4) through Sri Vireshwar Dwivedi, Advocate (p. 5-
(b) 23.03.2004- by plaintiffs (Suit-5) through Sri Ved Prakash, Advocate (p. 8-9)
(c) 23.03.2004- Mahant Suresh Das, defendant no. 2/1 (Suit-4 and 5) through Sri M.M. Pandey, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by Vireshwar Dwivedi and Sri Ved Prakash Advocates (p. 9)
(d) 24.03.2004- by defendant no. 20 (Suit-4) through Km. Ranjana Agnihotri, Advocate (p. 11)
(e) 24/25.03.2004- by defendant no. 11 through Sri Abdul Manna, Advocate (p. 12-22)
(f) 25/26/29/31.03.2004, 01/19/20.04.2004- by Sunni Central Waqf Board, defendant no. 9 through Sri Zafaryab Jilani, Advocate (p. 22-90)
(g) 21/27.04.2004- by plaintiff no. 7 (Suit-4) and defendant no. 5 (Suit-5) Mohd Hashim through Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocate (p. 91-110)
(h) 27.04.2004- defendant no. 6/1 through Sri Irfan Ahmad, Advocate and defendant no. 6/2 through Sri Fazale Alam, Advocate adopted the cross examination already done by Sri Abdul Mannan, Sri Zafaryab Jilani and Sri Mustaq Ahmad Siddiqui, Advocates (p. 111)

599. He claimed to have submitted Commission's report on 13.10.1973 pursuant to an order in O.S. No. 9 of 1973 Nirmohi Akhara Vs. Baba Ram Lakhan Izlasi, in the Court of Civil Judge, Faizabad and has filed a copy of the said report and proved the same. He prepared and submitted said report after inspecting the premises in question on 22th August, 26th August 1973 and 6th September 1973. The aforesaid suit itself had been 921 decided finally in 1978. It is not necessary to make any further discussion on this aspect of the matter since the above report, if necessary, would be discussed later on. The statement of DW 3/10 in detail would also be referred and discussed later on if necessary.

Documentary Evidences

600. Documents of plaintiff (Suit-1) :

Sl. Description of Paper                 Paper   Register/
N                                        No./    Page No.
o                                        Exhibit
 1     Copy of the affidavit by Abdul 69/C-         5/5
       Ghani dated 16-2-1950, in the Ex.1
       court of City Magistrate Faizabad
       U/s 145 Cr.PC. P.S. Ayodhya
       District Faizabad
 2     Copy of the affidavit of Wali 183-Ex.2 5/9-10
       Mohammad dated 3.2.1950, in the
       Court of City Magistrate Faizabad
       U/s 145 Cr.P.C. Rex Vs.
 3     Copy of affidavit filed by Hasnu 184/C-    5/11-12
       dated 29.12.1950 in the Court of Ex.3
       City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
 4     Copy of affidavit of Mohd. Umar 185/C-     5/13-14
       dated 11.2.1950, in the Court of Ex.4
       City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
 5     Copy of affidavit of Ajeemullah 186/C-     5/17-18
       dated 13.2.1950 in the Court of Ex.5
       City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
 6     Copy of affidavit filed by Latif 187/C-    5/19-20
       dated 13.2.1950 in the Court of Ex.6
       City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
 7     Copy of affidavit of Mohd. Husain 188/C-   5/21-22
       dated 14.2.1950, in the Court of Ex.7
       City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145

8    Copy of affidavit of Abdul Sattar     189/C-     5/23-24
     dated 16.2.1950, in the Court of      Ex.8
     City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
9    Copy of affidavit of Ramzan dated     190/C-     5/25-26
     16.2.1950, in the Court of City       Ex.9
     Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
10   Copy of affidavit of Hoshaldar        191/C-      5/27
     dated 16.2.1950, in the Court of      Ex.10
     City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
11   Copy of affidavit of Abdul Sakoor     192/C-      5/29
     dated 16.2.1950, in the Court of      Ex.11
     City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
12   Copy of affidavit of Abdul Razal      193/C-      5/31
     dated 16.2.1950, in the Court of      Ex.12
     City Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145
13   Copy of affidavit of Abdul Jaleel     194/C-      5/33

dated 14.2.50, in the Court of City Ex.13 Magistrate Faizabad U/s 145 Cr.P.C.

14   Copy of affidavit of Peeru Dated      195/2       5/35
     11.2.50     filed    before    City   Ga-
     Magistrate,       Faizabad       in   Ex.14
     proceedings u/s 145 Cr.P.C.
15   Copy of the report of Deputy          319/1Ga-    5/41
     Commissioner        Faizabad     in   319/2Ga-
     compliance of Commissioner's          Ex.15
     order dated 14.05.1877 in Misc.
     Appeal No. 56 decided on
16   Copy of the order of the              320/Ga-     5/45
     Commissioner Faizabad dated           Ex.16
     13.12.1877 in Mohd. Asgar Vs.
     Khem Das, Misc. Appeal No. 56
17   Copy of judgment dated 18.6.1883      321/Ga-     5/47
     passed by Sub Judge, Faizabad in      321/2Ga-
     case no. 1374/943, Syed Mohd.         Ex.17
     Asghar Vs Raghubar Das
18   Copy of the application of Mohd.      322/Ga-     5/55
     Asghar dated 2.11.1883 in the         Ex.18
     Court of Assist. Commissioner

     Faizabad Mohd. Asgar Vs.
     Raghubar Das
19   Copy of report dated 28.11.1858 of   325Ga-    5/61
     Sheetal Dubey Thanedar Awadh         Ex.19
     (case no. 384)
20   Copy of application/complaint        326Ga-    5/65
     dated 30.11.1858 of Mohd.            Ex.20
     Khateeb (in case no. 884)
21   Copy of report dated 1.12.1858 of    327Ga-    5/69
     Sheetal Dubey Thanedar Awadh         Ex.21
     (case no. 884)
22   Copy of report dated 6.12.1858 of    328Ga-    5/73
     Thanedar Awadh (case no. 884)        Ex.22
23   Copy of application dated 9.4.1860   329Ga-    5/77
     of Mohammadi Shah                    Ex.23
24   Copy of the plaint dated             349/Ga-   5/83
     22.10.1882 of Suit No. 374/943 of    Ex.24
     1882 Mohd. Asghar Vs. Raghubar
     Das in the Court of Munsif
25   Copy of the judgment dated           350Ga-    5/87
     22.8.1871                            Ex.25
26   Copy of plaint dated 22.2.1870       351Ga-    5/91
     case Mohd. Asghar Vs. Sarkar         Ex.26
27   Copy of the order dated 22.1.1884    352/Ga-   5/95
     in case no. 19435 by Asstt.          Ex.27
     Commissioner, Faizabad
28   Copy of the application of           353/Ga-   5/99
     Raghubar Das dated 27.6.1884         Ex.28
     before     Asstt.   Commissioner,
29   Copy of the order dated              354Ga-    5/103
     12.10.1866        of       Deputy    Ex.29
     Commissioner, Faizabad in case
     no. 223
30   Copy of memo of appeal dated         355/Ga-   5/107
     13.12.1870 before Commissioner       Ex.30
     against order dated 03.04.1877
     passed by Dy. Commissioner.
31   Copy of Application dated            356/Ga-   5/117
     5.11.1860 of Rajjab Ali in the       Ex.31
     Court of Deputy Commissioner
     Faizabad, Meer Rajjab Ali Vs.
     Akali Singh

 32 Copy of the Map Kistwar, village       357/Ga-     5/123
    Ramkot Tehsil Haveli District          Ex.32
    Faizabad 1344, 1345 F, in 1937
 33 Copy of order dated 26.8.1868          358/1Ga-   5/127-
    disposed of by Major J. Read           2Ga         129
    Commissioner, Faizabad in appeal       Ex.33
    no. 275 Niamat Ali Shah Vs.
    Ganga Dhar Shastri
 34 Copy of the order dated 12.1.1884      359/Ga-     5/131
    passed by Asstt. Commissioner,         Ex.34
    Faizabad in Case No. 19435 in
    respect of Najool of Ram Janam
    Bhumi Pargana Haveli Awadh,
    Faizaadl Mohd. Asghar Vs.
    Raghubar Das

601. Documents filed by defendants (Suit-1):

Sl.          Description of Paper        Paper        Register/
No                                       No./         Page No.
 1    Document written by Dr. H. C. Rai 423 Ga-       Relate to
      Proved by Gaya Prasad Tewari in Ex. A1          substituti
      the Court of Civil Judge, Faizabad (Not            on
      on 14.12.1961                      relevant      matter
                                         now)         have not
 2    Document written by Dr. H. C. Rai    425 Ga-      Relate
      Proved by Gaya Prasad Tewari in      Ex. A2        to
      the Court of Civil Judge, Faizabad   (Not       substituti
      on 14.12.1961                        relevant      on
                                           now)        matter
                                                      have not
 3    Grant    certificate of    Chief     6/83-Ex.     6/33
      Commissioner in favour of Rajjab     A3
      Ali and Mohd. Asghar
 4    Death report of Mohd. Shami        437 Ga-       8/565
      Mohalla Raiganj Ayodhya dated      Ex. A3A
      26.6.1958                          (now not
 5    Report dated 16.9.1938 by Sri S.M. 73/1-5A-       6/35
      Owais,        District       Waqf Ex. A4

6  Report dated 8.2.1941 by Mr. A        74/1-2A-    6/45
   Majeed         District       Waqf    Ex. A5
 7 Application dated 5.6.1934 of Zaki    75/1-Ex.    6/49
   and others U/s 15 of Police Act       A6
 8 Agreement       dated     25.7.1936   75A-Ex.     6/63
   between Mohd. Zaki and Abdul          A7
 9 Income expenditure statement of       76A-Ex.     6/75
   1299, 1306 and 1307 Fasli             A8
10 Asal Photo Masjid Babri               42-Ex.      6/151
11 Naqual register Tahkikat Moafi        53/1 and    6/153
   dated 14.3.1860                       53/2,
                                         Ex. A10
12 Copy of register moafiyat faizabad    80/C-Ex.    6/163
   govt. order 234 dated 29-06-60        A11
13 Naqual       register    A6   jeem    81/C-Ex.    6/165
   Mutallikan Faizabad.                  A12
14 Copy      of     application  dated   57/C-       6/173
   25.9.1866 by Mohd. Afzal,             Ex. A13
   Mutwalli, Masjid Babri, Oudh
15 Copy of letter dated 25.8.1863 of     83C-        7/181
   Chief Commissioner Oudh to            Ex. A14
   Commissioner, Faizabad
16 Copy of order dated 5/6.9.1863 of     84C-        7/183
   Finance Commissioner, Oudh to         Ex. A15
   Commissioner, Faizabad
17 Copy of Robekar Rozanamacha-          41/59       7/185
   408 issued by extra Asst.             Ex. A16
   Commissioner referring order
   dated     31.08.1863       of  Dy.
   Commissioner, Faizabad and copy
   of the order sheet dated 9, 16, 28
   and      30.09.1863       of  Asst.
   Commissioner, Faizabad
18 Copy of Robekar alongwith order       41/60 Ex.   7/193
   sheet dated 16.8.1865 of Karnegi,     A17
   Deputy Commissioner, Faizabad
19 Copy of the order dated 30.10.1865    41/61-Ex.   7/193
   of Assistant commissioner             A18
20 Order and decree dated 30.1.1870      88C-Ex.     7/207
   and 03.02.1870 of Settlement          A19
   Officer's Court, Faizabad in Case
   No. 5, Mohd. Afzal Ali and Mohd
   Asghaer Vs. Government.

21 Copy of order dated 22.8.1871 of       89C-Ex.    7/231
   Settlement Officer, Faizabad           A20
22 Khasra 1277 Fasli (1873 AD)            90C-Ex.    7/233
   showing Plot No. 163                   A21
23 Copy of plaint dated 19.1.1885,        91/1,2C-   7/237
   Raghubar Das Vs. Sec. of State         Ex. A22
   (case no. 61/280(1885))
24 Written Statement of Mohd.             92/C-Ex.   7/255
   Asghar, defendant no. 2 in case        A23
   no.61/280(1885) dated 22.12.1885
25 Copy of the report dated 6.12.1885     93/1/C-    7/271
   of Gopal Sahai, Ameen, Raghuar         Ex. A24
   Das Vs. Saheb Bahadur Secy. of
   State in case no. 61/280 of 1885
26 Map prepared by Gopal Sahai,           94/2C-     7/277
   Ameen, Court Commissioner on           Ex. A25
27 Judgment       dated     24.12.1885    94/1C-     7/283
   Raghubar Das Vs. Secy. of State        Ex. A26
   from the Court of Sub Judge,
   Faizabad case no. 61/280
28 Copy       of    judgment      dated   95/1C-     7/319
   18/26.3.1886 of F.E.A. Chemier         Ex. A27
   D.J. Faizabad in CA no. 27/1885
29 Decree       dated     18/26.3.1886,   96/1C-     7/325
   Raghubar Das Vs. Secy. of State,       Ex. A28
   CA No. 27/1885, Court of D.J.
   Faizabad (F.E.A. Chamier)
30 Copy of report E.L. Norton Esquire     97/1C-     7/331
   L.R. to govt. 18.12.1929 with          Ex. A29
   reference to the application U/s 92
31 Naqual Intekhab Khewat Mauja           98/C-Ex.   7/333
   Bahoranpur 1332 F.                     A30
32 Copy of account for the period         100C-Ex.   7/357
   7.4.1924 to 28.3.1925 given by         A31
   Sayed Mohd Zaki
33 Naqual Hisab for the period            101/C-     7/379
   29.3.1925 to 14.4.1926                 Ex. A32
34 Copy of account income and             102/C-     7/401
   expenditure dated 27/29.05.1943        Ex. A33
   regarding     Mohd.      Bahoranpur
   Moafi Mauja Bahoranpur for
   25.9.41 to 12.9.42
35 Naqual Indraj Waqf No. 26,             103/C-     7/409
   Faizbad Govt. Gazette dated            Ex. A34

36 Hisab Amdani aur kharch Sunni            104/C-    7/413
   Central Board of Waqf 1.4.1947 to        Ex. A35
37 Report of Auditor (Khajahnci)            105/C-    7/415
   27.7.1948                                Ex. A36
38 Nakal Khasara Abadi Kistwar              106/C-    7/417
                                            Ex. A37
39 Nakl Khasara Abadi Kistwar               107/C-    7/419
                                            Ex. A38
40 Naqual      Naksha      Kistwar          108/C-    7/421
   Bandobhast                               Ex. A39
41 Intekhab Naksha Abadi Mauja              109/C-    7/423
   Ramkot Pargana Haveli                    Ex. A40
42 Khewat Mauza Bahoranpur                  110/C-    7/425
                                            Ex. A41
43 Copy      of     judgment       dated    176/1C-   8/431
   30.03.1946 Shia Waqf Board Vs.           Ex. A42
   Sunni Waqf Board Regular Suit
   No. 29/1945, judgment by Sri. S.A.
44 Copy      of    order     of     Dy.     266 Ga-   8/459
   Commissioner Faizabad dated              Ex. A43
   6.10.1934     on    the    list    of
   compensation regarding Babri
45 Copy of estimate of Tahavar Khan         267 Ga-   8/461
   Thekedar, Babri Masjid Ayodhya           Ex. A44
46 Copy of order passed by Dy               268 Ga-   8/467
   Commissioner, Faizabad dated             Ex. A45
   26.2.1935 on application of
   Tahavar Khan
47 Copy of the report of Mubaraq Ali,       269 Ga-   8/469
   Bail order 27.1.1936 regarding           Ex. A46
   construction of mosque
48 Copy of the order dated 29.1.1936        270 Ga-   8/471
   passed by A. D. Dixon regarding          Ex. A47
   the repairs of the Babri Mosque,
49 Copy of the inspection note dated        271/1-2   8/473
   21.11.1935 by Zorawar Sharma             Ga-
   Asst. Engineer P.W.D.                    Ex. A48
50 Copy of the order dated 12.5.1934        272 Ga-   8/477
   passed by Milner White regarding         Ex. A49
   cow     slaughter     question      at

     Shahjanpur and Ayodhya Riot no.
     XV-162, 1929-30 to 1934-35
51   Copy of the application moved by     276 Ga-   8/479
     Tahavar Khan, Thekedar dated         Ex. A50
52   Copy of the application moved by     274 Ga-   8/483
     Tahavar Khan Thekedar dated          Ex. A51
     25.2.1935 (cow slaughter question)
53   Copy of the application moved by     275 Ga-   8/485
     Tahavar Khan Thekedar dated          Ex. A52
54   Copy of the application moved by     276 Ga-   8/493
     Tahavar Khan Thekedar dated          Ex. A53
55   Report of the auditor dated          299-      8/501
     27.7.1948 for the year 1947-48       Ex. A54
56   Naqual Hisab Amdani Aur              300 Ga-   8/503
     Kharcha Babat 1.10.1947 to           Ex. A55
     31.3.1948, Sunni Central Waqf
     Board U.P. Jawwad Husain
57   Report of the auditor for 1948-      301 Ga-   8/505
     1949, Babat Waqf file no. 26         Ex. A56
58   Naqual Hisab Aamdani Aur             302 Ga-   8/507
     Kharch 1.4.1948 to 31.3.1949         Ex. A57
59   Naqual report of the auditor from    303 Ga-   8/509
     1949-50 M. Husain, Auditor           Ex. A58
60   Copy of the report of income and     304 Ga-   8/511
     expenditure 1.4.1949 to 31.3.1950    Ex. A59
     by Jawad Husain Mutwali
61   Copy of the register Waqf U/s 38     305 Ga-   8/513
     U.P. Muslim Waqf act No. 13/1936     Ex. A60
62   Copy of the application by Abdul     306 Ga-   8/515
     Gaffar Pesh Imam Babri masjid        Ex. A61
     dated 20.8.1938
63   Naqual Murasala no. 5007/26/7        307 Ga-   8/519
     dated 25.11.1948                     Ex. A62
64   Naqual report Mohd. Ibrahim Waqf     308 Ga-   8/523
     Inspector dated 10.12.1949 for       Ex. A63
     protection of mosque
65   Naqual report Mohd. Ibrahim          309 Ga-   8/529
     Saheb Waqf Inspector dated           Ex. A64
     23.12.1949 for protection of
66   Notice of Shiya Central Board to     310 Ga-   8/537

       Sunni Central Board 11.4.1945         Ex. A65
 67    Original letter dated 20.11.1943 in   311 Ga-       8/539
       reply of the letter no. 5272 dated    Ex. A66
 68    Copy of the application dated         312 Ga-       8/547
       19/20.7.1938 of Mohd. Zabi S/o        Ex. A67
       Mohd. Razi addressed to Waqf
       Commissioner Faizabad
 69    Copy of the order of Dy.              313 Ga-       8/559
       Commissioner Faizabad dated           Ex. A68
       19.1.1928 file no.14/77, 1922
 70    Copy of robekar dated 15.12.1858,     361 Ga-       8/569
       Case no. 884 Awadh Darbar Janam       Ex. A69
       Sthan-petitions moved to Thanedar
       Nihang Singh
 71    Copy of order dated 5.12.1858         362 Ga-       8/573
       regarding eviction of Faqir Tek       Ex. A70
 72    Shajara Sub Malikan Mauja             177-          8/577
       Bahoranpur Pargana Haveli Awadh       Ex. A71
 73    Naqual Hisab Madkhala Mohd.           99/C-         7/337
       Zaki 9.7.1925                         Ex. A72

602. Documents of plaintiff (Suit-3) :

Sl. Description of Paper                         Paper    Register
No                                               No.      / Page
                                                 /Exhibit No.
 1     Certified copy of agreement executed 39C1/4-          9/15

by Panchas of Nirmohi Akhara dated 20 Ex.1 19.3.1949 2 Certified copy of the order dated 39C1/21- 9/49 9.2.1961 passed by City Magistrate, Ex.2 Faizabad 3 Original Certificate of erection/re- 39C1/22 9/91 erection of the building file no. 289/59 Ex.3 in the name of Mahant Raghunath Das Chela Dharam Das, Ramkot Ayodhya along with the map 4 Original map/plan for the erection of 39C1/24- 9/53 the building file no. 397 dated 25-Ex.4 6.9.1963 in the name of Mahant Raghubar Das Chela Dharam Das resident of Ramkot, Ayodhya along with the certificate for the construction 930 of the building.

5    Copy of the application moved by           39C1/26-   9/59
     Vedanti Raja Ram Chandra Charya            Ex.5

dated 6.2.1961 before City Magistrate Faizabad 6 Certified copy of the written statement 39C1/27- 9/61 of Baba Baldev Das dated 29.12.50 in 28-Ex.6 the Court of City Magistrate, Faizabad in case no. 1/2/18, U/s 145 Cr.P.C.

7 Copy of the order dated 30.7.53 by Sri 39C1/29- 9/65 Prem Shanker City Magistrate 30-Ex.7 Faizabad in case no. 1/2/18 U/s 145 Cr.P.C. P.S. Ayodhya Rex Vs.R.J.B.-


8 Original Qabuilyat (consent) by 39C1/31- 9/69 Jhingoo S/o Gaya in favour of Mahant 32-Ex.8 Nirmohi Akhara regarding Sita Koop on 4 Annas Stamp executed on 11.6.1900 along with its translation 9 Original agreement (Theka) dated 39C1/33- 9/73 29.10.1945 of the Shop of Janam 34-Ex.9 Bhumi Remkot Ayodya in favour of Gopal S/o Babu Kurmi by Narottam Das dated 13.10.1942 on 1 rupee stamp along with its translation 10 Original agreement (Theka) 39C1/35- 9/77 29.10.1945 of shop of Janam Bhumi 36-Ex.10 executed in favour of Mata Prasad by Mahant Raghunath Das, Nirmohi Akhara on a stamp of rupees 1 and 4 Annas along with translation 11 Certified copy of the order dated 39C1/40- 9/89 30.10.1922 regarding amendment of 41-Ex.11 plaint 12 Certified copy of judgment of C.A. 40C1/2- 9/93 No. 10/1923 decided on 22.10.1923 in 5-Ex.12 the Court of Sub Judge Faizabad in the case Mahant Narottam Das Vs. Ram Swaroop Das 13 Postal receipt of registered letter sent 41C1/9- 9/117 to Priya Dutt Ram dated 6.10.59 Ex.13 14 Receipt registered letter sent to S.P. 41C1/10- 9/119 Office Faizabad dated 6.10.59 Ex.14 15 Extract from the book "A History of 51C1/1- Separate Dasnami Naga Sanyacies" written by 17, Sri Yadunah Sarkar admitted on Ex. 15 24.3.2009 931 16 Registered letter by Dy. Commissioner 41C1/5- 9/109 Faizabad to Mahant Raghunath Das Ex.16 Chela Mahant Dharam Das dated 30.11.59 17 Envelop registered A/D dispatched by 41C1/6- 9/111 Commissioner Faizabad dated 1.12.59 Ex.17 18 Acknowledgment S.P. Faizabad dated 41C1/7- 9/113 7.10.59 Ex.18 19 Acknowledgment Priya Dutt Ram 41C1/8- 9/115 receiver Janam Bhumi dated 10.10.59 Ex.19 20 Book Sri Mad Bhagwat Gita published 43C1/1- Book by Geeta Press Gorakhpur, C.M. Appl. Ex. 20 No. 83(O) of 2003 21 Book "Rajasthan Ki Bhakti Parampara 43C1/8- Book evam Sanskriti" writer Dinesh Ex. 21 Chandra Shukla evam Omkar Narain Singh Jodhpur, C.M. Appl. No. 83(O) of 2003

603. Documents of plaintiffs (Suit-4) :

Sl.    Description of Paper                    Paper    Register/
No.                                            No./Exhi Page No.
                                               bit mark
  1    Grant        certificate     of   Chief 7C1/1,2-  10/27
       Commissioner           Faizabad   dated Ex. 1
  2    Copy of the register Moafi for rent        8Ga 2     10/29
       free holdings dated 29.6.1860              Ex. 2
  3    Naqual Indrajaat register No. Jeem,        9Ga 1-    10/33
       Mashmula register No. 6/Ga dated           Ex. 3

27.9.1902 with inspection note dated 27.9.1902 4 Copy of the map relating to village 10Ga 1- 10/35 Ramkot Bandobast Sabiqua Awwal Ex. 4 of 1st settlement 1861 5 Copy of Intekhab Khevat Aala 11Ga 1- 10/37 Patwari Mutalliqua Mauza Ex. 5 Bahoranpur, pargana Haveli tahsil Faizabad, District Faizabad relating to 1357F, Mashmoola 1355 to 1358 6 Copy of the robekar of Dy. 12Ga 1- 10/39 Commissioner Faizabad dated Ex. 6 13.9.1868 7 Copy of the robekar Dy. 13Ga 1- 10/41 Commissioner Faizabad dated Ex. 7 13.9.1865 932 8 Copy of the judgment sabika register 14Ga 1- 10/43 aam no. 15047, 23.8.1871 Ex. 8 9 Copy of the order dated 22.8.1871 of 15Ga 1- 10/45 Settlement Officer, Faizabad Ex. 9 (Numberdaari Masumule Missil Haqiyat Bandobast Sabik Oudh) 10 Copy of Khsara abadi mauza Ramkot 16Ga 1- 10/47 az jild Bandobast Sabik naqual no. Ex. 10 167 and 163 register no. 3056 11 Naqual Indrajaat Khasara Kishtwar 17Ga 1- 10/55 Mashmoola Sabik Mauza, Ramkot Ex. 11 Pargana Haveli, District Faizabad relating to Plot No. 163 & 167 12 Naqual Shajara Malikan Mauza 18Ga 1- 10/59 Bahoranpur, Pargana Haveli Awadh Ex. 12 District Faizabad 13 Copy of the plaint dated 19.1.1885 in 19Ga 10/63 case no. 61/280, year 1885 (Mahant 1/1-2-

     Raghubar Das Vs. Secy. of State) in     Ex.13
     the Court of Sub Judge Faizabad Mai
     Naqsha Nazari
14   Copy of written statement filed by      20/1Ga 1   10/67
     Syed Mohd. Asghar Mutawalli             and
     Masjid Babari (Raghubar Das Vs.         20/2Ga

Secy. of State) Case no. 61/280, year 1-Ex.14 1885 decided on 24.12.1885 along with Hindi Translation 15 Copy of the report commissioner 21/1Ga 1 10/75 6.12.1885 along with map case no. and 61/280 year 1885 (M. Raghubar Das 21/2Ga Vs. Secy. of State) 1-Ex.15 16 Copy of Judgement Munsif/Sub 22/1Ga 1 10/85 Judge Faizabad Pt. Hari Kishan dated to 24.12.1885 (Dawa Banvane Mandir 22/4Ga Chobootra) Case no. 61/280 year 1-Ex.16 1885 (M. Raghubar Das. Vs. Secy. of State) 17 Copy of judgment dated 18/26, 3- 23/1Ga 1 10/91 1886, passed by F.E.A. Chemier, to District Judge, Faizabad in civil 23/3Ga appeal no. 27/1886, Raghubar Das 1-Ex.17 Vs. Secy. of State and Mohd. Asghar 18 Copy of decree in C.A. No. 27/1886 24Ga 1/1 10/95 to 24Ga Court of District Judge Faizabad in Raghubar Das Vs. Secy. of State2/1-

Ex.18 19 Copy of the application Mumtaz 25/1Ga 1 10/99 933 Husain dated 18.12.29 in the Court of to Civil Judge Faizabad recorded by 25/2Ga E.L. Norton Esquire I.C.S.M.L.C., 1-Ex.19 L.R. to Govt. United Provinces (Suit (page no. 2/50 Gopal Singh Visharad Vs. 97-99) Zahoor Ahmad 20 Copy of judgment dated 30.3.1946 in 26/1- 10/115 R.S. No. 29/1945 passed by Sri 8Ga 1-

     Akhtar Ahsan Esquire Civil Judge         Ex.20
     Faizabad (Shia Central Board Vs.         (page
     Sunni Central Board)                     101-115)
21   Copy of report S.M. Visht District       27/1Ga 1   10/119
     Waqf Commissioner dated 16.9.1938        to
     suit no. 2/50 Gopal Singh Visharad       27/4Ga
     Vs. Zahoor Ahmad                         1-Ex.21
22   Copy of report Pister Sri A. Majeed      28/1Ga 1   10/125
     District Waqf Commissioner dated         to
     8.2.41 in suit no. 2 of 1950, Gopal      28/5Ga
     Singh Visharad                           1-Ex.22
23   Copy of application of Mohd. Zaki        29/1Ga 1   10/135

and others in the Court of Civil Judge to Faizabad in case no. 2 of 1950 Gopal 29/2Ga Singh Vs Zahoor Ahmad and others 1-Ex.23 24 Agreement dated 25.7.1936 between 30/1Ga 1 10/139 Mohd. Zaki and Abdul Gaffar. to 30/2Ga 1-Ex.24 25 Copy of order dated 30.7.53 passed 31/1Ga 1 10/143 by Sri Prem Shanker City Magistrate to 1st class in case no. 1/2/18, U/S 145 31/2Ga Cr.P.C. State Vs. Janam Bhumi 1-Ex.25 26 Postal receipt dated 19.9.61, High 32/Ga 1- 10/145 Court Branch, Lucknow Ex.26 27 Postal receipt dated 21.9.61, High 34/Ga- 10/149 Court Branch Lucknow. Ex.27 28 Postal receipt Dy. Commissioner 36/Ga 1- 10/153 Faizabad dated 19.9.1961 Ex.28 29 Postal receipt dated 19.9.61, High 38Ka 1- 10/157 Court Ex.29 30 Postal receipt dated 19.9.61, High 40Ka 1- 10/161 Court Ex.30 31 Postal receipt dated 19.6.61 to Babu 42Ka 1- 10/165 Priya Dutt Ram Ex.31 32 Copy of the report of Auditor of 202/Ga 11/177 Sunni Central Board of Waqf for the 1-Ex.32 year 1947-48, waqf file no. 26 District Faizabad regarding Babri 934 Masjid Faizabad along with Hindi transliteration 33 Copy of the account of income and 203/Ga 11/181 expenditure for 1947-48, filed by 1-Ex.33 Jawad Husain Mutawalli Babri Masjid with Hindi transliteration 34 Copy of the report of auditor for 204/Ga 11/185 1948-49, included in the Waqf file 1-Ex.34 no. 26 35 Copy of the account of income and 205/Ga 11/187 expenditure for the year 1948-49, file 1-Ex.35 by Mutawalli S.C.W.B. along with transliteration 36 Copy of the report of auditor for the 206/Ga 11/191 year 1949-50, file no. 26 along with 1-Ex.36 Hindi Transliteration 37 Copy of the account of income and 207/Ga 11/193 expenditure for 1949-50 filed by 1-Ex.37 Mutawalli Babri Masjid with Hindi Transliteration 38 Copy of form of registration of Waqf 208/Ga1 11/197 U/s 38 of the Waqf act (13/1936) -Ex.38 including in Waqf file no. 26 39 Copy of extract of Waqfs in respect 209/Ga 11/207 of Waqf no. 26 of the Masjid Babri 1-Ex.39 District Faizabad Published in U.P.

Gazette dated 26.2.1944 along with transliteration 40 Copy of application of Abdul 210/Ga 11/211 Ghaffar Pesh Imam Babri Masjid to 1-Ex.40 the Waqf Commissioner Faizabad dated 20.8.1938 along with Hindi Transliteration 41 Copy of the notice issued by the 211/Ga 11/215 Secy. Sunni Central Waqf Board to 1-Ex.41 Munshi Jawad Husain Mutwalli Babri Masjid dated 25.11.48 letter no. 5007/26VII, along with transliteration 42 Copy of plaint in case no. 2/50 Gopal 212/Ga 11/219 Singh Visharad vs. Zahoor Ahmad 1/1/3 and others in the Court of Civil Judge Ex. 42 Faizabad 43 Copy of W.S. in the above suit by 213/Ga 11/225 defendant no. 9, S.P. Faizabad dated 1-4-Ex.

     1.5.1950                                 43
44   Copy of the W.S. by defendant no. 6      214Ga     11/233

     in the above suit by deputy               1/1-4-
     Commissioner Faizabad                     Ex. 44
45   Copy of the W.S. of defendant no. 8,      215/Ga/1    11/241
     City Magistrate Faizabad Sri              /1-3
     Markandey Singh                           Ex. 45
46   Copy of plaint in R.S. No. 25/50,         216Ga       11/247
     Paramhans Ramchandra Das Vs.              1/1-4
     Zahor Ahmad in the Court of Civil         Ex. 46
     Judge Faizabad
47   Copy of W.S. filed by Dy.                 217/Ga      11/255
     Commissioner Faizabad defendant           1/1-4
     no. 6 in case no. 25/50, Paramhans        Ex. 47
     Ramchandra Das Vs. Zahoor Ahmad
     in the Court of Civil Judge Faizabad
     dated 1.1.51
48   Copy of W.S. filed by defendant no.       218C        11/263
     7 Deputy Commissioner Faizabad in         1/1-4-
     case      no.     25/50,     Paramhans    Ex. 48
     Ramchandra Das Vs. Zahoor Ahmad
49   Copy of the Tarmimi Khasra                Ex. 49      11/283
     Mohalla Ramkot Ayodhya District
     Faizabad 1931 from the record of
     Nazool        along      with    Hindi
50   Copy of map Kishtwar Mohalla              220Ga       11/331
     Ramkot City Ayodhya District              1- Ex. 50
     Faizabad 1338 F.
51   Copy of the report F.I.R. No. 167         236/Ga-     12/337
     Dated 23.12.1949, P.S. Chowk Katra        Ex. 51
     Ayodhya section 145 Cr.P.C. case
     no. 2/50, Janam Bhumi (Date of
     judgment 30.7.53, Court of City
     Magistrate Faizabad)
52   Certified copy of the Khasara Abadi       65A2/2-     12/350
     of Mauza Ramkot of Ayodhya of             3-Ex. 52/
     1931 issued by the Nazool Officer         Ex. 49
     Faizabad in February 1990
53   Certified copy of inspection note of      295Ga       12/355
     Civil     Judge      Faizabad     dated   1/1-2
     26.3.1946, page no. 165(A) in suit        Ex.53
     no. 29/1945, Shia Waqf Board Vs.
     Sunni Waqf Board
54   Certified copy of the application of      296Ga       12/359
     Mohd. Asghar and others dated             1/1-Ex.
     12.3.1961 District Commissioner of        54
     Faizabad file no. 25 Mohalla Kot
     Ram Chander Ayodhya Meer Rajjab

     Ali Vs. Imkani Singh, Date of
     Judgment 18.3.1861
55   Certified copy of report of Khem      297Ga      12/363
     Sing Subedar dated 16.3.1861,         1/1-4
     regarding demolition of Kutiya of     Ex.55
     defendant Imkani Singh
56   Registered A.D. to Babu Priya Dutt    44Ka 1-    10/169
     Ram                                   Ex. 56
57   Acknowledgment State of U.P.          33/Ga 1-   10/147
     through Secy to State govt. U.P.      Ex. 57
     dated 21.9.1961
58   Acknowledgment State of U.P.          35/Ga-     10/151
     through Collector Faizabad dated      Ex. 58
59   Acknowledgment Dy. Commissioner     37/Ga 1-     10/155
     20.9.61                             Ex. 59
60   Acknowledgment City Magistrate      39Ka 1-      10/159
     Faizabad 20.9.61                    Ex. 60
61   Acknowledgment S.P.Faizabad dated   41Ka 1-      10/163
     20.9.61                             Ex. 61
62   A Historian Report to The Nation by 190C2/1      12/367

R.S. Sharma, M. Athar Ali, D.N. Jha -35 and Suraj Bhan Ex.62 63 Dr. D. Mandal's Book "Ayodhya- Ex. 63= 30/9 Archaeology after Demolition" Ex. D26 (Suit-5) 64 Photo copy of the Title page and 260 16/80 photographs the book " Ek Drastikon C1/1-12 Ram Janam Bhoomi, Babri Masjid Ex.64 Vivad" by R. S. Srivastava 65 Photo copy of the Title page and 262 16/93 photographs the book " Ek Drastikon C1/1-4-

     Ram Janam Bhoomi, Babri Masjid Ex. 65
     Vivad" by R. S. Srivastava
66   Letter dated 26-12-1949 by K.K.K. 202C2/         Separate
     Nayar (ICS)                         202 to         (C.M.
                                         204          Applicat
                                         Ex. 66        ion No.
67   Letter dated 27-12-1949 by K.K.K. C2/203-            do
     Nayar                                 203/5
                                           Ex. 67
68   Photocopy of title page and pages of 208 C1/       15/3
     the book entitled as "Bhai Baley 1-4-
     Wali Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji Ki Ex.68
     Janam Sakhi"
69   Photocopy of the title page and pages 210          15/8

     of the book titled as " Sikh and        C1/1-10
     Sikhism" by W.H.Mc Leod                 Ex.69
70   Photocopy of the title page and         230C1/     15/167
     pages of the book title as "The Sikh    1-10
     Religion" by Max Arthur Macauliffe      Ex.70
     Vol. I
71   Photocopy of the title page and         232 C1/    15/178
pages of the book title as " Sri Guru 1-5-
     Granth Sahib" ( Chauthi Sanchi) by      Ex.71
     Dr. Manmohan Sehgal
72   Photocopy of the book " The Sikh        234 C1/    15/184
     Religion"      by    Max      Aurthur   1-7-
     Macauliffe. Vol. I                      Ex.72
73   Photocopy of the title page and pages   236        15/192
     of the book entitled as "The            C1/1-5-
     Evolution of the Sikh Community"        Ex.73
     by W.H. Mcleod
74   Photocopy of the title page of the      238        15/198
     book " The Sikh World" by Ramesh        C1/1-5-
     Chandra Dogra                           Ex.74
75   Photocopy of the title page of the      240C1/1    15/204
     book entitled as " A History of the     -16-
     Sikhs" by Khushwant Singh, Vol.I        Ex.75
76   Photocopy of the title page of the      248        15 and
     book entitled as "Sri Guru Granth       C1/1-7-    16/21
     Sahib" (Pahli Sanchi) by Dr.            Ex.76
     Manmohan Sehgal.
77   Photocopy of the title page of the      250        16/28
     book entitled as "Janam Sakhi Das       C1/1-2-
     Guru, i.e. Suraj Prakash" by Gyani      Ex.77
     Gyan Singh Ji.
78   Photocopy of the title page of the      252        16/31
     book entitled as "Adi Sri Guru          C1/1-10
     Granth Sahib" (Tisri Sanchi) by Dr.     Ex.78
     Manmohan Sahgal.
79   Photocopy of the title page of the      254 C1/1   16/42
     book entitle as "Adi Sri Guru Granth    -17
     Sahib" ( Dusari Sanchi)                 Ex. 79
80   Photocopy of the title page of the      256        16/60

book title as " Sri Mad Dev Murari Ji C1/1-5- ki Jeevani Tatha Sri Guru Parampara Ex. 80 Prakash".

81   Photocopy of the title page of the      216        15/31
     book entitle as "Babar Nama"            C1/1-21
     Anuwadak Yugjeet Naval Puri             Ex. 81
82   Photocopy of the title page of the      218 C1/    15/52
     book entitled as "Memoires of Babar     1- 20

     Emperor of India" by Lt. Col. F.G.      Ex. 82
83   Photocopy of the title page of the      220 C1/     15/73
     book entitle as "Babar Nama"            1-11
     Anuwadak Yugjeet Naval Puri (408-       Ex. 83
84   Photocopy of the title page of the      222 C1/     15/85
     book entitle as "Babar Nama"            1- 5
     Anuwadak Yugjeet Naval Puri (P.         Ex. 84
     458-459, 486, 487, 512-515)
85   Photocopy of the title page of the      224 C1/1    15/91
     book entitled as "Mugha Kaleen          -62
     Bharat 'Babar'" Anuwadak Syed           Ex. 85
     Athar Abbas Rizvi
86   Photocopy of the title page of the      212 C1/     15/19
     book entitled as "Sri Guru Granth       1-4
     Saheb" by Dr. Manmohan Sehgal           Ex. 86
87   Photocopy of the title page of the      242 C1/     16/20
     book entitled as "The History of        1-5
     India" as told by its own historian     Ex. 87
     Vol. VI by Sir H.N. Elliot, K.C.B.
88   Photocopy of the title page of the      244 C1/      16/7
     book entitled as "The History of        1-7
     India" as told by its own historian     Ex. 88
     Vol. IV
89   Photocopy of the title page of the      246        16/14-20
     book entitled as "The History of        C1/1-7
     India" as told by its own historian     Ex. 89
     Vol. III
90   Copy of title page and contents of      280-C-     16/157
     pages 51-53 and 62-65 of Disputed       1/1-6
     Mosque by Sushil Srivastava proved      Ex. 90
     by DW 13/1-3
91   Copy of extract of title page and P.    282C-      16/164
     659-660 of Mughal Kaleen Bharat by      1/1-3
     Syed Athar Abbas Rizvi (P. 135-136)     Ex. 91
     proved by Dr. Bisan Bahadur DW
92   Mughal Empire in India by Prof. S.R.    284C-      16/168
     Sharma, (page 12-34) proved at p.       1/1-14
     177 and 178 by statement of DW          Ex. 92
     13/1-3 Bisan Bahadur
93   Copy of the title page and pages 69     304C1/1    Separate

to 73 of the book entitled as "Indian -7-Ex.

     Archaeology - A Review 1988-89"         93
94   Copy of the title page and pages 81     304C1/8    Separate

to 82 of the book entitled as "Indian -11 939 Archaeology - A Review 1988-89" Ex. 94 95 Copy of the title page and pages 48 304C1/1 Separate to 49 of the book entitled as "Indian 2-15 Archaeology - A Review 1976-77" Ex. 95 96 Copy of the title page and pages 13 304C1/1 Separate of the book entitled as "Indian 6-18-

Archaeology - A Review 1960-61" Ex. 96 97 Copy of the title page and pages 16 304C1/1 Separate to 17 of the book entitled as "Indian 9-22 Archaeology - A Review 1963-64" Ex. 97 98 Copy of the title page and pages 20 304C1/2 Separate to 22 of the book entitled as "Indian 3-28 Archaeology - A Review 1966- 67" Ex. 98 99 Copy of the title page and pages 88 304C1/2 Separate to 94 of the book entitled as "Indian 9-37-

    Archaeology - A Review 1989-90"           Ex. 99
100 Copy of the title pages, Foreward,        304C1/3   Separate
    Preface, Acknowledgement and              8-43
    contents of the book entitled as          Ex. 100
    "Excavation at Kalibangan"

101 Photo copy of the book titled as "The 228C1/1 15/159 New Encyclopaedia Britanika Vol-27 -7 Ex. 101 102 Photostat copy of the title page, 286C1/1 16/183 preface, contents and pages 259 to -14 281 of the book entitled as " The Ex. 102 History Of India as told by its Historian Vol. II" by Sir H.M, Elliot and John Dowson as per list 285C1 103 Epigraphica India (Arabic and 196BC2/ Separate Perssian Supplement 1965 Edited by 15-22 C.M. Dr. Z.A. Desai, filed on 19.11.2001 Ex. 103 31(O)/20 by P.W. 20 Shireen Moosvi 01 104 Early Travels in India 1583-1619, 196BC2/ do Edited by William Foster C.I.E. 23-26 Ex-104 105 Catalogue of Historical Documents 196BC2/ do in Kapad Dwara Jaipur Part II Map 27, 28 and Plans By Gopal Narain Bahura Ex. 105 and C.M. Singh Jaipur 1990 106 List of Sunni Waqf's situated in Agra 244GA- 12/407 and Awadh on which UP Muslim 1 Ex.

      Waqf Act 13 of 1936 applies 106
      published in Govt. Gazetteer

      alongwith original Gazettee 1944
107   Indian        Archaeology        since 199C-     18(0)200
      Independence edited by Sri K.M.           2/1        2
      Shrimali. Delhi 1996-Association for Ex. 107     Separate
      the     Study     of    History    and
108   Mathura       in     Literature    and 199C-        do
      Archaeology- Sita Ram Roy filed           2/2
      though (C.M. Appl. No. 18 (O) ofEx. 108
      2002 in Re 4/89 dated 22.04.2002)
109   Relevant extract of the book entitled 196BC-2    Book/31
      as "Fawaidul Fawad" published from to             (0)01
      Lahore in 1966, filed through C.M. 196BC-        Separate
      Appl. No. 31(O) of 2001 In Re. OOS 2/4

No. 4/1989, by Shireen Moosvi. P.W. Ex. 109 20 on 19.11.2001.

110 Relevant extract book "Khairul 196BC- do Majalis" edited by Prof. Khaliq 2/5-12 Ahmad Nizami published by Dept. of Ex. 110 History A.M.U.

111 Relevant Extract of the Book 196 BC- do "Khulasatu-Tawarikh" written by 2/13-14 Munshi Sujan Rai Bhandari Ex. 111 published from Delhi in 1918.

112 Page 134/1-4, Photostat copy of Ex. 112 With "Palistan Archaeology-Edited by M. affidavit Haraounmur Rashid, Annex. No. 1 to of Suraj the affidavit of Suraj Bhan PW 16 on Bhan 20.03.2006 (Part-III of the statement) with affidavit of Suraj Bhan 113 Page 20/1-20/5, Extract from "Indian Ex. 113 do Archaeology-A Review" edited by Ajai Shanker, Director General, ASI 1997 pages 6-9, Annex. 1 to the affidavit of R.C. Thakran at the time of statement 114 Page 20/8, 20/9, "Ancient India" EX. 114 do Bulletin of ASI Numbers 3, 1947, Annex. II to the affidavit of R.C.

Thakran at the time of statement 115 Page 20/10-20/12, I.A.R. 1988-89 Ex. 115 do edited by M.C. Joshi, published by ASI 1993, Annex. III to the affidavit of R.C. Thakran at the time of statement 116 Page 20/14-20, Indian Archaeology Ex. 116 do 1991-92 edited by B.P. Singh, 941 Secretary Dept. of Culture and D.G.

A.S.I. 1996 Edition, Annex. IV to the affidavit of R.C. Thakarn 117 Page 19/1-8, Extract from Ex. 117 With "Archaeology-The Basics" by Clive affidavit Gamble. Annex. I to the affidavit of of PW 32, Supria Verma Supriya Verma 118 Annex. 2 to 11, filed alongwith Ex. 118- With additional objection against ASI 127 object- report by the plaintiff of OOS 4 of -ion of 1989 at page 29, 30 of her affidavit. Z. Jilani Has proved all these photographs which are of the different mosques, platforms and walls etc. 119 Extract from "Sri Ram Janam Bhumi 44C-1/1- 19/33 Ka Rakta Ranjit Itihas" by Pandit 8 Ram Goptal Pandey "Sharad" through published in 1987, Title page and list 44C-

pages 14,15,31, 33, 34 and 95, filed 1 on 10.9.2003 by Sri Z. Jilani, Adv., Ex. 128 during cross examination of DW 3/1

604. Documents filed by defendants in (Suit-4):

 Sl. Description of Paper                     Paper  Register/
 No.                                          No./   Page No.
  1   Copy of the preliminary order passed 231/C1,     14/5

by Sri Markandey Singh Magistrate ! Ex. A1 st Class (Addl. City Magistrate, Faizabad cum Ayodhya) dae of order 29.12.1949 2 Copy of the order passed on 232/1/C1 14/7 30.7.1953 by City Magistrate Prem -2, Shanker in case no. 1/2/18 U/s 145 Ex. A2 Cr.P.C.

3 Copy of supurdnama dated 5.1.50 in 233/C1, 14/11 the Court of City Magistrate Ex. A3 Faizabad in case no. 1/2/18 U/s 145 (page 33 Cr.P.C. Vol. I) =Ex-1 of Suit-4 4 Certified copy of the order dated 04- 43B 1/2, 14/15 06-1942 on compromise in R.S. No. Ex. A4 95/1941, in the court of Add. Civil 942 Judge Faizabad Nirmohi Akhara Vs Raghunath Das and 7 others 5 Certified copy of the decree with 43B1/3- 14/17 terms of compromise in R.S. No. 9, Ex.

95/1941 in the Court of Civil Judge A5 (page Faizabad Mahant Ramcharan Das Vs. 45-48) Raghunath Das and others

6. Copy of the commission report dated 43B1/10 14/31 18-04-1942, filed by Pleader -16, Ex.

     commissioner in R. S. No. 95/41          A6
7    Certified copy of judgment dated         43B1/17    14/45
     4.11.1966, U/s 145 Cr.P.C. By            -20, Ex.
     Munsif Faizabad Mahant Prem Das          A7
     Vs. Ram Lakhan Das Golkee
8    Certified copy of reference order of     43B1/21    14/55
     City Magistrate in aforesaid case        -25, Ex.
     dated 9.9.1966 case no. 10/1966          A8
9    Geetawali by Goswami Tulsi Das           46C-1/1,   19/53
     Filed in O.O.S. 4/89 by Deponent         Ex. A9
     No. 3 Through his witness R.P.
     Pandey. Marked Exhibit as per order
     of Court dt. 8-7-08
10   Appendix 'A' to the book "A              258C-      16/66
     Historical Sketch of Teh. Faizabad"      1/1-14,
     by     P.     Karnegi,     Officiating   Ex. A10
     Commissioner        and    Settlement
11   Certified copy of Khasra 1308F           43B1/27,   14/69
     Nazool regarding registered Nazul        Ex. A11
     plot no. 588 Vill. Kot Ramchandra
12   Certified copy of the statement of       266C-      16/121
     Abhiram Das Chela Saryu Das in the       1/1-3,
     Court of D,J Fazizabad in case no.       Ex. A12
     12/61, Dated 18-03-1978
13   Certified copy of the charge sheet        270C-     16/137
     under session trial no. 49/83 in the     1/1-7
     court of 3rd Additional Session Judge    Ex. A13
     as per list 269C1, marked as paper
     no. 270C1/1-7
14   Certified copy of the objection by       272C1/1    16/144
     Dharm Das dated 16-07-1982 in the        -3,
     court of A.D.M/ Nazul Officer            Ex. A14
15   Certified copy of the affidavit of       276C1/1    16/151
     Dharam Das dated 16-07-1982 in the       -3,
     court of ADM/Nazul Officer, in case      Ex. A15
     no. 101/133/26/866

16 Affidavit of DW 3/20, Sri Ram Ann. 19, Separate Chandracharya (Statement) page 16/51, Ex. A16 17 Copy of the application moved by 431/C1, 17/7 Abhiram Das in the Court of A.D.M. Ex. M1 Faizabad in case no. 58/73, Misc.

Appl. P.S. Kotwali district Faizabad dated 11.6.1956 18 Copy of the order dated 26.6.50 by 432/C1, 17/9 H.S. Tewari A.D.M. Faizabad case Ex. M2 no. 58/73 of 1956, on Misc. Appl of Abhiram Das P.S. Kotwali District Faizabad 19 Copy of application by Abhiram Das 433/C1, 17/11 dated 21.12.62 before City Ex. M3 Magistrate Faizabad 20 Report made by Sri Priya Dutt Ram 434/C1, 17/13 receiver on Misc. application of Baba Ex. M4 Abhiram Das dated 21.12.62 21 Copy of order dated 435/C1, 17/15 21.12.1962passed by city magistrate Ex. M5 S.N. Sharma on Misc. Application of Abhiram Das dated 21.12.62 22 Copy of order dated 21.12.1962 436/C1, 17/17 passed by Sri S.N. Sharma City Ex. M6 Magistrate Faizabad on Misc.

Application of Abhiram Das 23 Copy of the record of the right (3 442/Ga1, 17/29 yearly) from 1374 to 1376 F, village Ex. M7 Dihwa, Pargana Pratamganj, Tahsil Nawabganj 24 Copy of Bandobast Map 1944-45 F 54A2/11 33/13 Babat Mauza Ramkot Pargana Haveli , Ex. B1 Awadh Faizabad 25 Copy of Naqual Khasra Kishtwar 54A2/12 33/15 Bandobast of the year 1344-45 F -20, Ex.

     Mauza Ramkot, Pargana Haveli B2
     Awadh, Faizabad with Hindi copy
26   Photograph back view of the 54A2/30              33/51
     building                               , Ex. B3
27   Book titled as "Sikh Itihas Mein Sri 206C1,       15/1
     Ram Janam Bhumi" by Rajendra Ex. B4
     Singh D.W. 2/1-1
28   Annexure filed alongwith the 12/14-             Separate

affidavit of Rajendra Singh D. W. 16, Ex. 2/1-1 Book titled as " Bhai Bale Wali B5 944 Janam Sakhi"

29   Annex. 1, Extract from "Janam Sakhi      12/1-3,    Separate
     Bhai Bala Ka" by Dr. Gurubachan          Ex. B6
     Kaur:     (Hindi      Transliteration)
     D.W.2/1-1 (statement)
30   Annex. 2, Extract from "Janam Sakhi      12/4-5,    Separate
     Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji" by Sri Mihir      Ex. B7
     Wan Ji Sodi (Hindi Transliteration)
     D.W.2/1-1 (statement)
31   Annex. 3, Extract from "Aadi             12/6-8,    Separate
     Sakhiya" Third Edition published by      Ex. B8
     Lahor       Book     ShopD.W.2/1-1
32   Annex. 4, Extract from "Puratan          12/9-10,   Separate
     Janam Sakhi- Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji       Ex. B9

Ki" (Sachitra) D.W.2/1-1 (statement) 33 Annex. 5, Extract from "Pothi Janam 12/11- Separate Sakhi" D.W.2/1-1 (statement) 13, Ex.

B10 34 Annex. 6, Extract from "Guru Nanak 12/18- Separate Bans Prakash (Punjabi) by Sukhbasi 20, Ex. Ram Bedi, edited by Gurumukh B11 Singh, Languages Dept. Punjab, Patiala, 1986 D.W.2/1-1 (statement) 35 Annex. 8, Extract from "Janam Sakhi 12/21- Separate Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji" by Mihirwan 24, Ex.

     Ji Sodhi D.W.2/1-1 (statement)        B12
36   Annex. 9, Extract from "Janam Sakhi 12/25-          Separate

Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji" by Mihirwan 35, Ex.

     Ji Sodhi D.W.2/1-1 (statement)        B13
37   Annex. 10, Extract from "Sri Guru 12/36-            Separate

Teerth Sangrah" by Sriman Tara Hari 39, Ex.

     Narottam D.W.2/1-1 (statement)        B14
38   Annex. 11, Extract from "Twarikh 12/40-             Separate

Guru Khalsa" by Bhai Gyan Singh Ji 42, Ex.

     Gyani D.W.2/1-1 (statement)           B15
39   Presidential Address by S.P. Gupta 54A2/50           33/51

on 22.12.1989 in Guntoor (A.P.) on -70, the subject "Sri Ram Janam Bhumi Ex. B16 Controversy- Passion apart what history and archaeology have to say on this Issue", Proved by the witness at page 9 of his evidence as OPW 3 40 Photocopy of the photograph of 78A- 13/99 Babri Masjid without Meenars 2/52, Ex.

41   Srimad Valmiki Ramayan                261           Separate

                                             C1/182     book
                                             Ex. J2/1
                                             and J2/2
42   Maharishi Valmiki Praneet Valmiki       78A2/7,    13/13
     Ramayan Sloka-6                         Ex. J3
43   Photograph of Faizabad District         78A2/53    13/101
     Gazeetter 1905, pages 173, 174          -55, Ex.
44   Photograph of the extract from          78A-       13/39
     "Babar Nama" Vol.-II, written by        2/21-
     A.S. Beveridge, appendix LXVII and      24,Ex.
     LXXVIII and also page LXXVII-           J5
45   History of Awadh (Amir Ali Shaheed      78A-       13/47
     or Marka_E_Hanuman Ghari by             2/25-27,
     Sheikh Mohd. Azmat Ali Kakorbi,         Ex. J6
     page 3, 9, 72
46   Photocopy of encyclopedia Britanica     87B-1/3,   13/115
     Vol. I 693, 694                         Ex. J7
47   Photograph of the extract from the      87B-1/7-   13/127
     book "Babar Nama" by A.S.               Ex. J8
     Beveridge, pages 656, 657
48   Photograph of the extract from the      87B-1/8-   13/129
     book "Babar Nama" by A.S.               Ex. J-9
     Beveridge, page 602
49   Fasanae-E-Ibrat Page 71 by Mirza        78A-       13/53
     Bazeb Ali Beg                           2/28-30,
                                             Ex. J10
50   Extract of the Book Titled as "The      C2-        34/69
     Disputed Mosque" Page no. 22            161/1,
                                             Ex. J11
51   Last page of the cover of the book      C2-162/,   34/71
     titled as " Disputed Mosque"            Ex. J12
52   Photo copy of the Bevridge's            C2-        34/73
     translation of the book " Babarnama"    163/1-2,
     page no. 401 and 402                    Ex. J13
53   Photo copy of the pages of the book     C2-        34/77
     entitled as " Memoir of Zaheer-Ud-      164/1-3,
     Din Mohammad Babar Emperor of           Ex. J14
54   Photo copy of the Extract of the book   C2-        34/83
     Titled as " Disputed Mosque" by         165/1,
     Sushil Srivastava Page no. 72           Ex. J15
55   Photo copy of the Foot note 22 of       C2-        34/85
     Page no. 95 in the Chapter " Did        166/1,
     Babar Build the Masjid" of the book     Ex. J16
     " Disputed Mosque" by Susheel

56   Extract of the Book entitled as "Ain-    C2-167/,   34/87
     I-Akbari" page no. 182                   Ex. J17
57   Extract of the book entitled as "        C2-168     34/89
     Memories of Babar" page no. 333          Ex. J18
58   Photo copy of the extract of the book    C2-170/,   34/117
     entitled as " Early Travels in India"    Ex. J19
     written by William Foster
59   Photo copy of the Extract of the book    C2-        34/127
     "History of the Buddhism In              171/1-5,
     Kashmir" by Dr. Sarla Khosla             Ex. J20
60   Photo copy of the book titled            C2-        34/119
     as"Kalhan's Rajtarangani" by M. A.       172/1-4,
     Stein Vol-2                              Ex. J21
61   Photo copy of the book titled as "       C2-        35/211
     The History, Antiquities, Topography     178/1-8,

and Statistics of Eastern India" Vol - Ex. J22 II by Montgomry Martin 62 Photo copy of the Extract of the book C2- 35/253 titled as " History of India under 180/1-8, Babar" by William Erskin Ex. J23 63 Photo copy of the Extract of the C2-181 35/273 Monumental Antiquities and Ex. J24 Inscription in the North Western Provinces and Oudh by A. Fuhrer 64 Photo copy of the Extract of the book C2- 36/381 "Early travels in India 1583-1619" 182/1-4, Edited by William Faster Ex. J25 65 Photo copy of the Extract of the book C2- 36/423 titled as "Indian Antiquities" edited 185/1-4, by Richard Carnac Vol. XXXVIII- Ex. J26 1908 66 Photo copy of the Extract of the book C2- 36/445 "Hadeeke-A-Shohda" 187/1-6, Ex. J27 67 Extract from book titled as "Babur" C2/169/1 34/91 by Dr. Radhey Shyam -13, Ex. J28 68 Extract from the report of "Tours in 179C2/1 35/237 the Central Doab and Gorakhpur in -8, 1974-75 and 1875-76" by A.C.L. Ex. J29 Carlleyle under the Superinten-

-dence of Major General A Cunningham Vol. XII.

69 Ayodhya in Ancient India by B.C. C2 34/137 Law, report of B.C. Law (Journal of 173/1- Jha Research Institute Vol. 1, page 11, 947 423-443) Ex. J30 70 Holi Quran Majid, Page 3, 4 written 78A2/31 13/57 by Maulana Sayed Farman Ali , Ex. J31 71 "Purattava" Bulletin of the Indian 302C1, Separate Archaeology society Ex.T-1 book 72 Photocopy of the district Gazetteer 43A1/12 18/25 Faizabad written by E.B. Joshi 1960 -21, Ex.

73   Photocopy of the extracts of 43A1/22              18/45
     "Babarnama" translated by A.S. -24,
     Beveridge Vol II                      Ex.T-3
74   Photocopy of the pages from the 43A1/29           18/59
     book "Ramacharita Manas" Tikakar      to 35,Ex-
     Dr. Raj Bahadur Pandey                T-4
75   Photocopy of the district Gazetteer 43A1/2        18/5
     Faizabad 1905 of United Provinces     to 11,

of Agra and Awadh written by H. R. Ex. T-5 Nevill 76 Photocopy of the pages from the 43A- 18/51 book "Ain-E-Akbari" by Col. H.S. 1/25-28 Harett written by Abul Fazal Allani Ex. T-6 Vol. II 77 Copy of the page 334 of the book 120C1/3 Separate entitled as "Dictionary of Islam" By -Ex.V-1 book Thomas Patric Huge. Court order =Book dated 11-11-97(P.W. 11 Statement, at Ex.005-

     page 58)                              5-34
78   Photo Copy of the Extract of the C2-              34/3

chapter entitled as "Did Babar Build 155/1-

     The Masjid"                           17, Ex.
79   Photo Copy of the Extract of the C2-              34/37
     book "Babar Nama" by Bevridge         156/1-5,
                                           Ex. Q2
80   Extract of the Chapter " Did Babar C2-            34/57
     Build the Masjid"                     159/1-5,
                                           Ex. Q3
81   Page 8 of " The disputed Mosque"      C2-         34/67
                                           Ex. Q4
82   Photo copy of the Extract of the book C2-        36/553

"Dictionary of the Islam" by Thomas 196/1,2, Patrick Ex. Q5 83 Babarnama translated by A.S. C2- 34/47 Beveridge, Chapter "Hindustan" 157/1-4 page 602, 603, 604 and 656 Ex. Q6 948

605. Documents of plaintiff (Suit-5) :

 Sl. Description of Paper                       Paper Register/
 No.                                            No./   Page No.
  1    Certified copy of the plaint in Suit 107C1/2 23/703

No. 29/1945 Shia Central Board of 48-250, Waqf Vs Sunni Central Board of Ex. 1 Waqf (Civil Judge Faizabad) 2 Report of K.V. Ramesh O.P.W. 10 306 C- 29/5 1/1-11, Ex. 2 3 Book written by S.P. Gupta and T.P. 289C1/1 Separate Verma "Ayodhya Ka , book Itihas and Puratattava Rig Ved Se Ex. 3 Abtak"

4 Annexure 1 of S.C. Mitttal's 310C1 Separate Affidavit of examination in Chief and extract of Benjamin Walker' Book 310C1/1 "Hindu World and Encyclopaedic -3, Survey of Hinduism" Vol. I, Page Ex. 4 103 and 104 of the book.

5 Photocopy of pages 739 to 740 of the 107C1/1 20/21 gazetteer of the territories under the 0-11, Govt. of East India Company by Ex. 5 Edward Thornton 1854 6 Photocopy of plate XLIX and pages 107C1/1 20/25 320-327 from the book 2-16A, "Archaeological Survey of India, 4 Ex. 6 reports 1862,63,64 and 65, vol. I by Alexander Cunningham C.S.I.

  7    Photocopy of pages 6 and 7 of the 107C1/2        20/51
       gazetteer of Oudh vol. I, 1877         5-26,
                                              Ex. 7
  8    Photocopy of paras no. 618-19, 666- 107C1/2      20/55

67-68-69, from the pages of the book 7-30, "Report of settlement of land revenue Ex. 8 Faizabad District" by A. F. Millett.

C. S. Govt. Press Allahabad 1880 9 Photocopy of pages 295 to 297 with 107C1/3 20/67 frontispiece of the book "The 3-36, Monumental antiquities and Ex. 9 inscriptions in the north western provinces and Awadh described and arranged by A. Fuhror, Phd. Of the Archaeological Survey N.W.P and 949 Oudh Allahabad and others at Calcutta, Madras, Bombay ,London, Isipaig 10 Photocopy of the page and pages of 312C- 29/87 388 and 389 of the Imperial 1/22-

Gazetteer of India, Provincial series 23,Ex. united provinces of Agra and Oudh 10 Vol. II the Allahabad, Banaras, Gorakhpur Kumaon, Lucknow and Faizabad divisions and the native states with frontispiece XLIII district gazetteer of the united provinces Agra and Oudh by N. R. Nobell I.C.S., Govt. Press Allahabad 1905, edition 11 Photocopy of pages 172 to 174 and 107C1/4 20/85 175 to 177 with frontispiece of 2-48, Faizabad gazetteer vol. XLIII 1905 Ex. 11 Edition District Gazetteers of United Province of Agra Oudh 12 Same as above 1928 Edition, 107C1/4 20/99 photocopy of pages 178-181 with 9-53, frontispiece Ex. 12 13 Photocopy of pages 34-36-46-47 and 107C1/5 20/109 352 to 354 with frontispiece of the 4-61, U.P. District Gazetteer Faizabad by Ex. 13 Smt. Isha Basant Joshi. (1960 Edition) 14 Photocopy of the page and pages 52 107C 20/125 and 53 free "Indian archaeology a 1/62-63, review 1976". Ex. 14 15 Photocopy of pages 332 and 333 by 107C1/6 20/139 Memoirs of Zehiruddin Mohd. Babar 9-70, translated by John Leyden and Ex. 15 William Erskin 16 Photocopy of the book "Babur- 107C1/7 20/145 Nama" translated by Annette 1-74, Susannah Beveridge print edition Ex. 16 published by Oriental books 17 Photocopy of extract from the book 107C1/7 20/187 "Babri-Masjid" "Tarikhei Pash- 9-81,

-mannjar Aur Pesh Manjar Ki Roshni Ex. 17 Mein" by Syed Shahabuddin Abdur Rehman, 1987 Edition 18 Photocopy of the frontispiece and 107C1/8 Separate pages 3, 70 , 71 ,72 ,73 and 9, 10 11 2-87, book of book Amir Ali Shaheed Aur Ex. 18 21/201 950 Marka-I-Hanuman Garhi by Shah Mohd. Azmat Ali Alvi Kakorvi, published by Dr. Zaki Kakorvi in 1987, publisher Markaz Adab Lucknow 19 Photocopy of page 176 from the 107C1/9 21/271 book " Early travels in India 1583- 5, 1619, London 1921", containing the Ex. 19 report of William Finch (1608-1611), by William Foster 20 Photocopy of page and pages 335 107C1/1 21/321 and 336 of vol. II of the book " 09-110, History, antiquities, topography and Ex. 20 statistics of eastern India - of report Montgomery Martin, British surveyor of the year 1838 21 Encyclopaedia Britannica XV edition 107C1/1 21/345 1978, photocopy of page and pages 20-121, of the book 693 and 694 Ex. 21 22 Photocopy of frontispiece and pages Ex. 22 Separate 59, 60, 150 to 155 and Parishist Gha book in two pages of the book "Ayodhya Ka Itihas" by Hindi Sudhaker Rai Bahadur Sri Awadh Wasi Lala Sita Ram book Hindustani Academy 1932.

23 The book "Ayodhya" by Hans Baker. 120C- 31/35 1/2, Ex. 23 24 Original book "Sri Ram Janam 107C1/1 22/415 Bhumi Ka Pramanik Sachitra Itihas" 54, by Dr. Radhey Shyam Shukla, Ex. 24 published by BalKrishna Goswami, 590 Ramkot Ayodhya 1986 25 Typed frontispiece with photocopy of 107C1/1 22/513 pages 227-234 typed copy of the note 55-164, indicates the collection and the Ex. 25 sources consulted of the book " A clash of cultures Awadh, the British and the Mughals" by Michel H.

Fisher published by Manohar Publication New Delhi 1987 26 Copy of plaint dated 19-01-1885 of 107C1/2 22 Mahant Raghubar Das (Hindi 26-228, &23/659 transliteration) in suit no. 61/280 of Ex. 26 1885 27 Copy of G. O. No. 1622/VII-447 date 107C1/2 23/665 951 06-12-1912, granting permission to 29, Institute a suit U/s 92 of the code of Ex. 27 civil procedure in respect of the alleged trash relating to the alleged Babri Mosque 28 Copy of G.O. 6373/F2991 dated 18- 107C1/2 23/667 12-1929 granting permission to six 30, Muslim individuals to institute a suit Ex. 28 U/s 92 C.P.C with respect to the (page alleged proof relating to the alleged 331) Ex. Babri Mosque about 12 Bighas of 19 (page village Sholapur Pargana Haveli 97-99) Awadh 29 News paper report with photostat 116C1/2 27/5 copy page no. 3(city) of Hindustan , 2A, Times Lucknow dated 13-11-97 2B, Ex.

29 only on 116C-

30   Photocopy of Hidaya by Charles           116C1/3     27/7
     Hamilton frontispiece of page and        -5,
     pages 239-240                            Ex. 30
31   Copy of affidavit filed by Sri Arvind    118C1/1     27/41
     Verma, Commissioner, Faizabad on         -13,
     13.5.1993                                Ex. 31
32   Copy of the affidavit dated 6.8.1993     118C-       27/81
     of Radhey Saran Kaushik A.No. /92        1/21-25,
     in C.P. No. 97/2002 Aslam Bhoorey        Ex. 32
     Vs Union of India.
33   Book "Ram Janam Bhumi Ayodhya-           118C-      27/107
     New Archaeological discoveries" by.      1/35/1-
     K.S. Lal, president of the Historian     20,
     forum Ayodhya.                           Ex. 33
34   Book written by Patrick Thomas           120C-      Separate
     Hughes "A Dictonary of Islam"            1/3,        book
                                              Ex. 34
35   Book written by Percy Brown              121C-      31/161
     "Indian Architecture"                    1/2-9,
                                              Ex. 35
36   "Itihas Darpan" December 1996 year       254C-       32/7
     3 vol. II                                1/3 to
     note: Extracts from the same book        3/78,
     has been filed again as paper no.        Ex. 36
     254C-1/4-8, 254C-1/9, 10, 254C-
37   Booklet written by Mohd. Hashim 255C-               32/117

Ansari "Babri Masjid Kee Vajyabi 1/2/1 to Ke Liye" 2/20, Ex. 37 38 Letter dated 3-11-89 addressed to 255c- 32/165 Prime Minister from Babri Masjid 1/3, 4, Action Committee Ex. 38 39 Press release dated 3-11-1989 255C- 32/167 1/5, Ex. 39 40 Declaration of Delhi on Babri Masjid 255C- 32/169 adopted by all India Babri Masjid 1/6-11, New Delhi Ex. 40 41 Book "Ram Janam Bhumi Babri 255C- 32/181 Masjid Satya Kya Hai" 1/12 to 12-16, Ex. 41 42 Book "Ram Charitra Manas" (Gutka) 258C-1, 32/209 Ex. 42 43 Map of Aquired area under Act no. 259C- 32/201 33/1999 1/2, 3, Ex. 43 44 Book " Satyarth Prakash" 287C-1, Separate Ex. 44 book 45 "Historian's Report to the Nation" 288C-1 32/231 "Babri Mosque or Rama's to 1/17, Birthplace" Ex. 45 46 Photocopy of the article "Glazed 331V- In Ware in India " Written by K.K. 1/1-6, separate Mohammad. Ex. 46 file cover 47 Photocopy of the title page and pages 116C- 27/13 of the book "Babari Masjid" with 1/6-7, page 5, Admitted by Sri. M.A. Ex. 47 Siddiqui on 1-5-08 48 Memoirs of Z.M. Babur translated by 107C- 20/129 John Leyden and William Erskine 1/64-68, Esq. page 378 to 381 Ex. 48 49 Photocopy of pages 5, 6, 7 and 19, 107C- 20/35 20, 21 of the Photograph of the 1/17-23, structure at Janam Sthal with the Ex. 49 frontispiece of the book "Historical Sketch of Faizabad" with the old capitals Ajodhya and Fyzabad by P.

Carnegy officiating commissioner and settlement officer 1870 Awadh Govt. Press.

50   Photocopy of frontispiece and page      107C-       21/349
     and pages 59, 60, 150 to 155 and        1/122-

     Parishist Gha in two pages of the        129, Ex.
     book " Ayodhya ka Itihas" by Hindi       50
     Sudhaker Rai Bahadur Sri Awadh
     Wasi Lala Sita Ram               book
     Hindustani academy 1932
51   Copy of article on Ayodhya and God       118C-      28/217
     Rama by Ajay Mitra Shastri Dept. Of      1/60-64,
     Ancient History and Archeology,          Ex. 51
     Nagpur University
52   Photocopy of pages 168 and 169 of        107C-       20/81
     the Barabanki district gazetteer 1902    1/40-41,
     edition H.R. Nevill I.C.S.               Ex. 52
53   Photocopy of page 9 of the book          107C-      21/343
     "Religious policy of the Mughal          1/119,
     emperors" by S.R. Sharma published       Ex. 53
     by Asia Publishing house 1962
54   One video cassette Ayodhya               118C-      Separate
     December 1992, prepared by Jain          1/33,
     Studio of Delhi                          Ex.54
55   One Video cassette archaeological        118C-      Separate
     evidence of Ram Janam Bhumi              1/34,
                                              Ex. 55
56   Photocopy of frontispiece of part I      107C-      21/369
     and pages 44,45, 128 to 140 there of     1/132-
     the   frontispiece and pages 143         153,Ex.
     (Chapter 21) the Janam Sthan 144 to      56
     149 thereof of the book "Ayodhya"
     by Hans Bakker
57   Photograph of introduction Ayodhya       120C-       31/41
     by Hans Baker Vol. I page XV to          1/6-9,
     XVIII                                    EX. 57
58   Photocopy         of        "Religious   120C-       31/49
     development in Saket" book bearing       1/10,
     page no. 43                              Ex. 58
59   "The eleventh and twelfth century"       120C-       31/51
     page no. 49-59, first chapter 3          1/11-21,
                                              Ex. 59
60   The origin of devotion to Rama           120C-       31/73
     within Vaishnavism                       1/22-28,
                                              Ex. 60
61   The development of Ayodhya to            120C-       31/87
     Ayodhya Mahatmya                         1/29-31,
                                              Ex. 61
62   Part I Chapter VIII, page No. 141,       120C-       31/93
     143, 150 and 151                         1/32-35,
                                              Ex. 62
63   Part II, Chapter 23, "Ramanavami         120C-      31/101

     Mahatmya" (Featuring Janam Sthan        63,Ex.6
     and Yamasthala"                         3
64   Part II, chapter 25, "Kaikaiee          120C-      31/155
     Bhawan and Sumitra Bhawan" page         1/64-65,
     no. 176 to 177                          Ex.64
65   Part II, Chapter 26, "Sita Koop" page   120C-      31/159
     no. 178                                 1/66,
66   Maps        of     Ayodhya-Faizabad     120C-      Vol 31
     illustration-II                         1/67,       map
                                             Ex. 66     awaited
67   Maps        of     Ayodhya-Faizabad     120C-        do
     illustration-III                        1/68,
                                             Ex. 67
68   Photocopy of the extracts Indian        121C-      3/1631
     Architecture (Islamic Period) by        1/2-9,
     Percy Brown                             Ex. 68
69   Photocopy of "Aine-Akbari" by Abul      107C-      20/163
     Fazl Vol II Subaye Awadh, Nawal         1/76,
     Kishore Press Lucknow 1881, copy        Ex. 69
     made by B.R. Grover in his own
     handwriting of page 78
70   Photocopy of page 427 on the book       107C-      20/167
     "Hadeeqa-E-Shohada" by Mirza            1/77,
     Jaan, published in 1956, Lucknow        77A,
     with      frontispiece   containing     78, Ex.
     Nasbihat-I-Bist-O-Panjum Az Chahal      70
     Nisaih Bahadur Shahi daughter of
     Bahadur Shah Alam Gir
71   Extract from the book "The Disputed     C2-        36/457
     Mosque" A Historical Enquiry by         188/1-
     Susheel Srivastava, Chapter V, "Did     20, Ex.
     Babar build the Masjid"                 71
72   Affidavit of PW 17 Ann. 5, page         Ex. 72     Separate
     28/44 to 28/51
73   Affidavit of PW 17 Ann. 5, page         Ex. 73     Separate
     28/44 to 28/51
74   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 1, page         Ex.74      Separate
75   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 3, page         Ex. 75     Separate
76   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 7, page         Ex. 76     Separate
77   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 8, page         Ex. 77     Separate
78   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 10, page        Ex. 78     Separate

79   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 11, page       Ex. 79   Separate
     27/ 100-121
80   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 12, page       Ex. 80   Separate
     27/ 122-126
81   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 13, page       Ex. 81   Separate
     27/ 127-138
82   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 14, page       Ex. 82   Separate
     27/ 139-145
83   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 16, page       Ex. 83   Separate
     27/ 150-153
84   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 18, page       Ex. 84   Separate
     27/ 158-160
85   Affidavit of PW 18 Ann. 27, page       Ex. 85   Separate
     27/ 204-207

86 Affidavit of PW 19 Ann. 1, page 7/1- Ex. 86 Separate 3 87 Affidavit of PW 19 Ann. 2, page 7/4- Ex. 87 Separate 6 88 Affidavit of PW 19 Ann. 3, Separate page 7/7-9-

Ex. 88 89 Ann. 25, Page 27/193 to 197 of the Ex. 89 Separate affidavit filed by OPW 18 Sri A.K.

     Sharma       (Extract  from    "The
     Excavations at Kaushambi" by G.R.
90   Ann. 26, Page 27/198 to 207 of the Ex. 90       Separate
     affidavit filed by OPW 18 Sri A.K.

Sharma (Extract from "Perspective in Social and Economic History of Early India" by R.S. Sharma) 91 Ann. 28, Page 27/208 to 210 of the Ex. 91 Separate affidavit filed by OPW 18 Sri A.K.

Sharma (Extract from "Ancient India" by R.S. Sharma) 92 Archaeological Survey report: N.W. 107C!/3 20/63 Provinces and Oudh (Ayodhya, 1-32, Bhulia Tal, Sahet and Mahet) Ex. 92 93 Annex. Pages 1/1 to 1/4 to the Ex. 93 Separate affidavit of O.P.W. 16 (Extract of Skand Mahapuran Part II, Ayodhya Mahamatya (2-8) with Hindi Translation (5 Pages) 94 Annex. 4, Pages 7/10 to 7/13 to the Ex. 94 Separate affidavit of O.P.W. 19 Sri Rakesh Datta (Extract from the "Hindu 956 Iconography" by Sri S.P. Tewari) 95 Annex. 1, Pages 4/1 to 4/8 to the Ex. 95 Separate affidavit of O.P.W. 14 (Ram Katha Kunj Ayodhya Faizabad Mein Rakhey Awashesh ki Soochi) 96 Ammex 2. Page 4/9 to the affidavit Ex. 96 Separate filed by O.P.W. 14 Rakesh Tewari on 7.2.2003 (Letter of Alok Sinha to Sri Arvind Verma Commissioner Faizabad Division Dt. 14.12.1992, Paryatan Evam Sanskriti Karya Vibhag Vidhan Bhawan Lko.) 97 Annex. 20 to the affidavit of OPW 18 Ex. 97 Separate A.K. Sharma Page no. 27/165-169 (2004 Edition) filed on 28.08.2006, book no. 124 (Indian Archaeology A Review-1998-99 98 Annex. 24 to the affidavit of OPW Ex. 98 Separate 18, filed on 28.08.2006 with affidavit of Examination-in-chief, page 27/182-192, book no. 140 (Extract of "Pura Prakash" (Dr. Z.A. Desai Commemoration Vol. II, Editor A.K.

Sharma, M.I. Quddusi, M.Y.

Quddusi, G.S. Khwaja) 99 Annex. 5 of the affidavit of OPW 18, Ex. 99 Separate filed on 28.08.2006, 148 page No. 27/40-53 Book No. 148 ("Ancient India-Bulletin of A.S.I. Number IV", July 1947 to Jan-1948) 100 Page No. 27/30-39, filed on Ex. 100 Separate 28.08.2006 with the affidavit of OPW 18 Sri A.K. Sharma, (Extract from "Ancient India-Bulletin of A.S.I. November 2, 1947) 101 Annex. 17 to the affidavit filed by Ex. 101 Separate OPW 18 on 28.08.2006, page No. 27/154-160 (Urdu Hindi Dictionary by Mohammad Mustafa "Maddah") 102 Annex. 4 to the affidavit of OPW 17, Ex. 102 Separate filed on 17.08.2006, page no. 28/40-

43, book no. 124 ("Indian Archaeology 1998-99 A Review"

      published by A.S.I.)
103   Newspaper report page 10 of Amar         119C-      31/5
      Ujala Kanpur dt. 12.10.1995, proved      1/2
      by OPW 2 at page 57 of his               Ex.103

104   Annex. No. 3 of OPW 17, R.             Ex. 104   Separate
      Nagaswami, Page No. 28/24-39
      (Extract from Mahastham)
105   Annex. 6, Page No. 28/52-60            Ex. 105   Separate
      (Extract from Mayamatam, edited by
      Bruno Dagens Vol. I)
106   Annex. 7, page 28/61-63, by OPW        Ex. 106   Separate
      17, R. Nagaswami (Extract from
      Vastu-Sastra Vol. II, Hindu Canons
      of Iconography and painting by D.N.
107   Annex. 2, page 27/4-8 by OPW 18        Ex. 107   Separate
      (Macmillan        Dictionary      of
      Archaeology editor Ruth D. White
108   Annex. 6 by OPW 18, page 27/54-59      Ex. 108   Separate

(Puratatva Paribhasha Kostha History Dept. Vaigyanik Tatha Takniki Sabdawali, Kendriya Hindi Nidesalaya Bharat Sarkar 1979) 109 Annex. 9, statement page 27/68-92 Ex. 109 Separate OPW 18 (Extract from An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology-Edited by A Ghosh Vol. I) 110 Annex. 21, statement page 27/170- Ex. 110 Separate 172, OPW 18 (Macmillan Dictionary of Archaeology-Editor Ruth White House) 111 Annex. 22, statement page 27/173- Ex. 111 Separate 177, OPW 18 (Extract from An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology- Edited by A. Ghosh) 112 Annex. 23, statement Page 27/178- Ex. 112 Separate 18, OPW 18 (Extract from An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology Edited by A. Ghosh) 113 Annex. 15, statement Page 27/146- Ex. 113 Separate 149 by OPW 18 (Macmillan Dictionary of Archaeology-Editor Ruth D. White House.

114 Presidential Address by S.P. Gupta 107C1/1 23/535 on 22.12.1989 in Guntoor (A.P.) on 65-186, the subject "Sri Ram Janam Bhumi Ex. 114 Controversy- Passion apart what history and archaeology have to say 958 on this Issue"

115 Article written by Dr. S.P. Gupta 107C1/1 23/579 "Ram Janam Bhumi Babri Masjid- 86A-

    Revisited"                            190, Ex.
116 Description of Ram Janam Bhumi in 107C1/7        20/161
    Ayodhya Mahatmya edited by Sri 5
    Krishna Das, Khem Raj Srashi          Ex. 116
117 Original Book "Hindu Vishwa" Oct. 118C1/3        27/117
    92 Vol 28 No. 2 Kartik 2049 6
    Vikrami, edited by H.C. Srivastava    Ex. 117
118 Matter written by Pt. Hari Saran 107C-           23/671
    Dwivedi, 305, Bahadur Ganj, 1/232
    Allahabad-3 dated 21.10.1989          Ex. 118
119 Matter written by Pt. Indu Shekhar 107C-         23/669

Pandey, Parashar-Jyotish Bhawan- 1/231 2/22 Bhadaini, Varanasi Ex. 119 120 Letter of Syed Shabuddin, M.P. (Lok 107C- 23/685 Sabha) to Mr. Anjum Qader 1/239 Ex. 120 121 Letter of Prince Anjum Quder to Sri 107C- 23/687 Shabuddin dated 2.9.88 King of 1/240, Oudh's Mausoleum, Garden Reach 240/1 Calcutta, 24 Ex. 121 122 Letter of Prince Anjum Quder to Sri 107C- 23/689 V.P. Singh, Prime Minister of India 1/241-

    dated 26.2.1990                       242, Ex.
123 Extract from "Encyclopedia of India 107C-        21/325

and of Easter and Southern Asia" by 1/111 Surgeon Jen. Bilfore Ex. 123 124 A note on essentials and 116C- 27/23 characteristics of a Mosque prepared 1/11- by Sri D.N. Agarwal, a retired Judge, 17,Ex.

Allahabad High Court 124

125 List of documents examined by NAI 118C- 27/171 from Sri Kishore Kunal, O.S.D., 1/37-

Ministry of State Home by Director 59,Ex. General (Archive) dated 16.5.1991 125 along with list of the documents 126 Details of photographs (ten 119C- 31/13 photographs) 1/C & 119C-

1/C-1 to C-10, Ex. 126 127 Letter of Prince Anjum Qudar 107C- 23/639 President All India Shia Conference 1/243-

959 dt. 13.12.1988 from Pakistan 247

Addressed to Sarkar Tajaul-Ulem Ex. 127 M.S.M. Naqvi (Fatwa with Hindi and English translation) 128 Indian History and Cultural Society, 118C- 28/355 New Delhi workshop seminar 10-13th 1/129- Oct. 1992 Ayodhya. Two resolution, 135 signature of T.P. Verma at Serial No. Ex. 128 214 129 Archaeological and art historical 118C- 28/227, evidence of the existence of the 1/65-92, 289 Hindu Temple of a Hindu religious 96-114 structure prior to the construction of Ex- 129 the disputed structure 130 New Archaeological evidence of "An 118C- 28/327, Eleventh Century Hindu Temple at 1/115- 369 Ayodhya" article by Dr. S.P. Gupta 128 and former Director Allahabad Museum 136-145 Ex. 130 131 Part-II Appendix II to IV from D. 118C1/ 28/283 Mandal's book 'Ayodhya 93-95 Archaeology after Demolition' Ex. 131 132 Catalogue of Historical Documents 107C- 21 & in Kapad Dwar Jaipur Plan Front 1/193- 23/593 piece foreword by Bhawani Singh of 195, 197 Jaipur M.V.C and page 36 along with Ex. 132 two maps 133 Extract from the book of description, 107C1/ 21/273 Historical and Geographical, of India 96-104 by Typhen Thalor, pages 252-254 Ex.133

606. Documents of defendants (Suit-5) :

 Sl. Description of Paper                Paper No./ Register/
 No.                                      Exhibit   Page No.
1     Certified copy of inventory dated 108C1/5,     24/11
      5.1.50 in case no. 4/31 U/s 145      Ex. C1
      Cr.P.C. in the Court of City
      Magistrate Faizabad original file
      summoned in O.O.S. No. 4/89
2     Certified copy of order dated 108C1/6-         24/13
      3.8.57 by 1st Addl. Sessions Judge     11,
      Faizabad in criminal appeal no.      Ex. C2
      50/51 Bhaskar Das Vs. State
3     Certified copy of the order of the 108C1/12-   24/23
      City Magistrate Faizabad dated         13,
      5.9.66, case no. 533/66 State Vs.    Ex. C3

     Prem Das
4    Certified copy of order of C.A. No.    108C1/14-    24/29
     10/1923 dated 22.10.1923 Mahant           17,
     Narottam Das Vs. Ram Swaroop             Ex. C4
5    Certified copy of plaint Ram Gopal     108C1/18-    24/37
     Das Vs. Ashok Singhal R.S.                22,
     426/1989 in the Court of Civil           Ex. C5
     Judge Faizabad
6    Certified copy of the commission       108C1/23-    24/47
     report dated 8.11.1989 in suit            25,
     (426/89)                                 Ex. C6
7    Certified copy of the order passed     108C1/26-    24/53
     by Sri K.K. Singh 4th A.S.J.              27,
     Faizabad dated 13.5.83 Dharam            Ex. C7
     Das Vs. Panch Ramanandi in Crl.
     Revision No. 60 of 1982
8    Certified copy of commission           108C1/28-    24/57
     report dated 13.10.1973 in R.S.           35,
     No. 9/73, Nirmohi Akhara Vs.             Ex. C8
     Ram Lakhan in the Court of Civil
     Judge, Faizabad with map
9    Certified copy of W.S. by Abhay        108C1/36-    24/73
     Ram Das in case U/s 145 Cr.P.C.           38,
     in the Court of City Magistrate          Ex. C9
10   Copy of constitution of Ram Janam      111C-1/1-    24/81
     Bhoomi Nyas and statement of              11,
     income and expenditure filed in         Ex. C10
     O.O.S No. 5/89 by Sri R.L. Verma
11   Notice by D.M. Faizabad dated          285C/1/2,3   24/99
     22.12.34                                Ex. C11
12   Photocopy of the book entitled as      320C1/1-6,   42/83
     "The Aine Akbari" by Abul Fazal          Ex. D1
     Allami Vol. 3
13   Photocopy of the book entitled as      321C1/1-     42/97
     "The Aine Akbari" by Abul Fazal           21,
     Allami Vol. 2                           Ex. D2
14   The History and Culture of the         313C1/ 1-    37/297
     Indian People Part-II Vol-10 by R.        14,
     C. Majumdar                             Ex. D3
15   Photocopy of the relevant extracts     296 C1/1-    37/85
     of the book entitled as "A                 6,
     Drashtikon-Ram Janam Bhumi              Ex. D4
     Babri Masjid Vivad" by Ram
     Sharan Srivastava

16 "History of India" By as told by its 315 C1/ 1- 38/353 own historians, the Mohammadan 10, 961 period Vol. II Ex. D5 17 The History of India as told by its 319 C-1/ 42/63 own historians The Mohammadans 1-9, period by Vincent A. Smith Ex. D6 18 Photostate copy of the title page 328C1/1-5, 41/265 and pages 180-182 of the book Ex. D7 titled as A-In-I Akbari (Vol.II) by Abul Fazal Allami 19 Photostat copy of the title page and 329C1/1-5, 39/9 pages VII, VIII and IX (content) of Ex. D8 book titled as Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture North India edited by M.A. Dhaki.

20   Photostat copy of the title page and   329C1/6-     39/17
     plates 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39 and 40      10,
     of the book titled as Encyclopaedia     Ex. D9
     of Indian Temple Architecture
     North India edited by M.A. Dhaki.

21 Photostat copy of the title page and 329 C1/11- 39/25 preface page and pages 12 and 14- 18, 17 of the book titled as The Hindu Ex. D10 Temple by Stella Kramrisch Vol.I 22 Photostat copy of the title page and 329 C1/19- 39/39 pages 313, 348 and 411 of the 23, book titled as The Hindu Temple Ex. D11 by Stella Kramrisch Vol.II 23 Photostat copy of the title page and 326- 41/107 pages 143-148 of the report of C1/60-67, excavation at Bhagwanpura 1975- Ex. D12 76 and other exploration and excavation 1975-81 in Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab 24 Photostat cop of the report "Lothal 326C-1/9- 41/53 A Harappan port town 1955-62 25, Ex. D13 25 Photostat copy of the memoirs of 327C-1/1- 41/181 the ASI no. 98 Excavation at 17, Kalibangan the early Harappans Ex. D14 (1960-69) 26 Photostat copy of the memoires of 327C- 41/237 the ASI No. 87 Excavation at 1/44-57, Surkotada 1971-72 and exploration Ex. D15 of Kutch 27 Photostat copy of the notice of the 332C-1/1- 39/49 meeting of Central Advisory Board 51, of Archaeology called on Ex. D16 02.08.2006, including the minutes 962 of the meeting held on 2.9.2005 and the minutes of the meeting of the standing Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Archaeology held on 20th and 21st October 2005.

28   Extracts from book "Indian             333-1/1-9,   39/153 ,
     Architecture" (Buddhist and Hindu       Ex. D17      40/153
     Periods ) by Percy Brown
29   Photostat copy of the title page       334C-1/1-    40/175
     foreword and pages 89-10, 177-            52,
     181, 196, 215-217, 220, 22, 233,        Ex. D18
     235-237,239-243, 252, 257, 259,
     268, 269, 275, 276, 278, 285-287,
     305-307, 311, 314, 316-334 of the
     book title as Temples of Pratihara
     Period in Central India written by
     R.D. Trivedi
30   Photostat copy of the title page and   335C-1/1-    40/281
     of pages 5-13, 135-141, 288, 293          20,
     and 300 of the book title as            Ex. D19
     Temples of Pratihara period in
     Central India by R.D. Trivedi.
31   Photocopy of the letter of Sri          292C-1,      37/61
     Kishore Kunal O.S.D. Of the            292C-1/1,
     ministry of State Home India dated      Ex. D20
32   Relevant extract of the book " Sri     304C1/1-4,   38/195
     Ram Janam Bhumi Aitihasik               Ex. D21
     Avam Puratativik Sakshya" by
     T.P. Verma and S.P.Gupta.
33   Coloured Photograph purported            261C-      38/205
     and said to be of Maharishi              1/1/1,
     Valmiki (Saint) as published in         Ex. D22
     Valmiki Ramayan, Paper no.
34   Extract from the book " Meri            314C1/1-    38/327
     Jeewan      Yatra"     by      Rahul       12,
     Sankrityayan.                           Ex. D23
35   Photocopy of extract of the book       110C-1/55,   25/129
     "Sri Ram Janam Bhumi" by Dr.             55A,56,
     Radhey Shyam Shukla                     Ex. D24
36   Original report on Babari Masjid       110C-1/96,   25/211
     containing historians report to the     Ex. D25
     Indian nation (Babari Mosque of
     Ram's berth place) by R.S. Sharma
     and others

37   Copy of original book of Prof. D. 198C-2/1-      30/7
     Mandal entitled as "Ayodhya             89,

Archeology After Demolition" by Ex. D26 Orient Longman (title page = Ex.63 contents, preface and page 1 to 69) (Suit-4) 38 Copy of extract of Epigraphica 198C- 30/99 Indica (Arabic and persian 2/90-99, supplement 1965) edited by Z.A. Ex. D27 Desai 39 Photocopy of the extract of 198C- 30/119 Epigraphica Indica (Vol. IV (1896- 2/100-106,

97) published by ASI New Delhi Ex. D28 40 Photocopy of extract of above 198C- 30/133 book Vol XIV (1917-1918) 2/107-117, Ex. D29 41 Photocopy of the extract of 198C- 30/155 Epigraphica Indica (Vol XX 2/118-123, (1929-1930) published by A.S.I. Ex. D30 New Delhi 42 Photo copy of the relevant extracts 294C1/1-3, 37/73 of the BJP's White paper on Ex. D31 Ayodhya and The Ram Temple movement published in April 1993, Titled page and page 4 and 66 43 Photo copy of the extract of the 322C1/1- 42/141 book titled as " Fair reports made 22, during the years 1862-63-64-65" Ex. D32 by Alexander Cunningham Vol-IV (titled pages 293-296, 319 and plate XLVII) 44 Photo copy of the Extract of the 197C2/1-8, Separate book titled as "History of Mughal Ex. D33 book Architectural Vol-I" By R. Nath 45 Photo copy of the book "Temples 302C1/1-9, 37/141 of India" title page, contents and Ex. D34 pages no. 20, 21, 23, 26, 27 and 100 46 Photocopy of the extracts from the 110C1/14- 25/49 book entitled as "The secular 51, Emperor Babar" by Mrs. Surinder Ex. D35 Kaur, Tapan Sanayal published by Lok Geet Prakashan Sirhind 47 R.D. Banarji's "Eastern Indian 308C- 38/231 School of Medieval Sculpture" 1/10-15, published by ASI Delhi (1933 Ex.D36 Edition) Plates LXXXIX (a) and

(e) and XC(d), proved in para 14 of 964 the affidavit of PW 16 (Part-II) dt.


48   Photostat copy of the Article 110C/8-13,         25/37
     written     'Ramjanambhumi-Babri Ex.D37
     Masjid      Issue:    Misuse      of
     Archaeological Evidence' by Prof.
     Sooraj Bhan dated 26.12.1990
     Prof. And Dean of Kurukshetra
     University proved at page 1 of his
49   Extract from "Sri Ram Janam            110C-     25/123
     Bhumi Ka Rakt Ranjt Itihas" (31    st
     Edition) by Sri Ram Raksha Ex.D38
     Tripathi "Nirbheek" Title page and
     pages 6, 7 and 8 filed by defendant
     no. 4 on 20.5.1992
50   Certified copy of judgment dated 109C1/2,         25/5
     2.9.82 passed by Munsif Sadar          Ex. E1
     Faizabad in Re R.S. 57/78
     Bhagwan Sri Ram Lala Vs. State
51   Certified copy of plaint before 109C1/3-7,        25/7
     Munsif Sadar Faizabad R.S. no.         Ex. E2
     57/78 Bhagwan Sri Ram Lala Vs.
     State dated 11.2.78
52   Certified copy of decree in R.S. 109C1/8-        25/17
     No. 57/78 Bhagwan Sri Ram Lala           10,
     Vs. State passed by Learned            Ex. E3
     Munsif Sadar Faizabad dated
53   Indian Archaeology (1969-70 A- 291 C1/           37/11
     Review) Edited by B.B. Lal,            4,5,6,
     Director General, A.S.I.              Ex. E1/1
54   Indian Archaeology (1976-77 A- 291C1/             37/5
     Review) by B.K. Thapar.                1,2, 3,
                                           Ex. E2/1
55   Indian Archaeology (1979-80 A- 291C1/16,         37/35
     Review) by B. B. Lal                     17,
                                           Ex. E3/1
56   Indian Archaeology ( 1968-69 A- 291C1/ 7-        37/17
     Review) by B. B. Lal                     11,
                                           Ex. E4/1
57   Hindu World and Encyclopaedic 318C1/ 1-          42/33
     Survey of Hinduism by Benjamin           14,
     Walker. (Vol.II)                       Ex. E4
58   India Distorted " A Study of 323 C1/1-           42/187
     British Historians India Vol. III By     25,
     S. C. Mittal                           Ex. E5

 59      The Early History of India By 324C1/ 1-             42/239
         Vincent A. Smith                    28,
                                            Ex. E6
 60      Extract from the journal "Prag 316C1/1-9,            42/5

Dhara" editor Sri Rakesh Tewari of Ex. E7 ASI 61 Extract of "Startling indeed-Some 291C- 37/27 Discoveries of Convenience" by 1/12-15, Champak Lakshmi Extract were Ex. E8 taken from "From line magazine.

Shereen Ratnagar (PW 27) has proved at page 4 of her statement.

607. In brief the documentary exhibits by the parties are as under:

1. Plaintiffs (Suit-1) - Exhibits No. 1 to 34 (Total 34)

2. Plaintiffs (Suit-3) - Exhibits No. 1 to 21 (Total 21)

3. Plaintiffs (Suit-4) - Exhibits No. 1 to 128 (Total 128)

4. Plaintiffs (Suit-5) - Exhibits No. 1 to 132 (Total 132)

5. Defendants (Suit-1) - Exhibits No. A1 to A72 (Total 73)

6. Defendants (Suit-4) - (i) Exhibits No. A1 to A16 (Total 16)

(ii) Exhibits No. M1 to M7 (Total 7)

(iii) Exhibits No. B1 to B16 (Total 16)

(iv) Exhibits No. J1 to J31 (Total 32)

(v) Exhibits No. T1-T6 (Total 6)

(vi) Exhibit No. V1 (Total 1)

(vii) Exhibits No. Q1 to Q6 (Total 6)

7. Defendants (Suit-5) - (i) Exhibits No. C1 to C11 (Total 11)

(ii) Exhibits No. D1 to D38 (Total 38)

(iii) Exhibits No. E1 to E8 (Total 12) Grand Total - 533

608. Before proceeding ahead on merits of the issues, it would be useful to recapitulate how the dispute arose. Hindus believe Lord Ram born at Ayodhya, is the tenth incarnation of Lord Vishnu and worship as such.


609. Babar invaded India in 1526 A.D.. He came with an intention to conquer and rule. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in April 1526 A.D.. He proceeded further and reached near Ayodhya on 28.3.1528 i.e. on the bank of river Saryu. Some of the parties claim that his Commander Mir Baqi under the orders of Babar, demolished a temple of Lord Ram at the disputed site and constructed in 1528 A.D. a building thereat, which, some of the parties claim to be a 'Mosque'. Others dispute the factum of demolition and even the very existence of the alleged temple. The determination of period of construction of the building in 1528 A.D. is based upon the inscriptions said to be installed by Mir Baqi at the aforesaid building and noticed for the first time in 1813-14 A.D. by Dr. F.S. Buchanan. However, Nirmohi Akhara disputes both the above claims and says that the building was throughout a temple and remained in its possession till attachment in 1949. It is also alleged that some serious dispute between the two communities took place in 1855 A.D. and, thereafter, a boundary wall was constructed separating the disputed building from other spots namely Ram Chabutara, Sita Rasoi etc. The area inside of the boundary as already said is referred as "inner courtyard" and rest as "outer courtyard". It is said that in 1934 A.D. again a serious dispute arose causing some damage to the disputed building which was repaired and the cost was recovered by the British Government from local Hindu inhabitants by imposing fine. On 23.12.1949 A.D. a first information report was lodged at Ayodhya about trespass by some Hindu people in the inner courtyard of the disputed building and placement of idols of Lord Ram beneath the central dome. Therefrom the entire litigation has cropped up and is before us for consideration.


610. We may mention at this stage that Sri Z. Jilani, Sri M.A. Siddiqui and Sri Rizwan, learned counsels for Muslim parties made statements under Order 10 Rule 2 during the course of the arguments that they are not disputing the faith and belief of the Hindus that Lord Ram was born at Ayodhya. This statement is in consonance with the findings of this Court recorded in its order dated 08.05.1996 referred to by us above in para 199. They, however, submit that the dispute is about the exact location of birth place and in particular about the disputed premises. Their case is that the disputed premises is not where exactly Lord Ram took birth and there is no evidence to this extent. This statement under Order 10 Rule 2 by the learned Counsels has definitely to some extent narrowed down the canvass of the case and has also saved the Court from entering in a field of faith and belief, the justiciability and the power of the Court in regard whereof itself is arguable.

611. All the issues framed in the four cases, for convenience, can broadly be placed under the following Heads :

(A) Notice under Section 80 C.P.C.
(B) Religious denomination (C) Res judicata, waiver and estoppel (D) Waqf Act 13 of 1936 etc. (E) Miscellaneous issues like representative nature of suit, Trust, Section 91 C.P.C., non joinder of parties, valuation/ insufficient Court fee/under valuation and special costs.
(F) Person and period- who and when constructed the disputed building (G) Deities, their status, rights etc. (H) Limitation 968 (I) Possession/adverse possession (J) Site as birthplace, existence of temple and demolition if any.
(K) Character of Mosque (L) Identity of the property (M) Bar of Specific Relief Act (N) Others, if any

612. The marathon arguments in these cases stretched to 75 days covering a period of about 11 months in the first spell, and when due to elevation of one us (Hon'ble S. R. Alam, J.) as Chief Justice of Madhya Pradesh High Court, the Bench was reconstituted, the matter was reheard and it stretched for 90 days in second spell i.e. from 11.1.2010 to 26.7.2010.

613. Sri Z. Jilani, Sri M.A. Siddiqui and Sri Rizwan, Advocates have appeared and advanced their submissions on behalf of Muslim parties while Sri Ravi Shankar Prasad, Sri P.R. Ganesh Aiyer and Sri K.N. Bhatt, Senior Advocates, Sri R.L. Verma assisted by Sri Tarun Verma, Sri P.N. Misra, Miss Ranjana Agnihotri, Sri M.M. Pandey, Sri Ved Prakash, Sri Rakesh Pandey, Sri Hari Shankar Jain, Sri D.P. Gupta, Sri A.K. Pandey, Sri R.K. Srivastava, Advocates have appeared on behalf of the various Hindu parties and made their submissions. On behalf of State of U.P. Sri S.P. Srivastava, the learned Additional Chief Standing Counsel has put in appearance but has not advanced any oral submissions. The arguments travel in a very vast area with lots of varieties, shades and colours. Besides, the oral submissions, the parties have also filed their written submissions which are made part of record. Discussion and findings on Merits Issuewise :

(A) Notice under Section 80 CPC 969

614. Issue No. 10 (Suit-3)

(a) Is the suit bad for want of notice u/s 80 C.P.C.?

(b) Is the above plea available to contesting defendants?

615. The plaintiffs in para 12 of the plaint (Suit-3) have said that they sent notices under Section 80 C.P.C. to the defendants no. 1 to 5 (Suit-3). The notices were delivered on 6.10.1959 and 12.10.1959. The same have also been replied by the aforesaid defendants through defendant no. 3 intimating that they shall defend the suit, if any, filed by the plaintiffs. No written statement has been filed on behalf of the defendants 1 to 5 in the aforesaid suit. Thus, there is no objection on behalf of the defendants 1 to 5 regarding maintainability of suit for want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. In the written statement filed on behalf of defendants no. 6 to 8, para 12 of the plaint has been simply denied and in para 24 it is said that the suit is bad for want of notice to defendants no. 1 to 5 under Section 80 C.P.C. In replication, the plaintiffs have not only reiterated their stand taken in the plaint but in para 24, further pleaded that the defendants 6 to 8 have no right to take plea of want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C.

616. We find that Ex. 13 (Suit-3) is a postal receipt dated 6.10.1959 of a registered letter sent to Priya Dutt Ram and Ex. 14 (Suit-3) is a similar receipt dated 6.10.1959 of a registered letter sent to Superintendent of Police, Faizabad. The reply received from the Deputy Commissioner, Faizabad and the acknowledgments of the registered letters are also on record as Exhibits 17, 18 and 19 (Suit-3). The Deputy Commissioner, Faizabad in his letter dated 30.11.1959 (Ex. 16 Suit-3) has said that the suit, if any filed, would be defended. The witnesses 970 D.W. 3/1 and D.W. 3/20 in their statements have also supported the stand taken by the plaintiffs. D.W. 3/1, Mahant Bhaskar Das in para 38 and 39 of his examination-in-chief has proved the notices sent to the defendants District Magistrate, Faizabad etc. and also the reply which they received from defendants 1 to 5. Para 38 and 39 states as under :

^^38& dkxt la[;k 41 lh&1@2 nQk 80 ds izkfIr dh jlhn gS] blh izdkj lh&1@3 ftykf/kdkjh dh izkfIr dh jlhn gS vkSj lh&1@4 egUr j?kqukFk nkl fueksZgh v[kkM+s ds }kjk ftykf/kdkjh QStkckn ds dk;kZy; esa uksfVl izkIr djkus dh jlhn gSA ;s lHkh uksfVls nks eghus nkok nkf[ky djus esa Hksth x;h FkhA** "38- The paper no. 41C-1/2 is the receipt of Section 80. Similarly, C-1/3 is the receipt of District Magistrate and C- 1/4 is the receipt of notice served in the office of District Magistrate, Faizabad by Mahant Raghunath Das Nirmohi Akhara. All these notices had been sent in respect of the suit being filed in two months." (E.T.C) **39& dkxt la[;k lh&1@5] 30 uoEcj 1959 tcko uksfVl gS tks izfroknh lh&1@5 ds rjQ ls Hkstk x;k gSA lh&1@6 ds tcko uksfVl ftykf/kdkjh] QStkckn gSaA lh&1@7 o lh&1@8 ikorh jlhn gSA lh&1@9 o lh&1@10 Mkd?kj dh jlhnsa gSaA** "39- Paper no. C-1/5, 30th November, 1959 is the reply to notice sent by defendant C-1/5. C-1/6 is the reply of notice by District Magistrate, Faizabad. C-1/7 and C-1/8 are acknowledgment receipts. C-1/9 and C-1/10 are receipts of Post Office." (E.T.C)

617. Similarly, D.W. 3/20, Mahant Rajaram Chandracharya in para 28 of his examination-in-chief has made averments and proved the receipt of notice as under :

^^isij ua0 41 lh 1 ls 9 fdrk dkxtkr ;kfu 41 lh- 1@2 rk 41 lh- 1@10 nkok nkf[kyk djus ds igys ljdkj o ljdkjh eqykfteksa ij nQk 80 dh uksfVl nh x;h Fkh tks uksfVl] iksLVy jlhn o rkehyk izkfIr dk gSA** 971 "The nine papers from paper no. 41C-1 i.e. 41C-1/2 to 41C-1/10, are the postal receipts and receiving of the notices sent under section 80 to Government and Government Officials before filing the suit." (E.T.C)

618. Nothing has been brought otherwise in the cross examination to contradict the aforesaid averments. No evidence otherwise has been led by any of the defendants.

619. It is no doubt true that Section 80, as it stood before 1976 amendment, admitted no implication and exceptions whatsoever and reads as under :

"80. Notice.- No suits shall be instituted against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu & Kashmir) or against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such officer in his official capacity, until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been delivered to, or left at the office of-
(a) in the case of a suit against the Central Government, except where it relates to a railway, a Secretary to that Government;
(b) in the case of a suit against the Central Government where it relates to railway, the General Manager of that railway;
(bb) in the case of a suit against the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir the Chief Secretary to that Government or any other officer authorised by that Government in this behalf;
(c) in the case of a suit against any other State Government, a Secretary to that Government or the Collector of the district;
and, in the case of a public officer, delivered to him or left at this office, stating the cause of action, the name, description and place of residence of the plaintiff and the relief which he claims; and the plaint shall contain a statement that such notice has been so delivered or left.

620. The provision was expressly mandatory and imposes statutory and unqualified obligation upon the Court. The service of notice under Section 80 is a condition precedent for the institution of suit against the Government or public officer where the complaint is in respect of his acts in official capacity. However, in the absence of non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C., the suit is not liable to be dismissed as not maintainable.

621. In the case in hand, since the plaintiffs have shown that they served notice under Section 80 C.P.C. upon the defendants no. 1 to 5 and neither any material controverting the above facts has been brought on record by the defendants nor any submission has been advanced to show that Section 80 was not complied by the plaintiffs (Suit-3). We thus have no hesitation to hold that the Suit is not barred for want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. and Issue 10 (a) is answered accordingly.

622. Now we come to the second part of this issue i.e. 10 (b). The legislative intent of Section 80 is to give the Government sufficient notice of the suit which is proposed to be filed against it so that it may reconsider the decision and decide for itself whether the claim made could be accepted or not. The object of the section is advancement of justice and securing public good by avoidance of unnecessary litigation (Bihari Chowdhary and another Vs. State of Bihar and others 1984 (2) SCC 627; State of Andhra Pradesh and others Vs. Pioneer Builders AIR 2007 SC 113).


623. We, however, proceed to consider certain authorities cited on behalf of the defendant no. 10 to press upon their submission that in case of non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C., it is the duty of the Court to reject the plaint outright even if no objection is raised by anyone since it is a jurisdictional issue.

624. Prior to Section 80 C.P.C., 1908, similar provision existed in Section 424 of C.P.C., 1882. Considering the purpose and objective of such a provision, in Secretary of State for India In Council Vs. Perumal Pillai and others (1900) ILR 24 (Mad.) 271 it was held :

"... object of the notice required by section 424, Civil Procedure Code, is to give the defendant an opportunity of settling the claim, if so advised, without litigation."

625. With reference to Section 80 C.P.C. of 1908, the objective and purpose came to be considered in Secretary of State for India In Council Vs. Gulam Rasul Gyasudin Kuwari (1916) ILR XL (Bom.) 392 wherein it was held as under :

"... the object of section 80 is to enable the Secretary of State, who necessarily acts usually through agents, time and opportunity to reconsider his legal position when that position is challenged by persons alleging that some official order has been illegally made to their prejudice."

626. In Raghunath Das Vs. Union of India and another AIR 1969 SC 674, in para 8, the Court said :

"8. The object of the notice contemplated by that section is to give to the concerned Governments and public officers opportunity to reconsider the legal position and to make amends or settle the claim, if so advised without litigation. The legislative intention behind that section in our opinion is that public money and time should not be 974 wasted on unnecessary litigation and the Government and the public officers should be given a reasonable opportunity to examine the claim made against them lest they should be drawn into avoidable litigations. The purpose of law is advancement of justice. The provisions in Section 80, Civil Procedure Code are not intended to be used as boobytraps against ignorant and illiterate persons."

627. The object and purpose of enactment of Section 80 C.P.C. was also noticed in State of Punjab Vs. M/s. Geeta Iron and Brass Works Ltd. AIR 1978 SC 1608 as under :

"A statutory notice of the proposed action under S. 80 C.P.C. is intended to alert the State to negotiate a just settlement or at least have the courtesy to tell the potential outsider why the claim is being resisted.

628. The requirement of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. has also been held mandatory. In Bhagchand Dagaduss Vs. Secretary of State for India in Council AIR 1927 PC 176, it was held that the provision is express, explicit and mandatory. It admits no implications or exceptions. It imposes a statutory and unqualified obligation upon the Court. Therein a noticed was issued under Section 80 C.P.C. on 26.6.1922, but the suit was instituted before expiry of the period of two months from the said date. The Judicial Committee Observed :

"To argue as appellants did, that the plaintiffs had a right urgently calling for a remedy, while Section 80 is mere procedure, is fallacious, for Section 80 imposes a statutory and unqualified obligation upon the Court."

629. This decision was followed by Judicial Committee in Vellayan Chettiar Vs. Government of Province of Madras 975 AIR 1947 PC 197.

630. In Government of the Province of Bombay Vs. Pestonji Ardeshir Wadia and Ors. AIR 1949 PC 143 it has been held that provisions of Section 80 of the Code are imperative and should be strictly complied with.

631. A Constitution Bench of the Apex Court in Sawai Singhai Nirmal Chand Vs. Union of India AIR 1966 SC 1068 also took the same view. Following the above authorities in Bihari Chowdhary (supra), the Apex Court, in para 6, observed :

"6. It must now be regarded as settled law that a suit against the Government or a public officer, to which the requirement of a prior notice under Section 80 C.P.C. is attracted, can not be validly instituted until the expiration of the period of two months next after the notice in writing has been delivered to the authorities concerned in the manner prescribed for in the Section and if filed before the expiry of the said period, the suit has to be dismissed as not maintainable."

632. In none of the above noted cases, the Courts had the occasion to consider whether a Suit for non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. ought to be dismissed even if the authority for whose benefit the provision has been made is not inclined to press this objection or is interested to get the decision on merits from a competent Court of law. On the contrary, slight divergent view was also going on simultaneously as is evident from some of the authorities of the Apex Court.

633. In Dhian Singh Sobha Singh Vs. Union of India AIR 1958 SC 274 (page 281), the Court observed that Section 80 C.P.C. must be strictly complied with but that does not mean 976 that the terms of Section should be construed in a pedantic manner or in a manner completely divorced from common sense. It observed :

"The Privy Council no doubt laid down in Bhagchand Dagadusa v. Secretary of State AIR 1927 PC 176 that the terms of section should be strictly complied with. That does not however mean that the terms of the notice should be scrutinised in a pedantic manner or in a manner completely divorced from common-sense. As was stated by Pollock, C. B., in Jones v. Nicholls, (1844) 13 M&W 361=153 ER 149 "we must import a little common sense into notices of this kind." Beaumont, C. J., also observed in Chandu Lal Vadilal v. Government of Bombay, AIR 1943 Bom 138 "One must construe Section 80 with some regard to common-sense and to the object with which it appears to have been passed."

634. In para 17 of the judgment while referring to and relying on its earlier decision of Sangram Singh Vs. Election Tribunal, Kotah, AIR 1955 SC 425, the Apex Court said:

"Section 80 of the Code is but a part of the Procedure Code passed to provide the regulation and machinery, by means of which the Courts may do justice between the parties. It is therefore merely a part of the adjective law and deals with procedure alone and must be interpreted in a manner so as to subserve and advance the cause of justice rather than to defeat it."

635. The protection provided under Section 80 is given to the person concerned. If in a particular case that person does not require protection, he can lawfully waive his right. This is what was held in Dhirendra Nath Gorai and Sabal Chandra Shaw 977 and others Vs. Sudhir Chandra Ghosh and others AIR 1964 SC 1300 where considering a pari materia provision, i.e. Section 35 of Bengal Money Lenders Act, 1940 the Apex Court held that such requirement can be waived. Similarly, while considering Section 94 of the Representation of People Act, 1951, the above view was reiterated in S. Raghbir Singh Gill Vs. S. Gurucharan Singh Tohra and others 1980 (Suppl.) SCC 53. All the aforesaid decisions have been followed in Commissioner of Customs, Mumbai Vs. M/s. Virgo Steels, Bombay and another AIR 2002 SC 1745 and it has been held that notice in such a case can be waived.

636. A Full Bench of the Bombay High Court in Vasant Ambadas Pandit Vs. Bombay Municipal Corporation and others AIR 1981 Bombay 394 while considering a similar provision contained in Section 527 of Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, 1888 held "The giving of the notice is a condition precedent to the exercise of jurisdiction. But, this being a mere procedural requirement, the same does not go to the root of jurisdiction in a true sense of the term. The same is capable of being waived by the defendants and on such waiver, the Court gets jurisdiction to entertain and try the suit."

637. In Amar Nath Dogra Vs. Union of India 1963 (1) SCR 657; State of Punjab Vs. Geeta Iron and Brass Works Ltd. 1978 (1) SCC 68 and Ghanshyam Dass Vs. Dominion of India 1984 (3) SCC 46 the Apex Court also held that notice under Section 80 C.P.C. or similar provisions of other Acts are for the benefit of a particular authority. The same can be waived as they do not go to the root of jurisdiction in the true sense of the term. Referring to the aforesaid judgments as well as the Full Bench judgment of Hon'ble Bombay High Court in Vasant Ambadas 978 Pandit (supra), the Apex Court in Bishandayal and sons Vs. State of Orissa and others 2001 (1) SCC 555 (para 16) said that there can be no dispute to the proposition that a notice under Section 80 can be waived.

638. In fact we find in Ghanshyam Dass and Ors. Vs. Dominion of India and Ors. (supra) wherein a three judges Bench considered the correctness of the decision of this Court in Bachchu Singh Vs. Secretary of State for India in Council, ILR (1903) 25 All 187, Mahadev Dattatraya Rajarshi Vs. Secretary of State for India AIR 1930 Bom 367 and earlier decision in S.N. Dutt Vs. Union of India, AIR 1961 SC 1449. Though the facts of that case are slightly different but what has been observed by the Apex Court is of some importance. The Apex Court while reiterating the Privy Council's observations in Bhagchand Dagadusa (supra) that requirement of Section 80 C.P.C. of giving notice is express, explicit an mandatory and admits of no implications or exceptions, however observed that one must construe Section 80 with some regard to common sense and to the object with which it appears to have been passed. It also observed that our laws of procedure are based on the principle that "as far as possible, no proceeding in a court of law should be allowed to be defeated on mere technicalities". The Apex Court overruled its decision in S.N.Dutt (supra) as also the Bombay High Court's decision in Mahadev Dattatraya Rajarshi (supra) and this Court's decision in Bachchu Singh (supra). In the case before the Apex Court though notice was issued but on a closer scrutiny, the High Court found that it was not a valid notice under Section 80 C.P.C. and therefore non- suited the plaintiff. This judgment was reversed by the Apex Court making the abovesaid observations. The Court reiterated 979 that the object of notice contemplated by Section 80 is to give to the Government and public officers an opportunity to consider the legal position and to make amends or settle the claim, if so advised, without litigation so that public money and time may not be wasted on unnecessary litigation.

639. Considering the objective of such enactment and the fact that party concerned can waive it, we are of the view that the plea of want of notice under Section 80 cannot be taken by a private individual since it is for the benefit of the Government and its officers.

640. A Division Bench of Hon'ble Bombay High Court in Hirachand Himatlal Marwari Vs. Kashinath Thakurji Jadhav AIR (29) 1942 Bombay 339 said "In the first place defendant 3 is not the proper party to raise it, and in the second place the receivers in our opinion must be deemed to have waived their right to notice. It is open to the party protected by S. 80 to waive his rights, and his waiver binds the rest of the parties. But only he can waive notice, and if that is so, it is difficult to see any logical basis for the position that a party who has himself no right to notice can challenge a suit on the ground of want of notice to the only party entitled to receive it. We think therefore that this ground of attack is not open to defendant 3; and for our view on this point direct support may be obtained from 32 Cal. 1130."

641. The same view has been taken by Kerala High Court in Kanakku Vs. Neelacanta, AIR 1969 (Kerala) 280 holding that the plea of want of notice cannot taken by private individuals.

642. A Single Judge of this Court in Ishtiyaq Husain Abbas Husain Vs. Zafrul Islam Afzal Husain and others AIR 1969 Alld. 161 has also expressed the same view:

"It appears to me that the plea of want of notice is open only to the Government and the officers mentioned in section 80 and it is not open to a private individual. In this particular case the State Government did not even put in appearance. The notice, therefore, must be deemed to have been waived by it."

643. We respectfully endorse the aforesaid view of the Hon'ble Single Judge.

644. The entire issue 10 (a) and 10 (b) (Suit-3) is, accordingly, decided in favour of plaintiffs (Suit-3). We hold that a private defendant cannot raise objection regarding maintainability of suit for want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C.

645. Issues No. 13 and 14 Suit-1)

13. Is the suit no. 2 of 50 Shri Gopal Singh Visharad Vs. Zahoor Ahmad bad for want of notice under Section 80 CPC.

14. Is the suit no. 25 of 50 Param Hans Ram Chandra Vs. Zahoor Ahmad bad for want of valid notice under section 80 CPC?

646. The objection with respect to want of notice under Section 80 CPC has been taken by defendants no. 1 to 5 (Suit-1) in their written statements in para 21 which reads as under:

"21. ;g fd eqn~nbZ us eqn~nkysgqe 6 yxk;kr 9 ds f[kykQ dksbZ uksfVl gLc nQk 80 tkCrk nhokuh tkjh ugha fd;k gS bl fcukg ij Hkh nkok gktk ukfdl oudkfcy QtjkbZ vnkyr gSA "
"21. That the plaintiffs have not served any notice under section 80 C.P.C. on the defendant nos. 6 to 9 and the suit is bad and not maintainable on this ground also." (E.T.C)

647. Similarly in the written statement of defendants no. 6, 8 981 and 9, such objection, i.e., want of notice under Section 80 CPC has been raised in the same words in para 9 of each respectively which reads as under:

"9. No notice as required by section 80 C.P.C. has been served, and the suit deserves to be dismissed on that ground alone."

648. In the written statement of defendant no. 10 also objection with respect to want of of notice under Section 80 CPC has been taken in para 21 which reads as under:

"21. That the suit is bad and not maintainable even on account of the reason that no notice required under Section 80 C.P.C. had been given to the defendant nos. 6 to 9 and in this view of the matter the plaint is liable to be rejected under Order VII rule 11 C.P.C."

649. So far as the defendants no. 1 to 5 are concerned they have expired and there is no substitution in their place except defendant no.1 who is now represented by his son Farooq Ahmad as defendant no. 1/1.

650. So far as the defendant no. 10 is concerned, Sri Jilani, learned counsel has argued that since no notice under Section 80 C.P.C. has been given to the defendants no. 6 to 9, therefore, the suit is barred by Section 80 C.P.C. and is liable to be dismissed on this ground alone.

651. Sri Siddiqui, adopting the above submissions, laid emphasis upon argument that violation of Section 80 CPC is fatal. The requirement of the said provision is mandatory. Hence, Suit-1 deserves to be dismissed on this ground alone.

652. Sri A.K. Pandey, learned counsel for the plaintiff on the contrary submitted that the stand taken by the State Government is that it is not interested in the property in dispute and as such 982 they do not propose to contest the suit and be exempted from costs as is evident from an application filed on behalf of City Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police, Faizabad on 23.04.1962/28.05.1962 before the Civil Judge, Faizabad in Suit-

4. In his written argument Sri A.K. Pandey refers to certain pleadings as under:

"A counter affidavit to the objection/affidavit against the application dated 12.12.1994 in O.O.S. No. 1 of 1989 (R.S. No. 2 of 1950) filed by the state of Uttar Pradesh on 17/18.01.1995 through Sri Jai Dayal Puri special Secretary to Government, Home Department U.P. Sachivalaya Lucknow.
It is mentioned in para 5 of the above counter affidavit of the state that "State Government is of the firm view that the dispute in between the two parties and the role of the State Government is only to ensure the maintenance of the law and order situation in the area.
It is also mentioned in para 6 of the above counter affidavit of the state that "the fact is that after scrutinysing the whole matter the State Government came to the conclusion that the dispute in between the two parties and whatever the orders would be the same would be given full respect and the role of the State Government is to maintain law and order situation at the disputed site in question".
An objection against C.M. application no 133 (O) of 2003 (State Government's application) filed by the plaintiffs of O.O.S. no. 4 of 1989 on 1 December 2003 through their counsel Sri A. Mannan Advocate and Sri. Z.

Jilani Advocate. In this objection they admit that State is 983 non contesting party. The relevant paras of objection are as under:-

Para1. That the application under objection has been moved by An non contesting party.

Para2. That the State Government has already given in writing that it is not a contesting party and had declared itself to be neutral.

Para4. ........... but the State Government or the District Magistrate, Faizabad have neither filed any objection against the A.S.I. report and nor it is expected that they will be taking any stand regarding the same as they have already claimed themselves to be neutral on the matter in issue.

Order passed on C.M. Application No. 133(0) of 2003 by this Hon'ble Special full Bench on 4.12.03 the relevant portion is given as under.

"Normally, this court does not provide the copy of the documents to the non contesting parties. However, in the facts of the case and also in view of the fact that the state is party to the proceeding and is represented by the learned additional chief standing counsel, we feel that no prejudice" would be caused to any of the parties, if one set of CDs is provided to the State Government."

(RS No. 236 of 1989) O.O.S. No. 5 of 1989 Bhagwan Shri Ramalala Virajman and others versus Rajendra Singh and others was filed on 01.07.1989. In this suit, written statement is not filed by defendant no 7 to 10 i.e. The State of U.P., The Collector, the City Magistrate, The Senior Superintendent of Police Faizabad, they have not raised objection regarding notice under section 80 984 Code of Civil Procedure.

The true cause of action to the plaintiff in O.O.S. no. 1 of 1989 is against the Muslims Defendants 1 to 5, and the state or their agencies defendants 6 to 9 are only proforma Defendants. The reason is that the Plaintiff's right of worship of Shri Rama Janma Bhoomi and the Idols of Bhagwan Shri Rama situated in Shri Rama Janama Bhoomi was obstructed by the State's sovereign power to maintain law and order through their agencies. The City Magistrate passed order u/s 145-146 Cr.P.C. to attach the disputed property and placed it in Custodia legis through a Receiver in exercise of those statutory and sovereign powers in the meantime this Civil suit was filed in a situation of emergency when the rights of devotees were in great geopardy, Hence injunction order was passed by the Civil Court the ultimate order dated 30.07.1953 is Annexure No. 4. The City Magistrate undertake that the order passed by the Civil Court in this very suit (while no other suit had been file till then) shall be implemented and rights of parties shall be restored accordingly. This situation has continued to prevail, subject to certain notifications caused by The Acquisition of certain Area at Ayodhya act, 1993, No. 33 of 1993.

Today, The Authorized Person/ Commissioner Faizabad Division under the act stands in the same position as 'Receiver' under the Original Civil Court/ Magistrates orders. The property therefore confines to be Custodia Legis, and the only relief permissible is declaration and consequential injunction sought for in the suit. The Government has therefore represented to this 985 Hon'ble Court that it is not interested in the subject matter of dispute in this suits as indicated above. It was, therefore, not necessary to issue a notice u/s 80 C.P.C. stand, waived and in any case it is no longer necessary as the suit stands at present.

It is clear from the action of the State, mentioned above that:-

       (i)      State is not interested in the property in suit
       (ii)     State is non contesting party

(iii) State waived its right to objection u/s 80 C.P.C.

(iv) State action is and is liable for only maintain law and orders between the two communities and site in dispute."

653. He also placed reliance in support of his submissions to the Apex Court's decision in Dhian Singh Sobha Singh Vs. Union of India, AIR 1958 SC 274 (para 30); this Court's decision in Smt. Raj Kumari Vs. Board of Revenue U.P., AIR 1985 RD 33; and Patna High Court's decision in Province of Bihar Vs. Kamakshya Narain Singh, AIR 1950 Patna 366.

654. Before considering the above submission, we may notice one more fact. The defendants no.6 and 9 are represented by Sri S.P. Srivastava, learned Additional Chief Standing Counsel, but on being asked, he made a statement that the State Government is neither supporting nor opposing any of the Suit but is interested in peaceful adjudication of the matter which would be in the larger interest of the public i.e. the members of both the communities in particular and the entire State and Country in general. He did not advance any argument on any of the aspects and despite the fact that in the written statement filed on behalf of respondent no. 6, 8 and 9, an objection of non 986 compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. has been taken but he did not press the said objection before us and advanced no argument. He, however, said that he abide by the stand taken in written statement and deny any collusion with the defendants no. 1 to 5. The defendant no. 7 (Suit-1) has not filed any written statement. Therefore, the objection of non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. has been raised and pressed before us only by the private party, i.e., the Sunni Central Board of Waqfs, defendant no. 10, for whose benefit Section 80 C.P.C. admittedly has not been enacted. As we have already discussed, it is open to the State authorities-defendants, for whose benefit the provision is made to waive the benefit of such a provision. When no argument is advanced on behalf of the State and its authorities, though they are represented through a counsel before the Court, we would be justified in inferring waiver on the part of the said authorities.

655. In view of what we have discussed above in regard to issue no. 10 (b), Suit-3, this issue also stands covered therewith. However, we need to discuss some authority cited by Sri Siddiqui.

656. Jagadish Chandra Deo Vs. Debendra Prosad Bagehi Bahadur and Ors. AIR 1931 Cal 503 is an authority relied by Sri Siddiqui. There the Court observed that it is the duty of the Court to look into the plaint and find out whether there is averment as to the service of notice and when it found that there is no such averment, the plaint itself should be rejected and the suit should not proceed. Observing the aforesaid, Calcutta High Court relied on the decision of this Court in Bachchu Singh (supra). Since the decision in Bachchu Singh (supra) has already been overruled by the Hon'ble Apex Court in Ghanshyam Dass (supra), the Calcutta High Court's decision in 987 Jagdish Chandra Deo (supra), in our view, also cannot be relied on.

657. In Province of Bihar Vs. Kamakshya Narain Singh AIR 1950 Patna 366 following the Privy Council decision in Vellayan Chettiar (supra) it was observed that right to notice under Section 80 C.P.C. can be waived by the State. However, therein notice was already given but the question whether the notice was in accordance with the requirement of Section 80 C.P.C. was raised by the learned Advocate General on behalf of the State whereupon the High Court took the view that suit being of the nature of a bill quia timet, the right to notice under Section 80 can be waived by the State. Strictly speaking, this decision does not appear to be in line with what has been said by Apex Court in subsequent decisions in Dhian Singh Sobha Singh (supra), Sawai Singhai Nirmal Chand (supra) and Ghanshyam Dass (supra).

658. In Smt. Raj Kumari Vs. Board of Revenue (Supra) though an issue was framed regarding want of notice under Section 80 CPC but neither the State Government pressed the same before the Court nor lead any evidence in support thereof hence this Court held that the plaintiff cannot be non suited for want of notice under Section 80 CPC since the parties for whose benefit the provision has been made has not pressed the same and a third party cannot take advantage by taking plea of want of notice to the State Government or its authorities.

659. Considering in the light of of the above dictum and exposition of law in simplicitor, the first reason which favours the plaintiff in our view to maintain the Suit is the factum of non pressing of this objection by defendants no. 6 to 9. Secondly, the Suit is pending for the last 61 years and more. It is no doubt true 988 that the defendants no. 1 to 5 have raised this objection in their written statement filed in February, 1950 itself but it appears that they never pressed this objection and requested the Court to take up the objection with respect to non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. as a preliminary issue and to decide the same and that is how the matter is still pending.

660. Thirdly, the various other issues raised in Suit-1 would not die as a result of our taking the extreme view of dismissal thereof being the consequence of non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. since later on the said suit was connected with three others and similar issues are up for consideration before us in other three cases also. The issues raised in Suit-1 since are similar as raised in other three cases, the same have to be decided on merits irrespective of the consequence Suit-1 may suffer of a strict technical view in the matter.

661. Lastly, we also intend to consider the question of the consequences of non compliance of Section 80 C.P.C. in the light of what has been observed by the Apex Court subsequently in a catena of decisions considering various reports of Law Commissions as also the object and purpose of enactment of the said provision. The observations of the Apex Court [See: Ghanshyam Dass (supra)] are clear that it is a procedural law. It is meant for augment of the course of justice and not to impeach it on mere technical grounds. The experience of more than a century shows that the purpose and objective for which a two months' notice is required to be given to the State has lost its efficacy for the reason that the Government or its authorities never bother to consider the grievance raised by a litigant on receiving a notice given under Section 80 C.P.C. and never consider to resolve the dispute, if any, by giving a proper reply 989 or by considering the grievance of the persons concerned. Almost in all the cases, the incumbent had to resort to the remedy of suit. The requirement of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. has become a mere formality for the State.

662. Moreover, in the case in hand, there was no scope for defendants no. 6 to 9 even to consider and act to resolve the grievance of the plaintiff (Suit-1) had a notice under Section 80 C.P.C. been given to them in the context of peculiar facts and circumstances of this case. The background facts are that alleging that an idol has been placed inside the disputed building treated to be an old Mosque by Muslims, a first information report was lodged on 23rd December, 1949. The Police also reported the matter to City Magistrate apprehending a serious law and order situation on account of the above incident. Finding substance in the report of the Police and apprehending immediate breach of peace and public tranquility as also disturbance of law and order, the Magistrate passed an order on 29th December, 1949 attaching the disputed property (disputed building and inner courtyard) and appointed Commissioner to manage the affairs of the said premises. The administrative authorities at Ayodhya and District Faizabad were to act in the aid of the execution of the said statutory order for maintaining law and order. The action and omission on the part of the District authorities, therefore, was not on their own but it was pursuant to a statutory order passed by the City Magistrate in exercise of his statutory powers. It is this order which in fact caused some obstruction, if any, in the plaintiff's alleged right of worship at the disputed premises. From perusal of the pleadings and reliefs sought in the plaint it is evident that the plaintiff sought to enforce his right to worship the idols which he 990 believed to be the Deity placed at the birthplace of Lord Rama and the right he was exercising in the past also in a regular manner, which was obstructed due to attachment of the property (inner courtyard and the disputed building) under the order of the City Magistrate who also appointed a Receiver in purported exercise of power under Section 145 Cr.P.C. If we consider the purpose of notice contemplated by Section 80 C.P.C., it is evident that the Receiver took charge of the property in dispute (i.e. inner courtyard including building) pursuant to statutory order passed by the City Magistrate on 29th December, 1949. The various authorities of the State Government evidently acted to get the statutory order of the Magistrate executed and also to maintain law and order. A notice to the State Government in such circumstances would not have served the purpose, inasmuch as, there was no act or omission on the part of the State Government on its own either in restraining the plaintiff from offering worship on the disputed site or otherwise but whatever its authorities were doing that was to comply with the statutory order passed by the City Magistrate on 29th December, 1949. The notice, if any, sent by the plaintiff (Suit-1) would not have served the purpose for which a notice is required to be sent under Section 80 C.P.C. to the Government or its officers.

663. Besides, the alleged obstruction of the plaintiff's right of worship, if any, was de die indium and there was an urgency in the matter. In a case of attachment made by the Magistrate in exercise of power under Section 145 Cr.P.C., it is not the possession taken by the Court or by statutory authority or the State on its own but in law it is deemed to be a possession on behalf of the real owner. It has not been argued by any of the 991 learned counsels that since the real cause of action arose on account of the order of attachment passed by the City Magistrate, the plaintiff could have served a notice under Section 80 C.P.C. to the Magistrate. The statutory power and its consequences could not have been undone by the State Government. Then no useful purpose would have served if a notice would have been issued by the plaintiff to the State Government or its officers in view of the peculiar facts and circumstances of this case.

664. Considering the observations of the Apex Court in Ghanshyam Dass (supra) and the discussion as above, we are inclined to take a view that plaintiff in Suit 1 ought not to be non-suited for want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. to the defendants No.6 to 9.

665. In view of the above, and also considering the fact that learned Standing Counsel appearing on behalf of defendants No. 6 to 9 has not advanced any argument pressing the objection with respect to want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. and further that the objection with respect to want of notice cannot be taken by private individuals, as we have already held while deciding issue No.10(b) (Suit-3), we hold that Suit-1 need not be rejected as barred by Section 80 C.P.C. This question is answered accordingly in negative i.e. in favour of plaintiff (Suit-


666. So far as Issue No.14 of Suit-1 is concerned, it has become redundant since Suit No. 25 of 1950 (i.e., Suit-1) has already been dismissed as withdrawn by the plaintiffs of that suit and, therefore, there is no occasion to answer the same.

667. Issues no. 26 and 27 of Suit-5:

26. Whether the suit is bad for want of notice under 992 section 80 C.P.C. as alleged by the defendants 4 and 5?
27. Whether the plea of suit being bad for want of notice under Section 80 CPC can be raised by defendants 4 and 5?

668. Both the issues No.26 and 27 of Suit 5 are answered in negative in view of our findings on Issue No. 10(b) (Suit-3) and therefore, we hold that Suit 5 is not bad for want of notice under Section 80 C.P.C. since no such objection has either been raised or pressed before us by the State Government or its authorities. The defendants no.4 and 5 being private parties cannot raise such an objection. In fact, during the course of argument, learned Counsels for the defendants have not advanced any submission on these two issues in respect to Suit-5. Thence also the plaintiffs (Suit-5) cannot be non suited on this ground. Both the issues are decided in favour of plaintiffs (Suit-5). (B) Religious Denomination

669. Issue no. 17 (Suit-3) "Whether Nirmohi Akhara, plaintiff, is Panchayati Math of Rama Nand sect of Bairagis and as such is a religious denomination following its religious faith and pursuit according to its own custom?"

670. This issue was framed vide Court's order dated 23.2.1996 on the application of plaintiffs (Suit-3). The plaintiffs have pleaded that Nirmohi Akhara is a Panchayati Math of Ramanandi sects of Vairagies and as such is a religious denomination following its own religious customs prevalent in Vairagies sects of Sadhus. Since the days of Yore there exist an ancient Math or Akhara of "Ramanandi Vairagies" called 'Nirmohi' with its seat at Ramghat known as 'Nirmohi Akhara'. The plaintiff no. 1 (Suit-3), Nirmohi Akhara, is a religious 993 establishment of a public character and plaintiff no. 2 is the present Head as its Mahant and Sarbarahkar. The customs of Nirmohi Akhara were reduced in writing on 19.03.1949 by a registered deed. The plaintiff Nirmohi Akhara owns several Temples and manages all of them through Panch and Mahants of Akhara. The Temples and property vest in Akhara which is a "Panchayati Math". It acts on a democratic pattern. The management and right to manage "Akhara" vests absolutely with Panch.

671. The defendants 6 to 8 in their written statement have not said anything in reply to the above averments. The defendant no. 10, Umesh Chandra Pandey, in his written statement has asserted that Janamsthan, the disputed premises, is a holy place of worship and belong to deity of Bhagwan Sri Ram Lala Virajman. It never belonged nor could belong to plaintiff no. 1 (Suit-3) which owe its existence for the last 200 years only, though the holy Janamsthan or Janam Bhumi is a very old Temple. The main presiding deity of the Temple is Bhagwan Sri Ram. The Hindu Temple is deemed to be possessed and owned by a deity. The Principal deity of Sri Ramjamanbhumi is Bhagwan Sri Ram.

672. In replication, the plaintiffs have said that Nirmohi Akhara originated more than 500 years ago. There was a great religious preceptor 'Shankaracharya' at the end of 7th century A.C., who established for the first time "Hindu Math" in four corners of India, i.e., Goverdhan Math at Puri, Jyotir Math at Badrinath, Sharda Math at Dwarka and Sringeri Math at Tungabhadra. The said practice was followed, first in time, by Sri Ramanujacharya, and then by Sri Ramanand. "Ramats", a sect of Vaishnavs, was founded by Sri Ramanand, which 994 contained a large element of aesthetic population founded in Banaras and Ayodhya. Ramanand established several Maths consist of only celibates. They obey no caste rules and even Shudras are in their brotherhood. The "Ramats" worship one God in the form of "Ram" and they call themselves "Das" (servants of Lord). About 500 years ago, Sri Swami Brijanand Ji and Sri Balanand Ji, who belong to Ramanandi sect of Vairagies established three 'Anni' known as (1) Nirmohi, (2) Digamber and (3) Nirwani for protection and improvement of "Chatuha Ramanandi Sampraday" comprising of seven Akharas only, namely, (1) Sri Panch Ramanandi Nirmohi Akhara, (2) Sri Panch Ramanandi Nirwani Akhara, (3) Sri Panch Ramanandi Digambari Akhara, (4) Sri Panch Ramanandi Santoshi Akhara, (5) Sri Panch Ramanandi Khaki Akhara, (6) Sri Panch Ramanandi Niralambi and (7) Sri Panch Ramanandi Maha Nirwani. The Akharas as "Panchayati Maths" act on democratic pattern and real power vests in Panch. The appointment of Mahant is by election. The person, who is elected by the Panchayat becomes the formal head of Akhara. The Nirmohi Akhara, a Panchayati Math, owes several temples and one of such is "Ram Janam Asthan". Nirmohi Akhara is a religious denomination and had been maintaining and managing the disputed temple since long.

673. In support of their claim, besides certain documentary evidences, some witnesses have also been examined by plaintiffs (Suit-3). At this stage, in our view, the following questions, i.e., incidental but integrally connected need be considered first to answer the main issue.

1. What is a "Math"? Its meaning, constitution etc.?

2. What is a "Panchayati Math"?


3. What is the meaning of a "religious denomination"?

674. A "Math" is an important type of Hindu religious endowment. It spell differently at places, namely, Math, Mutt or Muttum. In ordinary language, it signifies an abode or residence of ascetics. In legal parlance, it connotes a monastic institution presided over by a Superior and established for the use and benefit of ascetics belong to a particular order, who generally are disciples or co-disciples of the superior.

675. The detailed history and other characteristics of religious institution, i.e., "Math" has been discussed in the learned work of Dr. B.K. Mukherjea, "The Hindu Law of Religious and Charitable Trusts" (Tagore Law Lectures) (hereinafter referred to as "Mukherjea's Hindu Law"), which was first published in 1952 and we are referring the relevant extract from its 4th edition, edited by P.B. Gajendragadkar and P.M. Bakshi. It is stated in para 7.5 at page 332 that Hindu Maths were established for the first time by Adi Shankaracharya. He himself founded four Maths at the four corners of India and made them centres of his Vedantik teaching. Bhogavardha Math at Puri (in east), Jyotir Math at Badrinath (in north), Sharda Math at Dwarka (in west) and Sringeri Math at Tungabhadra (in south) are the four Maths. Each of these Maths was placed in the charge of one of his four principal disciples, who were, Padmapad, Hastamalak, Sureswar and Trotaka. These four disciples had their own disciples also. In the course of time ten orders or classes of monks were formed, into which the monks of the Shankar School stood divided. These ten orders popularly known as Dasnamis bear the appellants Tirtha, Asrama, Vana, Aranya, Giri, Parvat, Sagar, Saraswati, Bharati and Puri. The disciples of Trotaka at Jyotir Mutt at Badrinath were Giri, Parvat and Sagar, 996 while the Sringeri Math claimed as its adherents Saraswati, Bharati and Puri. In addition to the Sannyasis who belong to the fourth stage of life, there were "Naishthik Brahmacharis" or perpetual students attached to all the Maths. This practice started by Adi Shankaracharya was followed by almost all the religious teachers since then.

676. First in order of time was Sri Ramanujacharya,who propounded the theory "qualified monism" in opposition to the "pure monism" of Adi Shankaracharya. Shankar's theory was based upon rigorous logic, recognised the Supreme Brahman as the only one and absolute reality. It regarded everything else as phenomenal or illusory. Ramanuj and other Vaishnava teachers who followed him were all philosophical theists. They tried to reconcile their metaphysical doctrines with the yearnings of the human heart which always requires a personal God as the supreme cause of all that exists and an eternal soul which yearns for "an approach to an union with that Being". The followers of Ramanuj are known as "Sri Vaishnavas". The object of their adoration is "Supreme" being in the form of "Vishnu" who is always associated with "Shri" or "Lakshmi". On the model of Dashnami Maths of Shankaracharya, Ramanuj founded a large number of Maths for the purpose of strengthening the doctrine propounded by him.

677. Then came Sri Ramanand (born in 1299 A.D.), disciple of Ramanuj. He founded a sect of Vaishnavas known as "Ramats". Ramanand himself is said to have built a Math, for the "ascetics" of his sect, in Benares. The "Ramats" worship one God in the form of Ram.

678. The meaning of the word "ascetic" in Oxford English- English-Hindi Dictionary (2008) on page 64 is as under:


"ascetic not allowing yourself physical pleasures, especially for religious reasons"

679. In New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language, Deluxe Encyclopedic Edition, at page 53, the word "ascetic" has been described as under:

"as.cet.ic 1. adj. practicing self-discipline with a view to spiritual improvement, esp. by learning to do without things good in themselves (e.g. warmth, comfort) frugal, austere (of personal appearance) giving the impression of self-denial, gaunt, spare 2. n. a person who practices asceticism, a person who lives an austere life."

680. Thus ordinarily, an ascetic is one who renounces the world and devotes himself to religion, owns no property, no fixed place of residence and accept such food and lodgings as are provided by pious householders. But if a pious ascetic gathers around him a number of disciples whom he initiates into the mysteries or tenets of his order and such of his disciples intend to become ascetics, renounce all connection with their family including family wealth and completely affiliate themselves with the said spiritual teacher, a spiritual fraternity would eventually grow up. If pious, generous persons endow such a fraternity with property, it naturally vests in the preceptor for the time being and a home is created for the brotherhood, i.e., a Math and that would lead to the constitution and building of a Math. Once the "Math" is established, succession to headship takes place within spiritual family according to the usages that grow up in a particular institution.

681. The term "Math" has been described in the Law Lexicon- The Encyclopaedic Law Dictionary by P. Ramanatha Aiyer (1997) at page 1205 as under:


"Math. Although there are some differences between debuttar property and property dedicated to a math, where the math is an idol installed in it, property appertaining to a math, whether dedicated to the idol or not, is not the personal property of the head of the math; and when the holder or Mahant is not only a sanyasi but also a celibate, the property is utterly incapable of passing to natural heirs. The fact that the holder executes a hibanama in which he describes the math as his math carries little weight; the math with the idol cannot be his personal property. The presumption in the case of a mahant who is a sanyasi and a celibate, having no family of his own, and who is free from all worldly attachments, is that the property held or acquired by him is so held or acquired on behalf of the math to which his life is entirely devoted. A presumption of the same kind would arise in respect of the property subsequently acquired by such celibate Mahant. Susil Chandra Sen and another v. Gobind Chandra Das and another, 6 RP 705=150 IC 61=AIR 1934 Pat 431. The term 'Math' is used in the sense either of an institution or of a building. Maths are in the nature of monastic institutions and the term may also be used for the building in which such an institution is housed. Where originally there was a banking or money-lending business which passed from each of its proprietors to his chosen successor, chosen for his business capacity and not for his learning or piety, and there was no religious object behind the business but they called themselves sanyasis and their residence Math it was held that the property acquired by the proprietors could not be claimed to be 'Math' properties as 999 there was no 'Math" in the legal sense of the word. Mayanand Gir v. Parshottamanand Gir, 1943 ALJ 400=1943 OWN (HC) 250.

An institution comes within the definition of 'math' if it satisfies three conditions; i) that the institution be for the promotion of the Hindu Religion; ii) that it be presided over by a person whose duty is to engage himself in- spiritual service or who exercises or claims to exercise spiritual headship over a body of disciples; and iii) that the office of such person devolves in accordance with the directions of the founder of the institution or is regulated?, by usage, Srinivas Das v. Surjanarayan, AIR 1967 SC 256,

259. [Orissa Hindu Religious Endowments Act (4 of 1939), Sec. 6(7)]"

682. In Sammantha Pandara Vs. Sellappa Chetti ILR 2 (1878-81) Madras 175 Madras High Court discusses the origin of 'Math' as under:

"The origin of mattams is ordinarily as follows : A preceptor of religious doctrine gathers around him a number of disciples whom he initiates into the particular mysteries of the order, and instructs in its religious tenets. Such of these disciples as intend to become religious teachers, renounce their connection with their family and all claims to the family wealth, and, as it were, affiliate themselves to the spiritual teacher whose, school they have entered. Pious persons endow the schools with property which is vested in the preceptor for the time being, and a home for the school is erected and a mattam constituted. The property of the mattam does not descend to the disciples or elders in common; the preceptor, the head of 1000 the institution, selects among the affiliated disciples him whom he deems the most competent, and in his own life- time installs the disciple so selected as his successor, not uncommonly with some ceremonies. After the death of the preceptor the disciple so chosen is installed in the gaddi, and takes by succession the property which has been held by his predecessor. The property is in fact attached to the office and passes by inheritance to no one who does not fill the office. It is in a certain sense trust property; it is devoted to the maintenance of the establishment, but the superior has large dominion over it, and is not accountable for its management nor for the expenditure of the income, provided he does not apply it to any purpose other than what may fairly be regarded as in furtherance of the objects of the institution. Acting for the whole institution he may contract debts for purposes connected with his mattam, and debts so contracted might be recovered from the mattam property and would devolve as a liability on his successor to the extent of the assets received by him.
We do not of course mean to lay it down that there are not mattams which may have been established for purposes other than those we have described, nor that the property may not in some cases be held on different conditions and subject to different incidents. We have, described the nature of the generality of such institutions and the incidents of the property which is devoted to their maintenance."

683. Again considering as to what is meant by a 'Math', a Division Bench of Madras High Court in Giyana Sambandha Pandara Sannadhi Vs. Kandasami Tambiran 1887 ILR Vol.